refers to a set of economic systems in which the means of production and distribution are under social ownership
, management within economic institutions is based on collective decision-making or worker self-management, and the economy is primarily geared toward production for use
. It also refers to a broad array of ideologies
and political movements
which have the goal of achieving this type of socio-economic
system. Control of production may be either direct—exercised through popular collectives such as workers' councils
—or indirect—exercised on behalf of the people by the state. As an economic system
, socialism is often characterized by state
, worker, or community ownership of the means of production
, goals which have been attributed to, and claimed by, a number of political parties
throughout history. For Karl Marx
, who helped establish and define the modern socialist movement, socialism would be the socioeconomic system that arises after a proletarian revolution
, in which the means of production are owned co-operatively by the working class so that the surplus product
generated would be used to benefit all of society, and the economy would no longer be structured upon the law of value
Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías
(born 28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was the 56th President of Venezuela
, serving for 14 years
from 1999 until his death in 2013. Following his own political ideology of Bolivarianism
and "Socialism for the 21st Century
", he focused on implementing socialist
reforms in the country as a part of a social project known as the Bolivarian Revolution
, which saw the implementation of a new constitution
, participatory democracy
and the nationalisation of several key industries.
Formerly the leader of the Fifth Republic Movement political party from its foundation in 1997, in 2007 he became the leader of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV). He was elected President four times: in 1998, 2000, 2006 and finally—one year before his death—in 2012.
A firm anti-imperialist and vocal critic of neoliberalism and capitalism more generally, Chávez was a prominent opponent of United States foreign policy. Allying himself strongly with the socialist governments of Fidel and then Raúl Castro in Cuba, Evo Morales in Bolivia, Rafael Correa in Ecuador and Daniel Ortega in Nicaragua, his presidency was seen in the Western world as a part of the so-called socialist "pink tide" sweeping Latin America. Chávez supported Latin American and Caribbean cooperation and was instrumental in setting up the pan-regional Union of South American Nations, the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas, the Bank of the South, and the regional television network TeleSur. A highly controversial and divisive figure both at home and abroad, his political influence in Latin America led Time magazine to include him among their list of the world's 100 most influential people in both 2005 and 2006.
He died in Caracas on 5 March 2013 at the age of 58.
In this conflict it is not merely a question of the national secular State in opposition to the universal ecclesiastical State; wherever we meet universalism there anti-nationalism and anti-individualism are its necessary correlatives. Nor does it need to be conscious universalism, it is sufficient that an idea aims at something absolute, something limitless. Thus, for example, all consistently reasoned Socialism leads to the absolute State. To call Socialists point-blank “a party dangerous to the State,“ as is usually done, is only to give rise to one of those confusions of which our age is so fond. Certainly Socialism signifies a danger to the individual national States, as it does, on the whole, to the principle of individualism, but it is no danger to the idea of the State. It honestly admits its internationalism; its character is revealed, however, not in disintegration, but in a wonderfully developed organisation, copied, as it were, from a machine. In both points it betrays its affinity to Rome. In fact, it represents the same Catholic idea as the Church, although it grasps it by the other end. For that reason, too, there is no room in its system for individual freedom and diversity, for personal originality.
Ce qui lie tous les socialistes, c'est la haine de la liberté, ... as Flaubert says. * He who tears down the outward barriers, puts up inner ones. Socialism is imperialism in disguise; it will hardly be realisable without hierarchy and Primacy; in the Catholic Church it finds a pattern of socialistic, anti-individualistic organisation.
|— Houston Stewart Chamberlain, "The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century", 1911
- Anarchism, Communism, Democratic socialism, Eco-socialism, Guild socialism, Libertarian socialism, Social democracy, Syndicalism, Melanesian socialism, Utopian socialism, Socialism with Chinese characteristics
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