|Archbishop of Canterbury|
|File:Coin of Plegmund, Archbishop of Canterbury 890-914.jpg|
|Term ended||2 August either 914 or 923|
|Died||2 August either 914 or 923|
|Feast day||2 August|
|Venerated in||Roman Catholic Church|
Plegmund (or Plegemund; died 2 August either 914 or 923) was a medieval English Archbishop of Canterbury. He may have been a hermit before he became archbishop in 890. As archbishop, he reorganised the Diocese of Winchester, creating four new sees, and worked with other scholars in translating religious works. He was canonised after his death.
Little is known of the early life of Plegmund except that he was of Mercian descent. A later tradition, dating 300 years after his death, stated that Plegmund lived as a hermit at Plemstall in Cheshire.[lower-alpha 1] His reputation as a scholar attracted the attention of King Alfred the Great, who was trying to revive scholarship. Some time before 887, Alfred summoned Plegmund to his court. There he worked with three other scholars, Wærferth, Bishop of Worcester, Æthelstan and Wærwulf in working on translating Pope Gregory the Great's treatise Pastoral Care into Old English.
Archbishop of Canterbury
Plegmund was selected for the see of Canterbury in 890 by King Alfred. Plegmund's election to the Archbishopric of Canterbury is recorded in Manuscript E of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: "Here Archbishop Plegmund was elected by God and all the people."[lower-alpha 2] Fulk, Archbishop of Reims, praised the election of Plegmund, stating that he would help root out the last remnants of paganism in the people. However, there was a gap in time between the death of the previous Archbishop of Canterbury, Ethelred, and the consecration of Plegmund; this may have been because the see had been offered to Grimbald, a Flemish monk and scholar, who refused it. Plegmund was granted his pallium by Pope Formosus.
During the 9th century, the see of Canterbury was at a low point. As such, one of Plegmund's responsibilities was to re-establish its authority, and, in an attempt to do this, between 909 and 918 he created new sees within the existing Diocese of Winchester in Crediton, Ramsbury, Sherborne and Wells. This meant that each future shire of Wessex had its own bishop; of Crediton for Devon and Cornwall, of Ramsbury for Wiltshire, of Sherborne for Dorset and of Wells for Somerset, as well as the diocese of Winchester for Hampshire. To do this, Plegmund had to gain the approval of Pope Sergius III, who had annulled all of the acts of Pope Formosus, and in 908 Plegmund travelled to Rome so that he could be regranted his pallium. He was the first archbishop of Canterbury to visit Rome for nearly a century, and he returned with the relics of Saint Blaise.
Under Plegmund's archbishopric, the quality of the Latin used by his scribes improved, surpassing the poor quality used by the scribes of the previous two archbishops, Ceolnoth and Æthelred. When Alfred died in 899, Plegmund crowned his son Edward as king.
In addition to his religious duties, Plegmund was involved in matters of state and he attended the formal councils held by Edward the Elder in 901, 903, 904 and 909. He dedicated the tall tower of the New Minster at Winchester in 909.
Death and legacy
- Farmer Oxford Dictionary of Saints pp. 438–439
- Wareham "Plegemund" Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
- Brooks Early History of the Church of Canterbury p. 153-154
- Hindley Brief History of the Anglo-Saxons pp. 215–217
- Keynes "Plegmund" Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England
- Stenton Anglo-Saxon England pp. 270–271
- Swanton (trans.) Anglo-Saxon Chronicle pp. 82–83
- Duckett Alfred the Great p. 113
- Abels Alfred the Great p. 224
- Stafford Unification and Conquest p. 182
- Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 214
- Abels, Richard Philip (1998). Alfred the Great: War, Kingship, and Culture in Anglo-Saxon England. New York: Longman. ISBN 0-582-04047-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Brooks, Nicholas (1984). The Early History of the Church of Canterbury: Christ Church from 597 to 1066. London: Leicester University Press. ISBN 0-7185-0041-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Duckett, Eleanor Shipley (1956). Alfred the Great: The King and his Kingdom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-16779-8.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Farmer, David Hugh (2004). Oxford Dictionary of Saints (Fifth ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-860949-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Fryde, E. B.; Greenway, D. E.; Porter, S.; Roy, I. (1996). Handbook of British Chronology (Third revised ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56350-X.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Hindley, Geoffrey (2006). A Brief History of the Anglo-Saxons: The Beginnings of the English Nation. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7867-1738-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Keynes, Simon (2001). "Plegmund". In Lapidge, Michael; Blair, John; Keynes, Simon; Scragg, Donald (eds.). The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 371–372. ISBN 978-0-631-22492-1.CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Stafford, Pauline (1989). Unification and Conquest: A Political and Social History of England in the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries. London: Edward Arnold. ISBN 0-7131-6532-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Stenton, F. M. (1971). Anglo-Saxon England (Third ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280139-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Swanton, Michael James (trans.) (1998). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92129-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Wareham, A. F. (2004). "Plegemund (d. 914)" ((subscription or UK public library membership required)). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/22378. Retrieved 9 October 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
|Catholic Church titles|
|Archbishop of Canterbury