Portal:History of science
- Ancient Germanic Culture
- Ancient Greece
- Ancient Japan
- Ancient Near East
- Ancient Rome
- Anglo-Saxon England
- British Empire
- Bulgarian Empire
- Byzantine Empire
- Classical Civilisation
- German Empire
- History of Canada
- History of science
- Imperial China
- Indian independence movement
- Latter Day Saint movement
- Middle Ages
- Mughal Empire
- New France
- Ottoman Empire
- Russian Empire
- Sasanian Empire
- Seljuk Empire
- Soviet Union
|An 18th-century Persian astrolabe|
The content of science, as well as the meaning of the very idea of science, has continually evolved since the rise of modern science and before. The history of science is concerned with the paths that led to our present knowledge as well as those that were abandoned (thus overlapping with the history of ideas, history of philosophy and intellectual history). The history of science seeks to explain past beliefs—even those now considered erroneous—in their social, cultural and intellectual contexts. It also forms the foundation of the philosophy of science and the sociology of science, as well as the interdisciplinary field of science, technology, and society, and is closely related to the history of technology.
The study of science and technology includes both processes and bodies of knowledge. Scientific processes are the ways scientists investigate and communicate about the natural world. The scientific body of knowledge includes concepts, principles, facts, laws, and theories about the way the world around us works. Technology includes the technological design process and the body of knowledge related to the study of tools and the effect of technology on society. Science is continuously growing with technology today. Thanks to technology scientists have been able to better prove their theories.
Periodization in the historiography of science is usually oriented around the Scientific Revolution that culminated in the work of Isaac Newton. In this scheme, science (or more precisely, natural philosophy) before Copernicus was pre-modern science. European and Islamic science from antiquity to the 16th century was primarily derived from the work of Aristotle and other Greek philosophers (though historians now recognize the significant influence of Chinese knowledge as well); it included alchemy, astrology, and other subjects no longer considered as scientific, as well as the precursors of the modern sciences. Science (still in the form of natural philosophy) from roughly the late 16th century until the early- to mid-19th century was early-modern science; the birth of the experimental method in the 17th and 18th centuries is often considered a central event in the history of science. The 19th century saw the professionalization and secularization of science and the creation of independent scientific disciplines; modern science can denote science since this period (in distinction to early-modern), all science since Newton (in distinction to pre-modern), or simply science as practiced now.
Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 30, 1974) was an American engineer and science administrator, known for his work on analog computing, his political role in the development of the atomic bomb, and the idea of the memex—seen as a pioneering concept for the World Wide Web. A leading figure in the development of the military-industrial complex and the military funding of science in the United States, Bush was a prominent policymaker and public intellectual ("the patron saint of American science") during World War II and the ensuing Cold War. Through his public career, Bush was a proponent of democratic technocracy and of the centrality of technological innovation and entrepreneurship for both economic and geopolitical security.
...that the seventeenth century philosophers René Descartes, Baruch Spinoza, and Gottfried Leibniz, along with their Empiricist contemporary Thomas Hobbes all formulated definitions of conatus, an innate inclination of a thing to continue to exist and enhance itself?
...that the Society for Social Studies of Science (often abbreviated as 4S) is, as its website claims, "the oldest and largest scholarly association devoted to understanding science and technology"?
- 1800 - death of Abraham Gotthelf Kästner, German mathematician (b. 1719)
- 1861 - birth of Frederick Hopkins, English biochemist and Nobel laureate (d. 1947)
- 1877 - Alexander Graham Bell installs world's first commercial telephone service in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
- 1889 - birth of John S. Paraskevopoulos, Greek-South African astronomer (d. 1951)
- 1894 - birth of Lloyd Hall, American chemist (d. 1971)
- 1941 - birth of Ulf Merbold, German physicist and astronaut
- 1958 - death of Kurt Alder, German chemist and Nobel laureate (b. 1902)
- 1963 - death of Raphaël Salem, Greek mathematician (b. 1898)
- 1990 - Asteroid Eureka discovered.
- 2002 - death of Erwin Chargaff, Austrian biochemist (b. 1905)
- 2005 - death of Jack Kilby, American electrical engineer and Nobel laureate (b. 1923)
|Philosophy of science||Technology|
|The History of Science Collaboration is On the Origin of Species.|
History of science Philosophy of science Systems science Mathematics Biology Chemistry Physics Earth sciences Technology