Polish Air Force
|Polish Air Force|
Polish Air Force's Eagle
|Branch||Polish Armed Forces|
|Part of||Polish Armed Forces|
World War II
War in Iraq
War in Afghanistan
|Commander||Gen. Broni Lech Majewski|
|Chief of Staff||Gen. Dyw. Sławomir Kałuziński|
|Air Force Flag|
|Air Force Ensign|
|Helicopter||Mi-8, Mi-17, PZL W-3, PZL SW-4|
|Transport||C-130, C-295, M-28|
The Polish Air Force (Siły Powietrzne, literally "Air Forces") is a military branch of the Polish Armed Forces. Until July 2004 it was officially known as Wojska Lotnicze i Obrony Powietrznej (literally: Air-and-Air Defence Forces). In 2014 it consisted of roughly 16,425 military personnel and about 475 aircraft, distributed among 10 bases throughout Poland.
The Polish Air Force can trace its origins to the months following the end of World War I in 1918. During the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany in 1939, 70% of planes and aircraft were destroyed, but most pilots, after the Soviet invasion of Poland on September 17 escaped to Hungary and Romania and continued fighting throughout World War II in air squadrons first in France then in Britain and later also the Soviet Union.
- 1 History
- 2 Aircraft inventory
- 3 Organization
- 4 Ranks and insignia
- 5 Polish Air Force Tu-154 crash, 2010
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Military aviation in Poland started shortly after the country regained its independence after World War I, in November 1918. Initially, its air force consisted of mostly German and Austrian aircraft, such as the Fokker D.VII, Oeffag D.III and Albatros J.I, captured from the former Central Axis Powers. These planes were first used by the Polish Air Force in the Polish-Ukrainian War in late 1918, during combat operations centered around the city of Lwów (now Lviv).
When the Polish-Soviet War broke out in February 1920, the Polish Air Force used a variety of western-made Allied aircraft, including some from countries such as Britain, France and Italy. The most common aircraft in service at this time were the British made Bristol F2B and Italian Ansaldo Balilla fighters. The 21. Eskadra Niszczycielska (21st Destroyer Squadron) included a Gotha G.IV on April 30, 1920.
After the Polish-Soviet War ended, most of the old World War I aircraft were gradually withdrawn and the air force was equipped with new French aircraft. From 1924 to 1930 the primary fighter of the Polish Air Force was the SPAD 61 and its main bombers were the French produced Potez 15 and the Potez 25, which was eventually manufactured in Poland under license from Aéroplanes Henry Potez.
The first Polish-designed and mass-produced aircraft to serve in the country's air force was a high wing fighter, the PWS-10, first manufactured in 1930 by the Podlasie Aircraft Factory.
In 1933, Zygmunt Pulawski's first high wing, all-metal aircraft, the PZL P.7a, was designed and produced, with 150 entering service. The design was followed by 30 improved PZL P.11a aircraft and a final design, the PZL P.11c, was delivered in 1935 and was a respectable fighter for its time; 175 entered service and it remained the only Polish fighter until 1939, by which time foreign aircraft design had overtaken it. Its final version, the PZL P.24, was built for export only and was bought by four countries. A new fighter prototype, the PZL.50 Jastrząb (Hawk), similar to the Seversky P-35 in layout, was curtailed by the Nazi invasion and two twin-engine heavy fighters, the PZL.38 Wilk and the PZL.48 Lampart, remained prototypes.
As far as bombers are concerned, the Potez 25 and Breguet 19 were replaced by an all-metal monoplane, the PZL.23 Karaś, with 250 built from 1936 onwards, but by 1939 the Karas was outdated. In 1938 the Polish factory PZL designed a modern twin-engine medium bomber, the PZL.37 Łoś (Elk), arguably the best bomber in the world when it entered service that year. The Łoś had a bomb payload of 2580 kg and a top speed of 439 km/h. Unfortunately, only about 30 Łoś A bombers (single tailfin) and 70 Łoś B (twin tailfin) bombers had been delivered before the Nazi invasion.
