Portal:Chicago

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Chicago's population of approximately 3 million people and its metropolitan area of over 9 million people make it the third-most populous city and metropolitan area in the United States. Adjacent to Lake Michigan, it is the second largest Great Lakes city and among the world's 25 largest urban areas by population. Incorporated as a city in 1837 after being founded in 1833 at the site of a portage, it became a transportation hub in North America and the financial capital of the Midwest. Since the World's Fair of 1893, it has been regarded as one of the ten most influential cities in the world. For example, diverse events such as Chicago Pile-1, the first man made nuclear reactor, and Chicago school architecture have changed human history, and the way urban spaces are organized. Chicago boasts some of the world's tallest buildings (Willis Tower, and Trump International Hotel and Tower). The University of Chicago is a leader in many fields and has contributed to academic thought, such as the Chicago school of economics or Chicago school of sociology.

Today, Chicago has diverse cultural offerings: teams from each of the major league sports (Bears, Blackhawks, Bulls, Cubs, and White Sox), a financial district anchored by the Chicago Mercantile Exchange on LaSalle Street in the Chicago Board of Trade Building, and an arts culture anchored by the Art Institute of Chicago and Millennium Park as well as Chicago Landmarks such as Wrigley Field. The Magnificent Mile is a fitting tribute for a city that has revolutionized retail merchandising with mail order catalogs, the money-back guarantee, bridal registry and using posted prices on goods.

Chicago hosts O'Hare (the world's second busiest) and Midway International Airports as well as the renowned 'L' rapid transit system. Chicago was once the capital of the railroad industry and the nation's meatpacking had its hub at the Union Stock Yards. Chicago has seen the influence of Al Capone. Recent members of the Cook County Democratic Party from Chicago include Chicago Mayors Richard J. Daley and his son Richard M. Daley, Chicago's first African-American Mayor, Harold Washington, the first African-American female United States Senator, Carol Mosley-Braun, and the first African-American United States President, former Senator Barack Obama.

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A white gang looking for African Americans during the Chicago Race Riot of 1919
The Chicago Race Riot of 1919 was a major racial conflict that began in Chicago, Illinois on July 27, 1919 and ended on August 3. During the riot, dozens died and hundreds were injured. It is considered to be the worst of the approximately 25 riots during the Red Summer of 1919, so named because of the violence and fatalities across the nation. The combination of arson, looting and murder was also the worst race rioting in the history of Illinois. The sociopolitical atmosphere of Chicago was filled with ethnic and racial tension caused by competition among many new groups. With the Great Migration, thousands of African Americans from the South had settled next to ethnic neighborhoods on Chicago's South Side, near jobs in the stockyards and meatpacking plants. Post World War I tensions caused frictions between the races, especially in the competitive labor and housing markets. Overcrowding and increased African American militancy by veterans contributed to the visible racial frictions. Also, ethnic gangs and police neglect strained the racial relationships. According to official reports, the turmoil came to a boil after a young African American was struck by a rock and died at an informally segregated beach. Tensions between groups arose in a melee that blew up into days of unrest.

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Ida B. Wells-Barnett House
Credit: TonyTheTiger

The Ida B. Wells - Barnett House was the residence of civil rights advocate Ida B. Wells, (1862-1931) and her husband Ferdinand Lee Barnett from 1919 to 1930. It is located at 3624 S. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Drive in the Douglas community area of Chicago, Illinois. It was designated a landmark on October 2, 1995.

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There have been 20 Chicago Bulls head coaches. The Bulls are an American professional basketball team based in Chicago, Illinois, playing in the Central Division of the Eastern Conference in the National Basketball Association (NBA). The team is owned by Jerry Reinsdorf and coached by Vinny Del Negro, with John Paxson as the general manager. They currently play their home games in the United Center. The Bulls first joined the NBA in the 1966–67 season as an expansion team. Coached by Johnny Kerr, the team finished its first season with a 33–48 record, the best record achieved by an expansion team in its first year of play, and secured a playoff berth. Kerr won the NBA Coach of the Year Award that year. The Bulls won their first NBA championship in the 1991 NBA Finals while coached by Phil Jackson. They won five additional NBA championships in the 1990s under Jackson. Phil Jackson is the only member of the franchise to be inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame as a coach. He is also the franchise's all-time leader in regular season games coached, regular season games won, playoff games coached, and playoff games won. Jerry Sloan, Bill Cartwright, and Pete Myers formerly played for the Bulls. (Read more...)

