Police vehicles in the United States and Canada

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Police vehicles in the United States and Canada are made by several manufacturers and are available in three broad vehicle types:

  • Police Pursuit Vehicles (PPV) are the most common police cars and are equipped to handle the vast majority of tasks including pursuit and high-speed response calls
  • Special Service Vehicles (SSV) and Special Service Package (SSP) are specialized vehicles such as SUVs and sports cars and are generally heavier-duty vehicles that may come with specialized option packages that used for specific tasks but are not recommended by the manufacturer for use as pursuit vehicles.


The first police car was a wagon run by electricity fielded on the streets of Akron, Ohio in 1899.[1] Since the 1920s, the New York City Police Department has employed a fleet of Radio Motor Patrol vehicles to aid in its fight against crime in the city.

Ford's introduction of the Ford flathead V-8 in its Model B in 1932, the first low-priced, mass-marketed car with a V8 engine, gave it brand loyalty that allowed it to capture the police car market until 1968. In the 1940s and 1950s the Big Three began to offer specialized police packages with severe duty parts. Foremost among these was the Ford package of 1950, which utilized the larger and more powerful Mercury engine in the smaller, lighter Ford. This ended the practice of some state police of buying larger, more powerful, higher priced models including Buicks, Hudsons, and Chryslers. In 1969, Plymouth took first place in the police market, with Chrysler Corporation's 440 cu. in. V8s, Torqueflite transmissions, and torsion bar suspensions giving them a compelling advantage. Chrysler held their lead until the 1970s energy crisis drove buyers to smaller cars and Chrysler discontinued their rear-drive platform after the 1989 model year.[2]

In the United States and Canada, police departments historically have used standard-size, low-price line sedans since the days of the Ford Model A. Many police departments switched to intermediates, such as the Plymouth Satellite, Ford Torino and AMC Matador, in the 1960s and 1970s. Some state highway patrols (such as California and Missouri) adopted pony cars such as the Ford Mustang, Chevrolet Camaro, and AMC Javelin as high-speed pursuit vehicles. The Ford LTD, Plymouth Gran Fury and Chevrolet Caprice were re-adopted as standard when the models were downsized in the late 1970s. Since the termination of the Chevrolet Caprice product, most police departments currently use the Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor as the standard patrol car. New North American Crown Victoria Police Interceptors are optionally equipped with a fire suppression system to combat the threat to highway patrol vehicles of rear-end impacts while parked on the side of highways. In September 2011, however, the Crown Victoria was discontinued, in favour of the 6th-generation Taurus. This has helped Dodge reclaim leadership in the market with the Charger.

Non-Crown Victoria police vehicles may be bought to diversify a police department's fleet, so that less disruption occurs should a recall occur.[3]

While some departments have adopted SUVs and front-wheel drive sedans (mainly the Chevrolet Impala), the rear-wheel-drive V8 configuration is favored for being consistent with pursuit driver training as well as for better reliability. Trials with front-wheel-drive vehicles like the Ford Taurus and Chevrolet Impala have shown problems with the cost of maintenance.[4][5][6] In 1994, for example, a Ford spokeswoman noted that "It is certainly true that any front-wheel-drive car would be more expensive and difficult to maintain if you subjected it to the kind of hard use they get in police departments."[7] General Motors and Chrysler provide other types (front-wheel drive, smaller engine) police vehicles as well, and a few jurisdictions (primarily in Canada) use these vehicles. The Chevrolet Tahoe PPV version along with the Ford [Explorer] Police Interceptor Utility are both pursuit-rated SUV's. Many jurisdictions use the Chevrolet Impala, which in its current configuration is a front-wheel-drive V6. The Dodge Charger R/T is the most likely challenger to the Crown Victoria as a RWD V8 patrol car,[8] though the Washington State Patrol and the North Carolina Highway Patrol are using the vehicle initially as an unmarked patrol car. The Charger has shown great promise as a police car, being faster and more fuel efficient than the commonly used Ford Crown Victoria.[3] Some complaints about the Charger though are its limited rear visibility and smaller trunk than the Crown Victoria. There were, in the 2005 and 2006 model years, significant problems with the braking systems, which has since been revised by Dodge. At the end of 2006, multiple Dodge Chargers have been put into the NYPD fleet for citywide testing. In the summer of 2006, the Georgia State Patrol announced that it would begin using the Charger R/T for high speed chases on Interstate highways due to its additional power and speed, and the Oklahoma Highway Patrol switched to the model early as well. As of 2007, the Alameda County (California) Sheriff's Office has plans as well to upgrade to the Charger. Many police agencies in the metropolitan Detroit area have also adopted a fleet that includes a number of the Dodge. Dodge only rates their 6-cylinder and Hemi-engined versions as "pursuit capable" (when ordered as a police package). The R/T version is not available in a police package. Other agencies, including the California Highway Patrol and Chicago Police Department, are replacing their older cruisers with the Ford Police Interceptor Utility [Explorer] variant due to its large cargo and equipment-carrying ability, as well as its optional AWD system. In 2013, according to statistics compiled by R.L. Polk, the FPI-U (Explorer) became the most popular PPV in the U.S.[9] The standard Ford Taurus-based PI can also be equipped with AWD.

