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Islam (Arabic: الإسلام‎‎ al-’islām, pronounced [ʔislæːm] is the religion articulated by the Qur’an, a book considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of the single incomparable God (Arabic: الله‎‎, Allāh), and by the Islamic prophet Muhammad's demonstrations and real-life examples (called the Sunnah, collected through narration of his companions in collections of Hadith). The word Islam, a triliteral of the word salaam, is a homograph, having multiple meanings, including peace and surrender (to God). Adherents are known as Muslims, which is the active participle of the verb of which Islām is the infinitive. Muslims regard their religion as the completed and universal version of a monotheistic faith revealed at many times and places before, including, notably, to the prophets Abraham, Moses and Jesus. Islamic tradition holds that previous messages and revelations have been changed and distorted over time. Religious practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are five duties that unite Muslims into a community. Islamic law (Arabic: شريعة Šarīʿah) touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, encompassing everything from dietary laws and banking to warfare, welfare, and Jihad. Almost all Muslims belong to one of two major denominations, the Sunni (87-90%) and Shi'a (10-13%). Islam is the predominant religion in much of Africa, the Middle East and major parts of Asia. Large communities are also found in China, Russia and the Caribbean. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world. With 1.57 billion Muslims (see Islam by country), Islam is the second-largest religion in the world and arguably the fastest growing religion in the world.

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A MSPaint impression of the splitting of moon by Muhammad based on Islamic traditions
The splitting of the moon (Arabic: انشقاق القمر‎‎) is a miracle done by the prophet Muhammad in Islamic tradition. The incident is mentioned in many early Muslim traditions as the context of revelation (asbāb an-nuzūl) for the Qur'anic verse 54:1-2 and virtually all Muslim commentators accept the historicity of the miracle. These early traditions are transmitted on the authority of companions of Muhammad such as Ibn Abbas, Anas bin Malik, Abdullah bin Masud and others. According to the Indian Muslim scholar Yusuf Ali, the moon might split again when the day of judgment approaches. He says that the verse may also have an allegorical meaning, i.e. the matter has become clear as the moon. The Qur'anic verse 54:1-2 was part of the debate between medieval Muslim theologians and Muslim philosophers over the issue of the inviolability of heavenly bodies. Philosophers held that the heavenly bodies could not be pierced because unlike the terrestrial matter, they were not composed of the four fundamental elements of earth, air, fire, and water. Some other rationalistic Muslim thinkers had difficulties accepting any preternatural event, and sometimes argued that only an appearance of the split of the moon had happened.

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Saddam Hussein
Credit: US Department of Defense (edited by Jjron)

Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (April 28, 1937 – December 30, 2006) was the President of Iraq from July 16, 1979 until April 9, 2003.

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Site traditionally described as the tomb of Ezra at Al Uzayr near Basra
Ezra is a biblical priest who is usually believed by Muslim commentators to be the figure mentioned in the Qur'anic verse 9:30 and worshiped by Jews as "the son of God". Although not explicitly mentioned in Quran among the prophets, Ezra is considered as one of the prophets by some Muslim scholars, based on Islamic traditions. Ezra lived between the times of King Solomon and the time of Zachariah, father of John the Baptist. On the other hand, Muslim scholars such as Mutahhar al-Maqdisi and Djuwayni and notably Ibn Hazm and al-Samaw'al accused Ezra (or one of his disciples) of falsification of the Scriptures. The claim that of the Quran, that the Jews believed Ezra was the son of God, has never collaborated with any evidence. In fact, the Book of Ezra, which dates more than thousand years before the Quran explicitly says Ezra is the son of Seraiah. Many scholars believe Muhammad made this assertion so as to claim clean monotheism for the Muslims alone, in his day. Because of lack of evidence of any Jewish community believing Uzair (Ezra) was the son of God, this verse has caused major controversy in Islam.

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Huseyn Khan Nakhchivanski


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Shi'a IslamSunni IslamQuranic IslamHadithProphetsSalafMuslim scholarsIslam and ControversyMuslim historyMosquesLinks Cleanup

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Islam (book)

Beliefs and practices: Oneness of GodProfession of FaithPrayerFastingPilgrimageCharity

Islam topics

Major figures: MuhammadAbu BakrUmarUthmanAliCompanions of MuhammadHousehold of MuhammadProphets of IslamShia Imams

Texts & Laws: Qur'anHadithShariaJurisprudenceTheologyBiographies of Muhammad

Branches of Islam: SunniShi'aSufiIbadiQuranism

Sociopolitical aspects: AcademicsPhilosophyArtScienceArchitectureCalendarHolidaysWomen in IslamLeadersPoliticsIslamic PeaceJihadLiberalismInternational Freedom AllianceIslamophobia

See also: Vocabulary of Islam, Index of articles on Islam



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