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Robert F. Christy
Robert Frederick Christy was a Canadian-American theoretical physicist and later astrophysicist who was one of the last surviving people to have worked on the Manhattan Project during World War II. He was also briefly president of California Institute of Technology (Caltech). A graduate of the University of British Columbia (UBC) in the 1930s where he studied physics, he followed George Volkoff, who was a year ahead of him, to the University of California, Berkeley, where he was accepted as a graduate student by J. Robert Oppenheimer, the leading theoretical physicist in the United States at that time. Christy received his doctorate in 1941 and joined the physics department of Illinois Institute of Technology. In 1942 he joined the Manhattan Project at the University of Chicago, where he was recruited by Enrico Fermi to join the effort to build the first nuclear reactor, having been recommended as a theory resource by Oppenheimer. When Oppenheimer formed the Manhattan Project's Los Alamos Laboratory in 1943, Christy was one of the early recruits to join the Theory Group. Christy is generally credited with the insight that a solid sub-critical mass of plutonium could be explosively compressed into supercriticality, a great simplification of earlier concepts of implosion requiring hollow shells. For this insight the solid-core plutonium model is often referred to as the "Christy pit". After the war, Christy briefly joined the University of Chicago Physics department before being recruited to join the Caltech faculty in 1946 when Oppenheimer decided it was not practical for him to resume his academic activities. He stayed at Caltech for his academic career, serving as Department Chair, Provost and Acting President. In 1960 Christy turned his attention to astrophysics, creating some of the first practical computation models of stellar operation. For this work Christy was awarded the Eddington Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1967. In the 1980s and 1990s Christy participated in the National Research Council's Committee on Dosimetry, an extended effort to better understand the actual radiation exposure due to the Japanese bombs, and on the basis of that learning, better understand the medical risks of radiation exposure.

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Dave Grohl at Foo Fighters concert in 2011
"Chicago gave me more music than any other city in America." — Dave Grohl

Selected landmark

Monadnock Building
The Monadnock Building (historically the Monadnock Block), is a skyscraper located in the south Loop community area of Chicago, Illinois. The north half of the building was designed by the firm of Burnham & Root and built in 1891. The tallest commercial load-bearing masonry building ever constructed, it employed the first portal system of wind bracing in America. Its decorative staircases represent the first use of aluminum in building construction. The south half, constructed in 1893, was designed by Holabird & Roche and is similar in color and profile to the original, but the design is more traditionally ornate. When completed, it was the largest office building in the world. The building was remodelled in 1938 in one of the first major skyscraper renovations ever undertaken—a bid, in part, to revolutionize how building maintenance was done and halt the demolition of Chicago's aging skyscrapers. It was sold in 1979 to owners who restored the building to its original condition. The north half is an unornamented vertical mass of purple-brown brick, flaring gently out at the base and top, with vertically continuous bay windows projecting out. The south half is vertically divided by brickwork at the base and rises to a large copper cornice at the roof. Projecting window bays in both halves allow large exposures of glass, giving the building an open appearance despite its mass. The Monadnock is part of the Printing House Row District. It was one of the first buildings named a Chicago Architectural Landmark in 1958. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1970, and named as part of the National Historic Landmark South Dearborn Street–Printing House Row North Historic District in 1976.

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Wikinews Chicago, Illinois portal
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  • Crown Fountain

...that Chicago's Crown Fountain (pictured) displays LED images of faces, which typically create the illusion of puckered lips spouting water?

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Chicago
Chicago Cultural Center.jpg

History of Chicago: Windy City1871 Great Chicago FireHaymarket affairWorld's Columbian ExpositionChicago Race Riot of 1919Chicago Board of TradeMcDonald'sMillennium ParkCook County Democratic Party

Geography: Chicago RiverFort DearbornPrairie AvenueMagnificent MileCook County, Illinois

People: Daniel BurnhamRichard J. DaleyOprah WinfreyAl CaponeBarack ObamaMichael JordanJesse JacksonAaron Montgomery WardMarshall FieldPotter PalmerHarold WashingtonJean Baptiste Pointe du Sable

Landmarks & Tourist Attractions: Chicago LandmarksWrigley FieldBuckingham FountainWillis TowerJohn Hancock CenterChicago Cultural Center

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