Markings and appearance

An Akron, Ohio police cruiser

North American police cars were once noted for being painted black and white, with the car doors and roof painted white, while the trunk, hood, front fenders and rear quarter panels were painted black. The fleet vehicles that were used typically came painted in a single color, most commonly white or black, from the factory and were used as such. The contrasting black or white color was added to make the vehicle stand out from civilian vehicles. In 2007, the Ontario Provincial Police (OPP) began converting its fleet back to a black-and-white scheme after decades of using other colors.

Beginning in the 1970s, police vehicle markings have become increasingly stylistic, with widespread use of computer-graphics and vinyl striping. While black and white designs are still in use in many jurisdictions, cars may range from being all white to completely black. Blues and greens of various hues are also frequently used. Brown, beiges and tans are favored by rural police and sheriff's offices.

Official markings also vary by jurisdiction. The side doors and sometimes the hood of a marked police car usually bear the agency's badge or the city seal, often in reflective finish. Markings such as emergency telephone numbers, generic anti-drug or anti-crime messages, or even website URLs are also common. Some agencies also have identification numbers printed on the roofs of patrol cars for tracking from aircraft, or to distinguish specialized units, such as K-9 units or supervisors.

Currently, in the United States, the paint scheme for each fleet is determined either by the individual agency or by uniform state legislation as in Minnesota.[10] Usually, state laws exist that establish standards for police vehicle markings, and proscribe civilian vehicles from using certain markings or paint schemes as is the case in California.[11]

Today, most fleet markings on patrol vehicles are created from reflective vinyl with an adhesive backing that is applied in a peel-and-stick manner. Colors chosen to represent the departments identity are typically chosen by the individual department, although, as noted above, some states have specific guidelines for color schemes and markings. Vinyl used to produce fleet markings comes in large rolls that are fed through a plotter (cutter) or large-format printer/cutter. The designs are created in specialized computer software and sent to the machines via cable link for production. Once the design is cut into the vinyl, the excess vinyl on the sheet is removed in a process called "weeding". Finally, a paper pre-mask is applied to the top of the vinyl design to allow easy application of multiple letters and shapes at one time.

Models by manufacturer

Chrysler and American Motors

2006 Michigan State Police Dodge Charger

Ford Motor Company

New Orleans Police Department police vehicle in 2009

General Motors

2006–2009 Chevrolet Impala SPVM car






Other police vehicles

2010 Dodge Challenger R/T used by Deputies in Broward County, Florida
The Deputies' mobile "office" in the Challenger

Police departments also use alternative police vehicles.

  • Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and several US police forces use unmarked/marked mini-vans and marked/unmarked Honda Civic sedans/coupes and other import vehicles like Honda, Toyota, etc., meant to be more anonymous than other kinds of unmarked vehicles.




  • Arkansas State Police utilize the Dodge Charger. As of 2012, only one Crown Vic and one Chevrolet Impala remained in the fleet.