As an observation and close reconnaissance plane, Polish escadres used the slow and easily damaged Lublin R-XIII, and later the RWD-14 Czapla. Polish naval aviation used the Lublin R-XIII on floats. Just before the war, some Italian torpedo planes, the CANT Z.506, were ordered, but only one was delivered, and it was without armament. The principal aircraft used to train pilots were the Polish-built high-wing RWD-8 and the PWS-26 biplane. In 1939, Poland ordered 160 MS-406s and 10 Hawker Hurricane fighters from abroad, but they were not delivered before the outbreak of war.
On 1 September 1939, at the beginning of the Invasion of Poland, all the Polish combat aircraft had been dispersed to secondary airfields, contrary to a commonly-held belief, based on German propaganda, that they had all been destroyed by bombing at their air bases. The aircraft destroyed by German bombers on the airfields were mostly trainer planes. The fighter planes were grouped into 15 escadres (five of them constituted the Pursuit Brigade, deployed in the Warsaw area). Despite being obsolete, Polish PZL-11 fighters shot down over 170 German planes. The bombers, grouped in nine escadres of the Bomber Brigade, attacked armoured columns but suffered heavy losses. Seven reconnaissance and 12 observation escadres, deployed to particular armies, were used primarily for reconnaissance. Part of the Polish Air Force was destroyed in the campaign; the surviving aircraft were either captured or withdrawn to Romania, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Slovenia, or Sweden where, subsequently, the captors employed these aircraft for their own use (in case of Romania till 1956). A great number of pilots and aircrew managed to escape to France and then to Britain, where they played a significant part in the defence of the United Kingdom against Nazi invasion, during the Battle of Britain.
|Light bombers/Tactical bombers||PZL.23A||35||0|
|Medium bombers||PZL.37 Łoś||86||36|
|Surveillance aircraft and Army cooperation planes||Lublin R-XIII||150||55|
|RWD-8||550 (most of them civilian)||~20|
After the fall of Poland, the Polish Air Force started to regroup in France. The only complete unit created before the German attack on France was the GC I/145 fighter squadron, flying Caudron C.714 light fighters. It was the only unit operating the C.714 at the time. The Polish pilots were also deployed to various French squadrons, flying on all types of French fighters, but mostly on the MS-406. After the surrender of France, many of these pilots managed to escape to Britain to continue the fight against the Luftwaffe.
1940–1947 (United Kingdom)
Following the fall of France in 1940, Polish units were formed in the United Kingdom, as a part of the Royal Air Force and known as the Polish Air Force (PAF). Four Polish squadrons were formed: 300 Squadron and 301 Squadron flew bombers, 302 Squadron and 303 Squadron flew Hawker Hurricane fighters. The two Polish fighter squadrons first saw action in the third phase of the Battle of Britain in August 1940, with much success; the pilots were battle-hardened and Polish flying skills had been well learned from the Invasion of Poland. The pilots were regarded as fearless, sometimes bordering on reckless. Nevertheless, success rates were very high in comparison to UK and Empire pilots. 303 Squadron became the most efficient RAF fighter squadron at that time. Many Polish pilots also flew individually in other RAF squadrons.
As World War II progressed, further Polish squadrons were created in the United Kingdom: No. 304 Polish Bomber Squadron (bomber, then Coastal Command), 305 Squadron (bomber), 306 Squadron (fighter), 307 Squadron (night fighter), 308 Squadron (fighter), 309 Squadron (reconnaissance, then fighter), 315 Squadron (fighter), 316 Squadron (fighter), 317 Squadron (fighter), 318 Squadron (fighter-reconnaissance), 663 Squadron (air observation/artillery spotting) and the Polish Fighting Team also known as the "Skalski Circus", attached to 145 Squadron RAF. The fighter squadrons initially flew Hurricanes, then switched to Spitfires, and eventually to P-51 Mustangs. 307 Squadron, like other night fighter squadrons (such as 410 Squadron Royal Canadian Air Force), flew Boulton-Paul Defiants, Bristol Beaufighters and finally de Havilland Mosquitoes. The bomber squadrons were initially equipped with Fairey Battles and Vickers Wellingtons. 300 Squadron was later assigned Avro Lancasters, 301 Squadron Handley Page Halifaxes and Consolidated Liberators and 305 Squadron, de Havilland Mosquitoes and North American Mitchells. 663 Squadron (air observation/artillery spotting) flew Auster AOP IIIs and Vs. After the war, all equipment was returned to the British, but only some of the pilots and crews actually returned to Poland, many settling in the United Kingdom.
