|Papacy began||2 July 311|
|Papacy ended||10 January 314|
|Birth name||Miltiades (or Melchiades)|
|Died||10 January 314
Rome, Western Roman Empire
|Feast day||10 December|
|Papal styles of
|Reference style||His Holiness|
|Spoken style||Your Holiness|
|Religious style||Holy Father|
Pope Miltiades or Melchiades (Greek: Ο Άγιος Μιλτιάδης ; Μελχιάδης ὁ Ἀφρικανός; died 10 January 314), also called in Latin Pope Miltiades, was Bishop of Rome from 2 July 311 to his death in 314.
His elections marked the end of a period sede vacante lasting from the death of Pope Eusebius on 17 August 310 or, according to others, 309, soon after the Emperor Maxentius had exiled Eusebius to Sicily.
During his pontificate, in October 312, Constantine defeated Maxentius and assumed control over Rome. Constantine presented the pope with the Lateran Palace, which became the papal residence and seat of Christian governance. Early in 313, Constantine and fellow Emperor Licinius reached an agreement at Milan that they would grant freedom of religion to the Christians and other religions and restore church property.
Later in 313, Miltiades presided over the Lateran Synod in Rome, which acquitted Caecilian of Carthage and condemned Donatus as a schismatic (see Donatism). He was then invited to the Council of Arles but died before it was held.
The Liber Pontificalis, compiled from the 5th century onwards, attributed the introduction of several later customs to Miltiades, including not fasting on Thursdays or Sundays, although subsequent scholarship now believes the customs probably pre-dated Miltiades.
In the 13th century, the feast of Saint Melchiades (as he was then called) was included, with the mistaken qualification of "martyr", in the General Roman Calendar for celebration on 10 December. In 1969, it was removed from that calendar of obligatory liturgical celebrations, and his feast was moved to the day of his death, 10 January, with his name given in the form "Miltiades" and without the indication "martyr".
- Annuario Pontificio 2012 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana ISBN 978-88-209-8722-0), p. 8*
- Saints For Dummies -Rev. John Trigilio, Jr., Rev. Kenneth Brighenti - 2010 p 109 "Pontificate: AD 311–AD 314 Feast day: December 10 Melchiades was the first pope to see the end of Roman persecution of Christians"
- Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope St. Miltiades". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes, (HarperCollins, 2000), 56.
- Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 1969), p. 148
- Martyrologium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2001 ISBN 88-209-7210-7)
- Leadbetter, Bill (February 2002). "Constantine and the bishop: the Roman church in the early fourth century" (PDF). ￼The Journal of Religious History. 26 (1): 1–14. ISSN 1467-9809. doi:10.1111/1467-9809.00139. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-09-24.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Melchiades.|
|Titles of the Great Christian Church|
|Bishop of Rome