  • Northern Arizona University has a Cadillac Escalade, seized from a drug dealer.[23]
  • Gilbert, Arizona has Tahoes and an unmarked Malibu
  • Arizona Highway Patrol has marked and unmarked Dodge and Ford pickups as well as marked police package Tahoes along with Crown Victorias and Impalas. At one time, Arizona had Police Package Mustangs and Volvo S90's and a Thunderbird Super Coupe as an experimental vehicle.
  • Maricopa County Sheriff has marked and unmarked Chargers, Crown Victorias, and Expeditions. There are also a handful of Explorers in the fleet.
  • Phoenix, Arizona utilizes Chevrolet Tahoes as primary patrol vehicles, with Ford Crown Victorias and Chevrolet Impalas being phased out, since they are no longer produced. As of 3/2013, it appears they will continue to use Tahoes. Phoenix Detectives use Ford F150 and Chevrolet Silverados with flat fiberglass tonneau covers over the beds.

British Columbia





  • The Daytona Beach Shores Public Safety Department uses only Ford Explorers as their primary pursuit/patrol vehicle.
  • The Gulf Breeze police department uses unmarked: 2011 Chevrolet Tahoe, 2009 Chevrolet Silverado and a green Jeep Cherokee for traffic. The department also uses Ford Crown Victorias, Ford 500, Ford Explorer Sport Trac, Chevrolet Camaro, Dodge Charger.
  • Florida Highway Patrol has used Mercury Marauders and Mustangs for Traffic Enforcement.



  • The Guam Police Department uses Ford Crown Victorias and Dodge Chargers. The Guam Airport Police uses Nissan Xterras.


A "New Edge" Mach 1 Ford Mustang being used as a police car by the Honolulu Police Department.
  • The Honolulu Police Department and the Hawai‘i County Police Department supplements its fleet of marked patrol cars by allowing the use of the personally owned vehicles of police officers which are partially subsidized by department funds. These include not only American cars but Japanese cars such as the Toyota 4Runner and Camry, Honda Pilot, Nissan Altima, XTerra and Murano. These cars are made distinguishable as on-duty police vehicles with the addition of a removable blue light bar.[29]


  • The Idaho State Police uses only Dodge Chargers for its primary patrol vehicle. Dodge Magnums are being used for its crash reconstruction. Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptors are used as secondary patrol vehicles.


  • The Glenview Police Department has at least two Honda Odyssey unmarked mini-vans driven by plain clothes officers.
  • The Lake Forest police department uses three Chevrolet Suburban and two Chevrolet Tahoe marked police cars for the higher-rank officers of the department.
  • The Cook County Sheriff Gang Task Force has a late-model black unmarked F-150 pickup
  • Illinois State Police has several unmarked vehicles ranging from Monte Carlos to Mustang GTs and Camaros to combat speeding and aggressive driving. There was also an unmarked Trans Am WS-6.
  • Winthrop Harbor had some unmarked Crown Victorias that were supercharged
  • Oak Lawn Police Department uses a Dare H2 Hummer for patrol
  • Elburn Police use 2 Ford Expeditions and 1 Ford F-150
  • Illinois Conservations Officers use mainly Ford, Dodge, and Chevrolet pickup trucks
  • Lakemoor Police Department has an unmarked Infiniti G35 Coupe
  • The Pontoon Beach Police Department (Madison County) has an assortment of vehicles consisting of Dodge Chargers, A Dodge Durango, Chevrolet Tahoe, and various unmarked vehicles following 2005 multi million dollar seizure of drug related money.[30]
  • The Hawthorn Woods Police Department uses a police marked military Humvee for special emergencies and severe weather conditions.


