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A ponor is a natural surface opening that may be found in landscapes where the geology and the geomorphology is characterized by some kind of karst.[1]

Collecting basin, stone rake, ponor (behind viewer), Peloponnese
One of several ponors of the Rak River, Slovenia
Ponor, Stubai Alps

Whereas a sinkhole is a depression (doline) of surface topography with a pit or cavity directly underneath, a ponor is kind of a portal where a surface stream or lake flows either partially or completely underground into a karst groundwater system. Steady water erosion may have formed or enlarged the portal in (mainly limestone) rock, in a conglomerate, or in looser materials.

Ponors are found worldwide, but only in some karst regions. There are several places in southeast Europe (Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Montenegro) with the name Ponor due to associated karst openings. There are significant geological ponors in the Carpathian Mountains, the Dinaric Alps, Greece, Turkey, and parts of the southern United States.

The term ponor has become the international geological term for larger karst-induced surface water inlets. The word derives from the proto-Slavic nora 'pit, hole, abyss'.

See also


  1. Samuel N. Dicken (November 1935). "Kentucky Karst Landscapes". The Journal of Geology. 43 (7). JSTOR. pp. 708–728. Since local terms such as "sink," "sink hole," "kettle," "bottom," etc., are vague and confusing the Slovene terminology ("ponor," "doline," etc.) is used for the karst forms.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>