Along with the Polish People's Army (Ludowe Wojsko Polskie) in the USSR, the Ludowe Lotnictwo Polskie – Polish People's Air Force – was created, in defence of the Soviet Union against Nazi invasion. In late 1943, the 1st Fighter Regiment "Warszawa", (equipped with Yak-1 and Yak-9 aircraft), the 2nd Night Bomber Regiment "Kraków" (flying Polikarpov Po-2 aircraft – produced in Poland as the CSS-13 from 1949 onwards), and the 3rd Assault Regiment (flying Ilyushin Il-2 aircraft) were formed. During 1944–5, further regiments were created, coming together to form the 1st Mixed Air Corps, consisting of a bomber division, an assault division, a fighter division and a mixed division. After the war, these returned to Poland and gave birth to the air force of the People's Republic of Poland.
In 1949, the Li-2sb transport aircraft was adapted into a bomber and in 1950, Poland received Petlyakov Pe-2 and Tupolev Tu-2 bombers from the Soviet Union along with USB-1 and USB-2 training bombers. In 1950 also, the Yak-17 fighter came into service, as did the Ilyushin Il-12 transport and the Yak-18 trainer. From 1951 onwards, the Polish Air Force was equipped with Yak-23 jet fighters and MiG-15 jets, along with a training version, the MiG-15 UTI, and later, in 1961, the MiG-17.
As well as Soviet-produced aircraft, from 1952 onwards Soviet MiG-15 and later MiG-17 fighters were produced under licence in Poland as the Lim-1, Lim-2 and later the Lim-5. A domestic ground attack variant of the Lim-5M was developed as the Lim-6bis in 1964. The only jet bomber used by the Polish Air Force during this period was the Ilyushin Il-28, from 1952 onwards. Poland used only a small number of MiG-19s from 1959, in favour of the MiG-21 from 1963 onwards, which became its main supersonic fighter. This aircraft was used in numerous variants from MiG-21F-13, through MiG-21PF and MF to MiG-21bis. Later, the Polish Air Force received 37 MiG-23s (1979) and 12 MiG-29s (1989).
The main fighter-bomber and ground attack aircraft after 1949 was the Il-10 (a training version, the UIl-10, entering service in 1951). From 1965 onwards, Poland also used a substantial number of Su-7Bs for bombing and ground attack, replaced with 27 Sukhoi Su-20s in 1974 and 110 Sukhoi Su-22s in 1984.
Propeller-driven training aircraft, the Junak-2 (in service since 1952), the TS-9 Junak-3 (in service since 1954) and the PZL TS-8 Bies (since 1958) were later replaced by a jet trainer, the domestically built TS-11 Iskra. Another Polish jet trainer, the PZL I-22 Iryda, was used for some time but, because of continuing problems, all machines were returned to PZL for modification and did not resume service. The Yak-12 was used as a multirole aircraft from 1951, the An-2 from 1955 and subsequently the Wilga-35 P.
Transport aircraft used by the Polish Air Force during this period included: the Il-14 (first in service in 1955), the Il-18 (first in service in 1961), the An-12B (first in service in 1966), the An-26 (first in service in 1972), the Yak-40 (first in service in 1973) and the Tupolev Tu-154. A number of helicopters were used by the Polish Army: the SM-1 (a Mil Mi-1 manufactured under licence), which was a multirole helicopter, in operation since 1956; the Mil Mi-4, multirole, since 1958; the PLZ SM-2, multirole, since 1960; the Mil Mi-2 and Mil Mi-8 (later also Mil Mi-17), multirole, since 1968 and the Mil Mi-24, a combat helicopter, since 1976. Also the Mil Mi-14, an amphibious helicopter, and the Mil Mi-6, both used as transports.
In 1954, the Polish Air Force was merged with the Air Defence Force, creating the Air and Country Air Defence Forces (Wojska Lotnicze i Obrony Przeciwlotniczej Obszaru Kraju – WLiOPL OK), a military organisation composed of both flying and anti-aircraft units. In 1962, the WLiOPL OK were separated back again into their two original component bodies: the Air Force (Wojska Lotnicze) and the Country Air Defence Force (Wojska Obrony Powietrznej Kraju).