  • The Bloomington, Indiana Police Department currently uses (as of 2015) marked and unmarked Ford Crown Victoria, marked and unmarked Dodge Charger, and marked and unmarked Ford Interceptor, marked Ford Escape, and several Ford utility vans. They also currently use a Polaris all-terrain vehicle. In the past the department has used Segway, unmarked Ford Tauraus for detectives, marked and unmarked Chevrolet Caprice, marked Harley-Davidson motorcycles, along with Dodge and Chrysler vehicles as well.
  • The Ellettsville, Indiana Police Department currently uses marked and unmarked Dodge Charger, marked Ford Crown Victoria, marked Dodge Durango, marked and unmarked Ford Explorer. In the past it has used Chevy Caprice, Jeep Cherokee and Fort LTD.
  • The Indiana Department of Natural Resources conservation officers currently use marked and unmarked Dodge Durango, marked and unmarked Ford Expedition, Ford F-250 and Dodge Ram. In the past they used Ford Crown Victoria and Dodge RamCharger.
  • The Indiana State Police has utilized many marked and unmarked makes and models of vehicles over the years. Chevrolet and Ford have dominated the fleet overall since the 1930s, but Chrysler, Dodge and Jeep vehicles have also been used. Motorcycles have also been utilized. Indian was used in the early years. Harley-Davidsons are used currently. Even an Auburn Cord was once used as a safety vehicle in the 1930s. The Chevrolet Carprice was primarily utilized in the 1980s and early 1990s, but the Ford Crown Victoria Police interceptor dominated the fleet since then until 2012, when Indiana State Police started using Dodge Charger. ISP has used unmarked cars and trucks as well. The Mustang GT were the first to be used for speed enforcement in the late 1980s. They used several LS-1 powered Camaro Z28 in the 1990s and now have gone back to the Mustang GT. As of 2015 Indiana State Police uses marked and unmarked Dodge Charger, marked and unmarked Ford Crown Victoria, marked and unmarked Chevrolet Tahoe, unmarked Ford Mustang GT, and marked Harley-Davidson motorcycles.
  • The Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department has utilized many makes and models of vehicles over the years as well. It currently uses marked and unmarked Dodge Charger, marked and unmarked Ford Crown Victoria, marked and unmarked Chevrolet Impala, and marked Harley-Davidson motorcycles.
  • The Indiana University Police Department currently uses marked and unmarked Dodge Charger. In the very recent past they used marked Ford Crown Victoria.
  • The Monroe County, Indiana Sheriff Department currently uses marked and unmarked Dodge Charger, marked Ford Crown Victoria, marked and unmarked Ford Fusion, Ford Expedition, Chevrolet Impala and Chevrolet Blazer. In the past they have used Chevy Caprice, Jeep Cherokee, and Fort LTD.
  • The Stinesville, Indiana Police Department currently uses marked Ford Crown Victoria, marked Ford Expedition and marked Jeep Cherokee. In the past they have used Chevrolet Caprice.





  • The Louisiana State Police has several previous-generation Chevrolet Camaros as pursuit vehicles. It also has many PPV-rated Chevrolet Tahoes
  • The Gramercy Police department has 1 (unmarked) 00'-06'GMC Yukon, a (unmarked) 04'-09' Ford F-150, and has a (marked) Mercury Grand Marquis.
  • The Lafourche Parish Sheriff's Office has at least 1 Dodge Avenger as a marked patrol car. It also has multiple Chevrolet Malibus and Impalas as staff cars.





  • Michigan State Police Troopers use black Dodge Chargers fitted with chrome street rims along with a gunmetal Dodge Magnum (with police interceptor rims) for I-275 Highway Patrol. Both are completely unmarked.
  • The Bloomfield Hills police department has several Chevrolet Corvettes.[33][34][35]
  • Clayton Township in Genesee County has a Saturn Vue donated by Saturn of Flint.
  • Dearborn, the home of Ford Motor Company, employs several different Ford vehicles, including Ford Ranger pickups for parking enforcement, and a Ford Mustang for public relations visits to local schools. In the 1970s, Ford provided the Dearborn Police Department with a number of Lincoln Town Cars equipped with early airbag systems in order to accumulate engineering data in "real world" conditions.
  • The Hazel Park Police Department has a 2009 Jaguar XF (dark Jaguar blue), a 2008 Jaguar XF (silver) and a 2007 Jaguar XK Coupe (dark Jaguar blue). All were donated by Jaguar of Lakeside, Novi and Troy to commemorate fallen officers. The cars are fully marked and outfitted with police packages.
  • Southgate's Police Department fleet consists primarily of older to newer models of the Ford Crown Victoria, both marked and unmarked. Despite this fact, however, the SPD also uses a newer marked Ford Explorer (for traffic patrol and responding purposes) and an unmarked (all black) Dodge Charger. More recently, marked and unmarked versions of the sixth generation Ford Taurus have also made their way into the SPD's police interceptor lineup as well.
  • The Trenton Police Department has three Hemi Dodge Chargers (two all black, one black with white doors), one V6 Charger (all black), and two 2010 Chevrolet Tahoes (one black with white doors and another all black). Trenton receives vehicles to test because of manufacturing plants located in the city.
  • Michigan Conservation Officers use Chevrolet Silverado and Tahoes



