Portal:Boston

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Bostonstraight.jpg
Boston (pronounced ˈbɒstən), located in Suffolk County, is the capital of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The largest city in New England, Boston is considered the unofficial economic and cultural center of the entire New England region ("The Capital of New England"). The city, which had an estimated population of 617,594 at the 2010 census, lies at the center of the Cambridge–Boston-Quincy metropolitan area — the 11th-largest metropolitan area (5th largest CSA) in the U.S., with a population of 4.4 million. Residents of Boston are referred to as Bostonians.

In 1630, Puritan colonists from England founded the city on the Shawmut Peninsula. During the late eighteenth century, Boston was the location of several major events during the American Revolution, including the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party. Several early battles of the American Revolution, such as the Battle of Bunker Hill and the Siege of Boston, occurred within the city and surrounding areas. After American independence was attained, Boston became a major shipping port and manufacturing center, and its rich history now attracts 16.3 million visitors annually. The city was the site of several firsts, including America's first public school, Boston Latin School (1635), and first college, Harvard College (1636), in neighboring Cambridge. Boston was also home to the first subway system in the United States, which is currently run by the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority.

Through land reclamation and municipal annexation, Boston has expanded beyond the peninsula. Numerous colleges and universities in Boston, including Harvard University, Boston University, and Northeastern University, rank among the top colleges in the world. With many colleges and universities within the city and surrounding area, Boston is a center of higher education and a center for health care. The city's economy is also based on research, finance, and technology — principally biotechnology. Boston's Chiantown is one of the most densely populated areas and incorporates one of the largest Asian-American populations in the Western Hemisphere. Hundreds of languages are spoken in Boston, making it among the most diverse in the world. Boston has been experiencing gentrification and has one of the highest costs of living in the United States.

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The death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker Hill by John Trumbull
The Battle of Bunker Hill was fought on June 17, 1775, during the Siege of Boston in the early stages of the American Revolutionary War. The battle is named after the adjacent Bunker Hill, which was peripherally involved in the battle, and was the original objective of both the colonial and British troops, though the vast majority of combat took place on Breed's Hill.

On June 13, 1775, the leaders of the colonial forces besieging Boston learned that the British were planning to send troops out from the city to fortify the unoccupied hills surrounding the city, giving them control of Boston Harbour. In response, 1,200 colonial troops under the command of William Prescott stealthily occupied Bunker Hill and Breed's Hill. The colonists constructed a strong redoubt on Breed's Hill, as well as smaller fortified lines across the Charlestown Peninsula.

When the British were alerted to the presence of colonial forces on the Peninsula, they mounted an attack against them. After two assaults on the colonial positions were repulsed with significant British casualties, the third and final attack carried the redoubt after the defenders ran out of ammunition. The colonists retreated to Cambridge over Bunker Hill, leaving the British in control of the Peninsula.

While the result was a victory for the British, the massive losses they encumbered discouraged them from any further sorties against the siege lines; 226 men were killed with over 800 wounded, including a large number of officers. The battle at the time was considered to be a colonial defeat; however, the losses suffered by the British troops gave encouragement to the colonies, demonstrating that inexperienced militiamen were able to stand up to regular army troops in a pitched battle.


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A South-East View of the City of Boston in North America.jpg
A South-East View of the City of Boston (1720-1740).

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Portrait of Paul Revere by John Singleton Copley, c.1768–70

Paul Revere (bap. December 22, 1734 (OS) / January 1, 1735 (NS) – May 10, 1818) was an American silversmith and a patriot in the American Revolution.

Because he was immortalized after his death for his role as a messenger in the battles of Lexington and Concord, Revere's name and his "midnight ride" are well-known in the United States as a patriotic symbol. In his lifetime, Revere was a prosperous and prominent Boston craftsman, who helped organize an intelligence and alarm system to keep watch on the British military.

Revere later served as an officer in one of the most disastrous campaigns of the American Revolutionary War, a role for which he was later exonerated. After the war, he was early to recognize the potential for large-scale manufacturing of metal.


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Template:/box-header Some Wikipedians have formed Wikipedia:WikiProject Boston to better organize information in articles related to the Hub of the Universe, Boston, and several of the cities surrounding Boston. This page and its subpages contain their suggestions; it is hoped that this project will help to focus the efforts of other Wikipedians. If you would like to help, please inquire on the Discussion Page. Template:/box-footer

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