Portal:Geography

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Geography is the science that studies the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of the Earth. A literal translation would be "to describe or write about the Earth". The first person to use the word "geography" was Eratosthenes (276–194 BC). Four historical traditions in geographical research are the spatial analysis of the natural and the human phenomena (geography as the study of distribution), the area studies (places and regions), the study of the human-land relationship, and research in the Earth sciences. Modern geography is an all-encompassing discipline that foremost seeks to understand the Earth and all of its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. Geography has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the physical science". Geography is divided into two main branches: human geography and physical geography.

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Featured article

Qunaitra.jpg
Quneitra (also known as Al Qunaytirah, Qunaitira, or Kuneitra) is the largely destroyed and abandoned capital of the Quneitra Governorate in south-western Syria. It is situated in a high valley in the Golan Heights at an elevation of 1,010 metres (3,313 feet) above sea level. Quneitra was founded in the Ottoman era as a way station on the caravan route to Damascus and subsequently became a garrison town of some 20,000 people, strategically located near the ceasefire line with Israel. Its name is Arabic for "the little bridge". On 10 June 1967, the last day of the Six-Day War, Quneitra came under Israeli control. It was briefly recaptured by Syria during the 1973 Yom Kippur War, but Israel regained control in its subsequent counter-offensive. The city was almost completely destroyed before the Israeli withdrawal in June 1974. It now lies in the demilitarized United Nations Disengagement Observer Force Zone between Syria and Israel, a short distance from the de facto border between the two countries, and is populated by only a handful of families. Syria refused to rebuild the city and actively discourages resettlement in the area. Israel was heavily criticized by the United Nations for the city's destruction, while Israel has also criticized Syria for not rebuilding Quneitra.

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Did you know...

Galapagos Land Iguana

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Featured biography

Edward Wright was an English mathematician and cartographer noted for his book Certaine Errors in Navigation, which for the first time explained the mathematical basis of the Mercator projection, and set out a reference table giving the linear scale multiplication factor as a function of latitude, calculated for each minute of arc up to a latitude of 75°. This was the essential step needed to make practical both the making and the navigational use of Mercator charts. In 1589 Elizabeth I requested that he carry out navigational studies with an expedition organised by the Earl of Cumberland. The expedition's route was the subject of the first map to be prepared according to Wright's projection, which was published in Certaine Errors in 1599. The same year, Wright created and published the first world map produced in England and the first to use the Mercator projection since Gerardus Mercator's original 1569 map. Apart from a number of other books and pamphlets, Wright translated John Napier's pioneering 1614 work which introduced the idea of logarithms from Latin into English. Wright's work influenced, among other persons, Dutch astronomer and mathematician Willebrord Snellius; Adriaan Metius, the geometer and astronomer from Holland; and the English mathematician Richard Norwood.

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Geography categories

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WikiProjects
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Featured picture

Jamison Valley, Blue Mountains, Australia
Credit: Diliff

The Blue Mountains in Australia borders on Sydney's metropolitan area, its foothills starting approximately 50 kilometres (31 mi) west of the state capital. Geologically, it is situated in the central parts of the Sydney Basin. Consisting mainly of a sandstone plateau, the area is dissected by gorges up to 760 metres (2,490 ft) deep.

Selected quote

Stephen F. Chadwick
Stephen F. Chadwick, Governor's Biennial Message (1878)

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Antarctica (orthographic projection).svg
Antarctica
Afro-Eurasia (orthographic projection).svg
Afro-Eurasia
Americas (orthographic projection).svg
Americas
Australia (orthographic projection).svg
Australia
Africa (orthographic projection).svg
Africa
Eurasia (orthographic projection).svg
Eurasia
North America (orthographic projection).svg
North America
Oceania (orthographic projection).svg
Oceania
Europe (orthographic projection).svg
Europe
Asia (orthographic projection).svg
Asia
South America (orthographic projection).svg
South America
Supercontinents:
Gondwana • Laurasia • Pangaea • Rodinia


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