After political upheaval and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, and a consequent reduction in the state of military anxiety in the whole of Europe, the Polish Air Force was reduced. On July 1, 1990, the Polish Air Force and the Air Defence Force were merged again (Wojska Lotnicze i Obrony Powietrznej – WLiOP or WLOP). The attack capability of this force consisted primarily of MiG-21s, MiG-23s, MiG-29s, Su-20s and Su-22s. The remaining Lim-6bis were withdrawn in the early 1990s, followed soon afterwards by the withdrawal of the remaining Su-20 aircraft. The small number of remaining MiG-23s were withdrawn by 1999. Throughout the 1990s, Poland had not purchased any new combat aircraft and only managed to acquire further MiG-29s from the Czech Republic in 1995 and from Germany in 2004. MiG-21s were finally withdrawn from service in 2003. In 2004, the only remaining combat aircraft flown by the WLiOP were the MiG-29 and the Su-22. As of 2010, the fleet of Su-22s is in need of modernization to retain any value as a combat aircraft and its future is unclear.
In 2002, the F-16C/D Block 52+ from the American company Lockheed Martin was chosen as a new multirole fighter for the WLiOP, the first deliveries taking place in November 2006 and continued until 2008 under Peace Sky program. As of 2011 the Polish Air Force have three squadrons of F-16s: two stationed at the 31st Tactical Air Base near Poznań and the 10th Tactical Squadron at the 32nd Air Base near Łask. The acquisition of the US F-16 was not without fierce competition from European aerospace companies; the sale was hotly pursued by the French company Dassault, with their Mirage 2000 and by the Swedish company Saab, with the JAS 39 Gripen. The Polish Block 52+ F-16s are equipped with the latest Pratt and Whitney F-100-229 afterburning turbofan engines, and the avionics suite includes the APG-68(V)9 terrain mapping radar system and the ALQ-211(V)4 electronic warfare suite. All Polish F-16s can carry modern US precision ordnance, ranging from the JDAM/JSOW to the latest in export-certificate-authorized air-to-air weaponry (including the AIM-120C-5 and AIM-9X).
As the aftermath of the presidential Tu-154 crash in 2010 and later Polish investigation the 36th Special Aviation Regiment, responsible for transporting the President and the Polish Government, was disbanded, all officials flights are carried by two LOT Polish Airlines Embraer E-175. A new unit operates the W-3 VIP helicopters. On 27 February 2014 Poland signed a €280 million contract with Alenia Aermacchi for 8 M-346 Master advanced training jet. In May 2014, Defence Minister Tomasz Siemoniak announced plans for the future acquisition of attack helicopters in response to the Ukraine crisis.
On 11 December 2014 Polish officials signed a contract with the United States for the purchase of 44 AGM-158 Joint Air to Surface Stand off Missile, for $250 million USD. Also contained in the contract are upgrades to the fleet of Polish F-16s to be completed by Lockheed Martin.
For retired aircraft types, see Retired aircraft of the Polish Air Force
|Lockheed Martin F-16 Jastrząb||Multirole combat aircraft||USA||F-16C adv. bl. 52+
F-16D adv. bl. 52+
|Two more F-16A block 15 are not in flying condition and are used as instructional airframes.|
|Mikoyan MiG-29||Fighter aircraft||USSR||MiG-29 9.12A
|Out of 44 acquired including former German and Czech aircraft.|
|Sukhoi Su-22||Attack aircraft||USSR||Su-22M4
|Out of 110 acquired delivered 1984-88. 18 planned to remain in service until 2026.|
|Lockheed C-130 Hercules||Tactical transport||USA||C-130E||5|
|CASA C-295||Tactical transport||Spain||C-295M||16||17 delivered, 1 crashed on January 24th, 2008.|
|PZL M28B Bryza||Utility transport||Poland||M28B/PT
|Variant with Pratt & Whitney PT6A engines
Variant with PZL-10S engines
|Alenia Aermacchi M-346 Master||Trainer aircraft||Italy||M-346||0||8 on order. Will replace TS-11 Iskra|
|PZL TS-11 Iskra||Trainer aircraft||Poland||TS-11||<38||To be replaced by eight Alenia Aermacchi M-346 Master with delivery planned for 2016-2017.|
|PZL-130 Orlik||Trainer aircraft||Poland||PZL-130TC-I
|Original variant powered with Walter M-601E engine
Upgraded variant with Pratt & Whitney PT6A engines and new wings (2011-2014)
TC-III variant with PT6A and glass cockpit avionics under development.