  • Numerous unmarked vehicles have been seen in the St. Louis area ranging from unmarked and marked Dodge Chargers to an unmarked Nissan Altima specifically for pursuing aggressive drivers.
  • Gerald, MO police have one Hummvee for getting into the extremely remote areas of Gerald, MO.
  • Lake Saint Louis, MO has 1 or 2 Ford Five Hundred Unmarked detective units.

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

  • The New Mexico Mounted Patrol does not have a standard vehicle, as all vehicles are trooper-owned and maintained. A wide variety of vehicles are in use, both marked and unmarked.
  • The Las Cruces Police Department uses Chevrolet Camaros for intercepting fast vehicles.
  • The New Mexico State University Police uses a mixture of Dodge Chargers, Chevrolet Pickups and GM SUV's.

New York

North Carolina

North Dakota

Nova Scotia


  • The Bedford Police use a mix of Dodge Chargers and Chevrolet Tahoes for patrols.
  • The Garfield Heights Police use a mixture of Ford Crown Victorias, two Ford Explorers, and five Dodge Chargers. Four will be black and white and one is an unmarked car. As of October 2009 Garfield has three black white Dodge Chargers.
  • The Mariemont Police Department uses Dodge Chargers for patrol and traffic, Ford SUV and 1 Ford Focus (unmarked)
  • The Parma Police use a mix of Chevrolet Caprices, Chevrolet Impalas and Chevrolet Tahoes for patrols. Parma is home to the GM Parma Stamping Plant so GM gave Parma a discount on the cars.
  • The Union County Sheriff's office uses Dodge Chargers, Ford Crown Victorias, and Ford Expeditions (for use with their Public Safety Officer program, in which the officer is also a Firefighter/EMT
  • The Cleveland Police Department uses Ford Taurus Black-and-White units as well as Ford Crown Victoria Black-and-White units.
  • The Independence, Ohio Police use a variety of different vehicle, Including the Dodge Charger.
  • The Ohio State Highway Patrol uses Dodge Chargers. They use a combination of blue lightbars and front-facing red grille lights. All Motor Carrier Enforcement vehicles use the old OSHP livery, albeit with blue trim and lettering instead of the gold livery, and only use red lights.
  • The Lancaster, Ohio Police Department uses 2012-2014 black/white and 2015 white Chargers, along with black/white and white Crown Victorias. One 2015 Charger has a miniature lightbar, and the other fleet-cars have full-sized lightbars. One fleet-car is usually stationed on the retail campus on Ety Road near Highway 33, in order to take shoplifting calls.



  • The Tulsa Police Department owns a Cadillac Escalade that reads on the back "This used to be a drug dealers car now its ours".
  • The Blanchard Police Department owns a Chrysler 300 that has many D.A.R.E stickers and other misc. emblems on it. Mostly known for the lambo doors and the 22" rims. On the back of the vehicle it reads "Donated by your local Drug Dealer".
  • Oklahoma Highway Patrol has two Suzuki Hayabusas



Prince Edward Island

Puerto Rico



  • In Regina, high school resource officers use either the Toyota Echo or its replacement, the Yaris, for transportation.

South Carolina

  • The South Carolina Highway Patrol used three BMW M5s during the early to mid-1990s. These cars were given to South Carolina after BMW chose the state to host their first assembly plant in the U.S.


