Portal:Submarine

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A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation below the surface of the water. It differs from a submersible, which has only limited underwater capability. The term submarine most commonly refers to large crewed autonomous vessels; however, historically or more casually, submarine can also refer to medium sized or smaller vessels (midget submarines, wet subs), remotely operated vehicles or robots. The word submarine was originally an adjective meaning "under the sea", and so consequently other uses such as "submarine engineering" or "submarine cable" may not actually refer to submarines at all. Submarine was shortened from the term "submarine boat", and is often further shortened to "sub".

Submarines are referred to as "boats" rather than as "ships", regardless of their size. The English term U-boat for a German submarine comes from the German word for submarine, U-Boot, itself an abbreviation for Unterseeboot ("undersea boat").

Submarine history goes back far before the 19th century, in the form of some experimental boats, submarine design began to gear up during the 19th century. Submarines were first widely used in World War I, and feature in many large navies. Uses in submarine warfare range from attacking enemy ships or submarines, aircraft carrier protection, blockade running, ballistic missile submarines as part of a nuclear strike force, reconnaissance, conventional land attack (for example using a cruise missile), and covert insertion of special forces. Civilian uses for submarines include marine science, salvage, exploration and facility inspection/maintenance. Submarines can also be specialized to a function such as search and rescue, or undersea cable repair. Submarines are also used in tourism and for academic research.

Submarines have one of the largest ranges of capabilities in any vessel, ranging from small autonomous examples to one or two-person vessels operating for a few hours, to vessels which can remain submerged for 6 months such as the Russian Typhoon class. Submarines can work at greater depths than are survivable or practical for human divers. Modern deep diving submarines are derived from the bathyscaphe, which in turn was an evolution of the diving bell.

Most large submarines comprise a cylindrical body with hemispherical (and/or conical) ends and a vertical structure, usually located amidships, which houses communications and sensing devices as well as periscopes. In modern submarines this structure is the "sail" in American usage, and "fin" in European usage. A "conning tower" was a feature of earlier designs: a separate pressure hull above the main body of the boat that allowed the use of shorter periscopes. There is a propeller (or pump jet) at the rear and various hydrodynamic control fins as well as ballast tanks. Smaller, deep diving and specialty submarines may deviate significantly from this traditional layout.

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Selected article

USS Simon Bolivar (SSBN-641) was a nuclear powered Benjamin Franklin class fleet ballistic missile submarine of the United States Navy.

Simon Bolivar's keel was laid down on 17 April 1963 by the Newport News Shipbuilding of Newport News, Virginia. She was launched on 22 August 1964, and commissioned on 29 October 1965.

In April 1966 Simon Bolivar got underway and went to alert status for the first of more than 70 strategic deterrent patrols spanning four decades and three major submarine launched ballistic missile weapons systems (Polaris, Poseidon, Trident).

SSBN 641 outbound for strategic deterrent patrol

During Simon Bolivar's commissioned period she operated in the Atlantic and Mediterranean from three sites: Holy Loch, Scotland; Rota, Spain; and the continental United States, mainly Charleston, South Carolina. Refit sites consisted of a submarine tender, floating dry dock and complexes of piers and warehouses. At the Scotland site, the entire refit site was anchored out in Holy Loch.

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SSBN's and submarine tender at refit site

Selected biography

B. (1913-10-15)October 15, 1913 – d. May 14, 1945(1945-05-14) (aged 31)

Captain Wolfgang August Eugen Lüth (15 October 1913 – 14 May 1945) was the second most successful German U-boat ace of World War II. His career record of 46 merchant ships plus the French submarine Doris sunk during 15 war patrols, with a total displacement of 230,781 gross register tons (GRT), was second only to that of Korvettenkapitän Otto Kretschmer, whose 47 sinkings totaled 272,958 GRT.

Lüth joined the Reichsmarine in 1933. After a period of training on surface vessels he transferred to the U-boat service in 1936. In December 1939 he received command of U-9, which he took on six war-patrols. In June 1940 he took command of U-138 for two patrols. In October 1940 he transferred again, this time to the ocean-going U-43 submarine for five war-patrols. After two war-patrols on U-181, the second being his longest of the war, he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords, and Diamonds (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub, Schwertern und Brillanten). He was the first of two U-boat commanders to be honored in such a way during World War II, the other recipient being Albrecht Brandi.

Lüth's last service position was commander of the Naval Academy Mürwik at Flensburg-Mürwik. He was accidentally shot and killed by a German sentry on the night of 13 to 14 May 1945. Lüth was given the last state funeral of the Third Reich, the only U-boat commander to be so honored.

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Selected picture

A November class submarine.
Credit: Pliskin (talkcontribs) on Wikimedia Commons

The Project 627 (Russian - проект 627 "Кит" (Whale), NATO - November) class submarine was the Soviet Union's first class of nuclear-powered submarines.

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War World War II World War I
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Featured portals

None at present

Featured articles

Ehime Maru and USS Greeneville collisionNyon ConferenceSM U-66

Featured lists

List of Ohio class submarines

A-Class articles

SM U-14 (Austria-Hungary)SM UB-10SM UB-14SM UB-16SM UB-43SM UB-45USS Triton (SSRN-586)

Good topics

German Type IXA submarinesGerman Type U 66 submarinesGerman Type UB I submarinesU-20 class submarinesU-27 class submarines (Austria-Hungary)U-3 class submarinesU-43 class submarines (Austria-Hungary)U-5 class submarines

Good articles

British B class submarineGerman submarine U-104 (1940)German submarine U-105 (1940)German submarine U-111 (1940)German submarine U-162 (1941)German submarine U-2336German submarine U-255German submarine U-27 (1936)German submarine U-28 (1936)German submarine U-30 (1936)German submarine U-36 (1936)German submarine U-37 (1938)German submarine U-38 (1938)German submarine U-39 (1938)German submarine U-40 (1938)German submarine U-41 (1939)German submarine U-42 (1939)German submarine U-43 (1939)German submarine U-47 (1938)German submarine U-64 (1939)German submarine U-853German Type IXA submarineGerman Type UB I submarineGerman U-boat bases in occupied NorwayHMS Phoenix (N96)HMS Trump (P333)HMS X1Russian submarine B-585 Saint PetersburgRussian submarine K-114 TulaSM U-27 (Austria-Hungary)SM U-28 (Austria-Hungary)SM U-30 (Austria-Hungary)SM U-31 (Austria-Hungary)SM U-32 (Austria-Hungary)SM U-40 (Austria-Hungary)SM U-41 (Austria-Hungary)SM UB-11SM UB-12SM UB-13SM UB-17SM UB-2SM UB-3SM UB-4SM UB-42SM UB-44SM UB-47SM UB-50SM UB-6SM UB-7SM UB-8SM UB-9Turtle (submersible) Template:/box-footer

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