|Airbus Helicopters H225M Caracal||Special Operations Support helicopter
Search and Rescue helicopter
|8 on order. Reliving borrowed Land Forces Mi-17-1V, deliveries planned in 2017
7 on order. Replacing withdrawn Mi-8RL and supplementing W-3RL SAR helicopters
|Mil Mi-17||Special Operations Support helicopter||Russia||Mi-17-1V||4||Helicopters borrowed from Land Forces to fill the gap before H225M deliverys|
|PZL W-3 Sokół||Utility helicopter
Search and Rescue helicopter
VIP transport helicopter
5 with VIP certifies
|PZL Mi-2||Light transport and trainer helicopter||Poland||Mi-2||<54|
|PZL SW-4 Puszczyk||Light transport and trainer helicopter||Poland||SW-4||23||1 helicopter lost in training accident.|
|PZL M28B Bryza||Maritime patrol and utility transport||Poland||M28B Bryza-1R/RM
|Mil Mi-14||Anti-submarine helicopter
Maritime Search and Rescue helicopter
|To be replaced by H225M|
|Mil Mi-17||Utility helicopter||USSR||Mi-17||1|
|Airbus Helicopters H225M Caracal||Anti-submarine helicopter
Maritime Search and Rescue helicopter
|8 on order. Replacing SH-2 and Mi-14PL
6 on order. Replacing Mi-14PS.
|Kaman SH-2 Seasprite||Anti-submarine helicopter||USA||SH-2G||4||To be replaced by H225M|
|PZL W-3 Sokół||Utility helicopter
Maritime Search and Rescue helicopter
|PZL Mi-2||Light transport and trainer helicopter||Poland||Mi-2||5|
Land Forces aircraft inventory
|Mil Mi-24||Attack helicopter||USSR||Mi-24D
|Mil Mi-8/17||Tactical transport helicopter
Tactical transport helicopter
Tactical transport helicopter
Medical evacuation helicopter
|Mi-8T to be replaced by H225M
Mi-17-1V upgraded with "Afghanistan" packet
|Airbus Helicopters H225M Caracal||Tactical transport helicopter
Medical evacuation helicopter
|16 on order. Replacing Mi-8T
5 on order
|PZL W-3 Sokół||Tactical transport helicopter
Combat Search and Rescue helicopter
Medical evacuation helicopter
W-3RR Procjon / PSOT
|PZL Mi-2||Light transport and trainer helicopter||Poland||Mi-2 NVG||16|
|Aeronautics Defense Orbiter||Light UAV||Israel||18|
|WB Electronics FlyEye||Light UAV||Poland||12|
| Land Forces
- 1 Skrzydło Lotnictwa Taktycznego in Świdwin (1st Tactical Aviation Wing)
- 2 Skrzydło Lotnictwa Taktycznego in Poznań (2nd Tactical Aviation Wing)
- 3 Skrzydło Lotnictwa Transportowego in Powidz (3rd Airlift Aviation Wing)
- 1 Baza Lotnictwa Transportowego in Warszawa-Okęcie (1st Airlift Air Base)
- 8 Baza Lotnictwa Transportowego im płk pil Stanisława Jakuba Skarżyńskiego in Kraków-Balice (8th Airlift Air Base)
- 33 Baza Lotnictwa Transportowego in Powidz (33rd Airlift Air Base)
- 1 Grupa PoszukiwawczoinRatownicza in Świdwin (1st Search and Rescue Group)
- 2 Grupa PoszukiwawczoinRatownicza in Mińsk Mazowiecki (2nd Search and Rescue Group)
- 3 Grupa PoszukiwawczoinRatownicza in Kraków-Balice (3rd Search and Rescue Group)
- 4 Skrzydło Lotnictwa Szkolnego im gen bryg pil Witolda Urbanowicza in Dęblin (4th Training Aviation Wing)
- 41 Baza Lotnictwa Szkolnego im mjr pil Eugeniusza Horbaczewskiego in Dęblin (41st Training Air Base)
- 42 Baza Lotnictwa Szkolnego im kpt pil Franciszka Żwirki i inż Stanisława Wigury in Radom (42nd Training Air Base)
- Wojskowy Ośrodek SzkoleniowoinKondycyjny "Gronik" in Zakopane
- Ośrodek Szkolenia WysokościowoinRatowniczego i Spadochronowego Sił Powietrznych in Poznań-Krzesiny
- 3 Warszawska Brygada Rakietowa Obrony Powietrznej in Sochaczew-Bielice (3rd Rocket Air Defence Brigade)