  • Many sheriff's offices and police departments in West Texas utilize 4x4 pickups; Armstrong County 3 Ford F-150 Ext Cabs, Wheeler County 3 4-door and 5 extended cab Chevrolet Silverados. Shamrock PD has 2 Avalanches and one 4-door Silverado.
  • The Houston Police Department used pickup trucks like the Chevrolet Silverado, Ford F150, and Dodge Ram for their "Truck Enforcement" division, which is a unit to investigate commercial truck drivers for suspicion. Former Houston Texans player Mario Williams has donated 5 white with white ghost print Chevrolet Camaro SS units and 5 black on black ghost print Hemi Dodge Chargers for the traffic enforcement duty. New Chevrolet Caprice, Tahoe, and Ford Police Interceptors (Taurus and Explorer) have joined the city fleet. The entire police fleet is undergoing a change in color from the blue and whites to black and white units. HPD has 100 squads (some of them are 2011 Crown Vics pre-ordered prior to the end of production) painted in a black and white livery although a Chevrolet Tahoe 9C1 was painted in this livery as of late 2011.
  • During the mid-1980s, the Missouri City Police Department used a few Volvo 240s.
  • The San Antonio Police Department uses a few Chevrolet Camaros.
  • A Chevrolet Camaro (fifth generation) is part of the Kemah, Texas Police Department.
  • Trinity University in San Antonio uses a fleet of several eleventh generation Ford F-150s to patrol the campus.
  • Tomball, TX Police Department (as of 2015) has a fleet of Ford Escapes used as squads.


  • The Utah Highway Patrol use two unmarked Subaru Impreza WRX STi's to combat street racing in the Salt Lake City area.
  • The Centerville City Police Department has fifteen grey or white Ford Crown Victorias, as well as a red Chevrolet Malibu and multiple other GM undercover vehicles.




  • The Grand Rapids police force uses a black 2008 Dodge Charger Daytona. On the side of the car, instead of it saying "Daytona", it says "Police", and under that it says "Grand Rapids".
  • Manitowoc has an unmarked Ford Taurus they use for patrol.
  • The sheriff's department in Outagamie County tested an unmarked 2005 Toyota Prius hybrid vehicle for non-patrol use in 2005.[38]


A number of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) programs in local police departments have some notable vehicles marked as police cars to promote the program. The DARE cars appear at schools and in parades. Typically these cars are high-end or performance cars that have been seized in a drug raid. They are used to send the message that drug dealers forfeit all their glamorous trappings when they get caught. Cars include the Chevrolet Corvette, Ford Mustang, and Humvee.


Ford ceased production of the ubiquitous Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor in 2011, it was replaced by both the Ford Police Interceptor Sedan & Ford Police Interceptor Utility.[39] On March 12, 2010, a prototype Ford Police Interceptor Sedan based on the sixth generation Taurus's platform was demonstrated at the Las Vegas Motor Speedway and Ford assured law enforcement agencies that it would be in production when the last Crown Victorias are built in September 2011.[40] The car was also displayed to fleet managers from Canada and the United States at the National Association of Fleet Administrators (NAFA) exposition in Detroit in April.[41] Months after the Sedan was unveiled a prototype Ford Police Interceptor Utility based on the fifth generation Ford Explorer was unveiled at Ford's Chicago plant in front of its work force by then VP of U.S. Marketing, Sales and Service Ken Czubay. The production of the Police Interceptor Sedan began in 2012 as a 2013 model along with the Utility counterpart while in 2013 Ford also announced a Special Service Sedan based on the sixth generation Taurus.

