Plauen and the city hall tower in the morning fog
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|• Lord Mayor||Ralf Oberdorfer (FDP)|
|• Total||102.12 km2 (39.43 sq mi)|
|• Density||630/km2 (1,600/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)|
|Vehicle registration||V, AE, OVL, PL, RC|
Plauen was founded by Polabian Slavs in the 12th century as "Plawe" and was passed to the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1327. The town was captured by the Archbishop of Magdeburg, Lippold von Bredow, in 1384. In 1466, it was passed to Albertine Saxony and later in 1569 to the Electorate of Saxony. Plauen became incorporated into the Kingdom of Saxony in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars.
In the late-19th century, Plauen became a centre of textile manufacturing, specializing in lace. Around 1910, Plauen, as an industrial 'boomtown' of the region, reached its population peak (1910 census: 121,000, 1912: 128,000).
In the 1930s, Plauen earned the distinction of hosting the first chapter of the Nazi Party outside of Bavaria. Plauen's population, however, has shrunk dramatically since the Second World War (1939: 111,000 inhabitants). It was occupied by American troops in 16 April 1945 but was left to Red Army in 1 July 1945.
From 1945 onwards, Plauen fell into the Soviet occupation zone of Germany, which later became the German Democratic Republic (1949-1990). Plauen hosted a large Red Army occupation garrison and, in the last years of the GDR (DDR), an officer school of the Border Guards ("Grenztruppen der DDR"). The first mass demonstration against the socialistic regime in the GDR began in Plauen on 7 October 1989; this was the beginning of a series of mass demonstrations across the country and ultimately led to the re-unification of Germany in 1990.
Industry and infrastructure
Plauen (Vogtland) Oberer station lies on the Leipzig–Hof line. The section of this line through Plauen is part of the Saxon-Franconian trunk line running between Nürnberg, Hof, Plauen, Zwickau, Chemnitz and Dresden. The town had another station, Plauen (Vogtland) Unterer station (now defunct), on the Elster Valley Railway. There is a plan to rename the Oberer (Upper) station into Plauen Hauptbahnhof (Main Station).
Vogtlandbahn (Vogtland Railway), a regional train company, operates services from Plauen to Hof, Werdau, Chemnitz, Zwickau, Falkenstein and Adorf within Germany and Cheb (Eger) in the Czech Republic. At these stations, there are other Vogtlandbahn services to München, Regensburg, Marktredwitz, Dresden and Leipzig within Germany and Karlovy Vary (Karlsbad) and Prague in the Czech Republic. A Vogtlandbahn Express Bus service runs between Plauen and Berlin Schönefeld Airport and Zoological Garden.
The Plauen Straßenbahn is a tramway that has 6 lines connecting the centre of town, Plauen-Tunnel stop, to the surrounding areas and the Oberer railway station.
- Museum Plauener Spitze
- Galerie e.O. plauen
- Old Town Hall
- Elster Viaduct - second largest brick bridge in the world
- Friedensbrücke - largest stone arch bridge in the world
- Old Elster Viaduct - oldest bridge in Saxony
Education and science
Plauen is home to a University of Applied Sciences with about 300 students and a DIPLOMA Fachhochschule.
- Heinrich von Plauen (1370–1429), Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights
- Eduard Friedrich Poeppig (1798–1868), botanist, zoologist and explorer
- Hermann Vogel (1854–1921), illustrator
- E.O. Plauen (1903–1944), cartoonist
- Werner Hartenstein (1908–1943), war time commander of U-156, notable for the Laconia incident
- Karl Richter (1926–1981), conductor, organist, and harpsichordist
- Hans Otte (1926–2007), composer and pianist
- Aš, Czech Republic, since 1962
- Steyr, Austria, since 1970
- Hof, Germany, since 1987
- Siegen, Germany, since 1990
- Cegléd, Hungary, since 2005
- Pabianice, Poland, since 2006
- Šiauliai, Lithuania, since 2010
Twin cities of Jößnitz (urban district)
- Heilsbronn, Germany
Former twin cities
- "Aktuelle Einwohnerzahlen nach Gemeinden 2014] (Einwohnerzahlen auf Grundlage des Zensus 2011)" (PDF). Statistisches Landesamt des Freistaates Sachsen (in German). 7 September 2015. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Krech, Eva-Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz Christian (2009). Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch (in German). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. p. 828. ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Mangold, Max (2005). Das Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (6th ed.). Mannheim: Dudenverlag. p. 635. ISBN 9783411040667. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>