- 38 Dywizjon Zabezpieczenia OP in Sochaczew-Bielice (38th Sustainment Squadron)
- 32 Wieliszewski Dywizjon Rakietowy OP im gen dyw Gustawa Konstantego Orlicz-Dreszera in Olszewnica Stara (32nd Rocket Air Defence Squadron)
- 33 Dywizjon Rakietowy OP in Gdynia-Grabówek (33rd Rocket Air Defence Squadron)
- 34 Śląski Dywizjon Rakietowy OP in Bytom (34th Rocket Air Defence Squadron)
- 35 Skwierzyński Dywizjon Rakietowy OP in Skwierzyna (35th Rocket Air Defence Squadron)
- 36 Dywizjon Rakietowy OP in Mrzeżyno (36th Rocket Air Defence Squadron)
- 37 Dywizjon Rakietowy OP in Sochaczew-Bielice (37th Rocket Air Defence Squadron)
- 3 Wrocławska Brygada Radiotechniczna in Wrocław (3rd Signal Brigade)
- 3 Sandomierski Batalion Radiotechniczny in Sandomierz (3rd Signal Battalion)
- 8 Szczycieński Batalion Radiotechniczny in Lipowiec[disambiguation needed] (8th Signal Battalion)
- 31 Batalion Radiotechniczny in Wrocław (31st Signal Battalion)
- 34 Chojnicki Batalion Radiotechniczny in Chojnice (34th Signal Battalion)
- 1 Grójecki Ośrodek Radioelektroniczny im ppłk Jana Kowalewskiego in Grójec (1st Signal Center)
- Wyższa Szkoła Oficerska Sił Powietrznych in Dęblin
- Centrum Szkolenia InżynieryjnoinLotniczego in Dęblin
- Szkoła Podoficerska Sił Powietrznych in Dęblin
- Centrum Szkolenia Sił Powietrznych im Romualda Traugutta in Koszalin
- Szefostwo Służby Hydrometeorologicznej Sił Zbrojnych RP in Warszawa
- Szefostwo Służby Ruchu Lotniczego Sił Zbrojnych RP in Warszawa
Ranks and insignia
|Abbreviation||gen.||gen. broni||gen. dyw.||gen. bryg.||płk||ppłk||mjr||kpt.||por.||ppor.|
Staff Non-commissioned officers
|Abbreviation||st. chor. sztab.||st. chor.||chor.||mł. chor.|
Non-commissioned officers and privates
|Abbreviation||st. sierż.||sierż.||plut.||st. kpr.||kpr.||st. szer.||szer.|
The current aviator badge of the Polish Air Force has been in use since the 1920s. The badge is called gapa and represents silver eagle in flight with gold laurel wreath in the bill. Navigator/Observer badge (below) represents the same eagle, but in gold with added lightning bolts. It is unlike any other in the other air forces in the world. The gapa was worn in the usual place on the upper left breast above the pocket, but with a chain. It proudly adorned the uniform of Polish Air Force officers in the RAF during World War II along with their RAF wings. In combat badges (for at least 7 flights in combat conditions) the laurel wreath is green.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aviator badges.|
Polish Air Force Tu-154 crash, 2010
On 10 April 2010, a Polish Air Force Tupolev (Tu-154M) aircraft crashed near Smolensk, Russia. The crash killed all 96 passengers and crew, including the President of Poland Lech Kaczyński, his wife Maria Kaczyńska, the Chief of the General Staff of the Polish Army Franciszek Gągor, Polish Air Force commanding general Andrzej Błasik, the President of the Polish Central Bank Sławomir Skrzypek, the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, members of parliament, senior military officers, and senior members of the clergy. They were en route from Warsaw to attend an event to mark the 70th anniversary of the Katyn massacre, whose site is commemorated approximately 19 km west of Smolensk.
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- Cite error: Invalid
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