Massachusetts i, officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. It is the 7th smallest, but the 14th most populous and the 3rd most densely populated of the 50 United States, and has the United States' sixth highest GDP per capita.
Massachusetts has played a significant historical, cultural, and commercial role in American history. Plymouth was the site of the colony founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims. Harvard University, founded in 1636, is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. The Protestant First Great Awakening originated from the pulpit of Northampton, Massachusetts preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution. In 1786, a populist revolt led directly to the Constitutional Convention. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the temperance, transcendentalist, and abolitionist movements. In the late 19th century, basketball and volleyball were invented in Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U.S. state to legally recognize same-sex marriage.
Originally dependent on fishing, agriculture, and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts' economy shifted from manufacturing to services. In the 21st century, Massachusetts is a leader in higher education, health care technology, high technology, and financial services.
The 2004 World Series
was the Major League Baseball
(MLB) championship series for the 2004 season. It was the 100th World Series
and featured the American League
(AL) champions, the Boston Red Sox
, against the National League
(NL) champions, the St. Louis Cardinals
. The Red Sox defeated the Cardinals four games to none in the best-of-seven series, played at Fenway Park
and Busch Memorial Stadium
. The series was played between October 23 and October 27, 2004, broadcast on Fox
, and watched by an average of just under 25 and a half million viewers.
The Red Sox won the American League wild card to earn their berth. They then defeated the Anaheim Angels in the American League Division Series and the New York Yankees in the Championship Series (ALCS), to advance to their first World Series since 1986. The Red Sox won the World Series for the first time since 1918, which ended the "Curse of the Bambino," a curse that was supposed to have been inflicted on the team when Babe Ruth was sold to the Yankees in 1919. With the New England Patriots winning Super Bowl XXXVIII, the event made Boston the first city to have Super Bowl and MLB World Championships in the same year since Pittsburgh in 1979. Manny Ramírez was named the series' Most Valuable Player (MVP).
The day after the Red Sox win, The Boston Globe doubled its daily press run, from 500,000 to 1.2 million copies, with the headline, "YES!!!" right across the front page. The Red Sox held their World Series victory parade on the following Saturday, October 30. The team was transported around on 17 amphibious vehicles equipped with loudspeakers so the players could talk to the spectators. Due to large interest in the parade, it was lengthened by officials the day before to include the Charles River, so that fans could watch from Boston and Cambridge river banks.
Thomas Jerome Hudner, Jr.
is a retired officer
of the United States Navy
and a former naval aviator
. He rose to the rank of captain
, and received the Medal of Honor
for his actions in trying to save the life of his wingman
, Ensign Jesse L. Brown
, during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir
in the Korean War
. Born in Fall River, Massachusetts
, Hudner attended Phillips Academy
and the United States Naval Academy
. Initially uninterested in aviation, he eventually took up flying and joined Fighter Squadron 32
, flying the F4U Corsair
at the outbreak of the Korean War. Arriving near Korea in October 1950, he flew support missions from the USS Leyte
. Following the incident for which Hudner was awarded the Medal of Honor, Hudner held positions aboard several U.S. Navy ships and with a number of aviation units, including a brief stint as Executive Officer
of the USS Kitty Hawk
during a brief tour in the Vietnam War
, before retiring in 1973. In subsequent years, he has worked for various veterans organizations in the United States. He is currently living in retirement in Concord, Massachusetts
. The Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyer USS Thomas Hudner
will be named for him.
is a city in Middlesex County
, Massachusetts, and one of its two county seats
. It the fourth largest city in the state
Founded in the 1820s as a planned manufacturing center for textiles, Lowell is located along the rapids of the Merrimack River, 25 miles northwest of Boston in what was once the farming community of East Chelmsford, Massachusetts. The so-called Boston Associates named the new mill town after their leader, Francis Cabot Lowell. As Lowell's population grew, it acquired more land from neighboring towns, and diversified into a full-fledged urban center. In 1860, there were more cotton spindles in Lowell than in all eleven states combined that would form the Confederacy.
The city's manufacturing base declined as many companies began to relocate to the South in the 1920s, causing a period of hard times. The mills were reactivated during World War II to make parachutes, but closed again after the war. In the 1970s, Lowell became part of the Massachusetts Miracle when it became the headquarters of Wang Laboratories.