Another viable contender, based on the Holden Caprice and badged as a Chevrolet Caprice, was displayed in October 2009 to North American law enforcement agencies, who have been advised that orders will be taken in 2010 for delivery in 2011.[42]

See also


  1. http://www.ci.akron.oh.us/News_Releases/2009/0225.htm
  2. Sanow, Edwin J. (1998-01-16). Ford Police Cars, 1932–1997. p. 7. ISBN 0-7603-0372-X. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Baker, Al (2006-08-21). "A Police Car With Plenty of Muscle". The New York Times. 
  4. http://host.madison.com/ct/news/local/crime_and_courts/article_9ee9196a-008b-11df-8a7e-001cc4c03286.html
  5. http://www.mysanantonio.com/business/business_columnists/g_chambers_williams_iii/article/G-Chambers-Williams-III-Caprice-starting-to-1456685.php
  6. http://www.hattiesburgamerican.com/article/20110421/NEWS01/104210338
  7. "For city police, a disaster on wheels". The Baltimore Sun. 24 April 1994. p. 1. 
  8. http://www.upi.com/Business_News/2010/08/25/Big-three-chase-police-for-auto-business/UPI-22251282760766/
  9. http://www.freep.com/article/20140324/BUSINESS01/303240049
  10. http://www.revisor.leg.state.mn.us/bin/getpub.php?pubtype=STAT_CHAP_SEC&year=2006&section=169.98
  11. http://www.dmv.ca.gov/pubs/vctop/d12/vc27605.htm
  12. Missouri State Highway Patrol (2006). "History of the Motor Equipment Division" (pdf). Retrieved 2008-05-16. .
  13. 1971 Greenfield Police patrol Ambassador, retrieved on 2008-05-16.
  14. AMC Police Cars retrieved on 2009-10-25.
  15. "The National AMC Police Car Registry" retrieved on 2009-10-25.
  16. 16.0 16.1 http://members.fortunecity.com/rwcar4q/urban.html
  17. "Highway Patrol troopers say sports cars faster but not better". The Item. 6 June 1992. p. 5A. 
  18. http://www.egmcartech.com/2009/10/05/2011-chevrolet-caprice-police-patrol-vehicle-taking-over-streets-in-2011/
  19. Cop Car Dot Com retrieved on 2009-10-25.
  20. Car Dot Com retrieved on 2009-10-25.
  21. http://jalopnik.com/5959429/how-the-california-highway-patrol-swapped-crown-vics-for-volvos--almost
  22. Gallery: Edmonton police cars retrieved on 2014-01-20.
  23. http://www4.nau.edu/insidenau/bumps/2008/4_30_08/naupd.htm
  24. http://www.rcmp.ca/bc/lmd/nvan/Contents/tour.html
  25. http://www.mercurynews.com/mld/mercurynews/news/columnists/mr_roadshow/14074796.htm?source=rss&channel=mercurynews_mr_roadshow
  26. Nicholson, Kieran. "Hummer-dinger of police car joins force". Denver Post. 
  27. http://www.aspenpitkin.com/depts/53/divisions_patrol.cfm
  28. "Vail police switch from Saab to Ford". USA Today. 2003-09-23. Retrieved 2010-05-22. 
  29. http://starbulletin.com/1999/07/05/news/briefs.html
  30. http://www.madisonrecord.com/news/176168-madison-county-and-pontoon-beach-reap-drug-bust-proceeds
  31. File:ChevroletCapricePPV-01.jpg
  32. http://policecarwebsite.net/fc/copcarpics/iowa1.htm
  33. http://www.z06-corvette.com/police.htm
  34. http://www.corvettecentral.com/gallery/woodward.htm
  35. http://www.drive.subaru.com/Win05_YourTurn.htm
  36. http://www.netcarshow.com/dodge/2006-charger_police_vehicle/
  37. Sullivan, Jennifer (2007-05-04). "Seattle officers' hot cars zero in on hot drivers". The Seattle Times. 
  38. http://goliath.ecnext.com/comsite5/bin/pdinventory.pl?pdlanding=1&referid=2750&item_id=0199-2360667
  39. http://www.detnews.com/article/20091113/AUTO01/911130435/1148/auto01/Ford-fast-tracks-new-cop-car-to-replace-Crown-Vic
  40. http://www.detnews.com/article/20100312/AUTO01/3120341/1148/auto01/Ford-debuts-new-Police-Interceptor
  41. http://www.theautochannel.com/news/2010/04/07/472201.html
  42. http://www.theautochannel.com/news/2009/10/05/480203.html

External links