Portal:Islam

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Islam (Arabic: الإسلام‎‎ al-’islām, pronounced [ʔislæːm] is the religion articulated by the Qur’an, a book considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of the single incomparable God (Arabic: الله‎‎, Allāh), and by the Islamic prophet Muhammad's demonstrations and real-life examples (called the Sunnah, collected through narration of his companions in collections of Hadith). The word Islam, a triliteral of the word salaam, is a homograph, having multiple meanings, including peace and surrender (to God). Adherents are known as Muslims, which is the active participle of the verb of which Islām is the infinitive. Muslims regard their religion as the completed and universal version of a monotheistic faith revealed at many times and places before, including, notably, to the prophets Abraham, Moses and Jesus. Islamic tradition holds that previous messages and revelations have been changed and distorted over time. Religious practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are five duties that unite Muslims into a community. Islamic law (Arabic: شريعة Šarīʿah) touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, encompassing everything from dietary laws and banking to warfare, welfare, and Jihad. Almost all Muslims belong to one of two major denominations, the Sunni (87-90%) and Shi'a (10-13%). Islam is the predominant religion in much of Africa, the Middle East and major parts of Asia. Large communities are also found in China, Russia and the Caribbean. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world. With 1.57 billion Muslims (see Islam by country), Islam is the second-largest religion in the world and arguably the fastest growing religion in the world.

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Byzantine–Ottoman Wars
The Byzantine-Ottoman Wars were a series of decisive conflicts between the Ottoman Turks and the Byzantine Greeks that led to the final destruction of the Byzantine Empire and the rise of the Ottoman Empire. After the loss of Constantinople in 1204 the Byzantine Empire was left divided and in chaos; taking advantage of the situation the Sultanate of Rum began seizing territory in Western Asia Minor until the Nicaean Empire was able to repulse the Seljuk Turks against the remaining territories still under Greek rule. Eventually Constantinople was re-taken from the hated Latin Empire in 1261 by the Nicaean Empire. However the position of the Byzantine Empire in the European continent remained uncertain due to the presence of the rival kingdoms of the Despotate of Epirus, Serbia and the Second Bulgarian Empire. This, combined with the reduced power of the Sultanate of Rum (Byzantium's chief rival in Asia) led to the removal of troops from Asia Minor to maintain Byzantium's grip on Thrace. However the weakening of the Sultanate of Rum was by no means a blessing to the Empire as fanatical ghazis began setting up their fiefdoms, at the expense of the Byzantine Empire. Whilst many Turkic Beys participated in the conquest of Byzantine and Seljuk territory, the territories under the control of the Bey Osman I poses the greatest threat to Nicaea and to Constantinople. By 1299, Osman I felt assured of his position to declare himself Sultan and there after his territories became known as the Ottoman Empire. Within 50 years of Osman I's establishment of the Ottoman beylik, Byzantine Asia Minor had ceased to exist and by ca. 1380, Byzantine Thrace was lost to the Ottomans. By ca. 1400, the once mighty Byzantine Empire was nothing more than a collection of the Despotate of Morea, a few Aegean islands and a strip of land in Thrace in the immediate vicinity of the Capital. The Crusade of Nicopolis in 1396, Timur's invasion in 1402 and the final Crusade of Varna in 1444 allowed a ruined Constantinople to stave off defeat until 1453. With the conclusion of the war Ottoman supremacy became established in the eastern Mediterranean.

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Mohammed Alim Khan, Emir of Bukhara, 1911
Credit: Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii

An early colour photograph of the Emir of Bukhara, Mohammed Alim Khan, in 1911, taken by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii as part of his work to document the Russian Empire from 1909 to 1915. Alim Khan, a direct descendant of Genghis Khan, was the last emir of the Manghit dynasty. He reigned from 1911 to 1920, fleeing to Afghanistan when the Bolsheviks annexed Bukhara and proclaimed the Bukharan People's Republic.

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Wikinews Islam portal
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Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham (965 in Basra - c. 1039 in Cairo), was a Persian polymath. He made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the scientific method. He is sometimes called al-Basri (Arabic: البصري), after his birthplace in the city of Basra. He was also nicknamed Ptolemaeus Secundus ("Ptolemy the Second") or simply "The Physicist" in medieval Europe. Born circa 965, in Basra, part of present-day Iraq and part of Buyid Persia at that time, he lived mainly in Cairo, Egypt, dying there at age 76. Over-confident about practical application of his mathematical knowledge, he assumed that he could regulate the floods of the Nile. After being ordered by Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the sixth ruler of the Fatimid caliphate, to carry out this operation, he quickly perceived the impossibility of what he was attempting to do, and retired from engineering. Fearing for his life, he feigned madness and was placed under house arrest, during and after which he devoted himself to his scientific work until his death.

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Syria

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Parent project

Religion

WikiProjects
Main project

Islam

Task forces

Shi'a IslamSunni IslamQuranic IslamHadithProphetsSalafMuslim scholarsIslam and ControversyMuslim historyMosquesLinks Cleanup

Related task forces

Early Muslim military history task force

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Abdullah of Saudi Arabia
Fanaticism and extremism cannot grow on an earth whose soil is embedded in the spirit of tolerance, moderation, and balance. Good governance can eliminate injustice, destitution and poverty.

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Islam (book)

Beliefs and practices: Oneness of GodProfession of FaithPrayerFastingPilgrimageCharity

Islam topics

Major figures: MuhammadAbu BakrUmarUthmanAliCompanions of MuhammadHousehold of MuhammadProphets of IslamShia Imams

Texts & Laws: Qur'anHadithShariaJurisprudenceTheologyBiographies of Muhammad

Branches of Islam: SunniShi'aSufiIbadiQuranism

Sociopolitical aspects: AcademicsPhilosophyArtScienceArchitectureCalendarHolidaysWomen in IslamLeadersPoliticsIslamic PeaceJihadLiberalismInternational Freedom AllianceIslamophobia


See also: Vocabulary of Islam, Index of articles on Islam

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