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Cyclone Catarina from the ISS on March 26 2004.JPG

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Weather is an all-encompassing term used to describe all of the many and varied phenomena that occur in the atmosphere of a planet at a given time. The term usually refers to the activity of these phenomena over short periods of hours or days, as opposed to the term climate, which refers to the average atmospheric conditions over longer periods of time. When used without qualification, "weather" is understood to be the weather of Earth.

Weather most often results from temperature differences from one place to another, caused by the Sun heating areas near the equator more than the poles, or by different areas of the Earth absorbing varying amounts of heat, due to differences in albedo, moisture, and cloud cover. Surface temperature differences in turn cause pressure differences. A hot surface heats the air above it and the air expands, lowering the air pressure. The resulting pressure gradient accelerates the air from high to low pressure, creating wind, and Earth's rotation causes curvature of the flow via the Coriolis effect. These simple systems can interact, producing more complex systems, and thus other weather phenomena.

The strong temperature contrast between polar and tropical air gives rise to the jet stream. Most weather phenomena in the mid-latitudes are caused by instabilities of the jet stream flow (see baroclinity) or by weather fronts. Weather systems in the tropics are caused by different processes, such as monsoons or organized thunderstorm systems.

Because the Earth's axis is tilted relative to its orbital plane, sunlight is incident at different angles at different times of the year. In June the Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the sun, while in December it is tilted away, causing yearly changes in the weather known as seasons. In the mid-latitudes, winter weather often includes snow and sleet, while in both the mid-latitudes and most of the tropics, tropical cyclones form in the summer and autumn. Almost all weather phenomena can occur year-round on different parts of the planet, including snow, rain, lightning, and, more rarely, hail and tornadoes.

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Anvil shaped cumulus panorama edit crop.jpg

A cumulonimbus cloud near Swifts Creek, Victoria, Australia. Cumulonimbus are so named because they combine the characteristics of cumulus clouds (puffy in nature) and nimbus clouds (causing precipitation). They are typically around 30,000-50,000 ft (10,000-15,000 m) in height, and commonly produce precipitation and lightning. Cumulonimbus clouds occasionally become severe thunderstorms, and, if rotation is present in the atmosphere, can become supercells, producing high winds, heavy rain, hail, and rarely tornadoes. Fortunately, this only happens in a small fraction of cases; most cumulonimbus produce innocuous showers or thundershowers.

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Hurricane Mitch 1998 oct 26 2028Z.jpg
Hurricane Mitch was one of the deadliest and most powerful hurricanes on record in the Atlantic basin, with maximum sustained winds of 180 mph (285 km/h). At the time, Hurricane Mitch was the strongest Atlantic hurricane observed in the month of October, though it has since been surpassed by Hurricane Wilma of the 2005 season. Hurricane Mitch dropped historic amounts of rainfall in Honduras and Nicaragua, with unofficial reports of up to 75 inches (1900 mm). Deaths due to catastrophic flooding made it the second deadliest Atlantic hurricane in history; nearly 11,000 people were killed with over 8,000 left missing by the end of 1998. The flooding caused extreme damage, estimated at over $5 billion (1998 USD, $6.5 billion 2008 USD)...

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...that Hurricane Debbie is the only known tropical cyclone ever to strike Ireland?

...that the Tempest Prognosticator, one of the earliest attempts at a weather prediction device, employed live leeches in its operation?

...that eyewall replacement cycles are among the biggest challenges in forecasting tropical cyclone intensity?

...that the Braer Storm of January 1993 is the strongest extratropical cyclone ever recorded in the north Atlantic Ocean?

...that in medieval lore, Tempestarii are magicians with the power to control the weather?

...that the omega equation is essential to numerical weather prediction?

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March 19

1956: A severe nor'easter struck the Northeastern United States, leaving drifts of snow more than 10 feet (3.0 m) high in some areas.

March 20

2006: Cyclone Larry made landfall near Innisfail, Queensland, resulting in almost $1 billion (USD) in damage.

March 21

1952: A tornado outbreak killed more than 200 people in the Southern United States.

March 22

1999: Cyclone Vance made landfall near Exmouth, Western Australia, where an Australian-record wind gust of 267 kilometers per hour (166 mph) was recorded.

March 23: World Meteorological Day

1913: A tornado struck the city of Omaha, Nebraska on Easter Sunday, killing more than 100 people.

March 24

Portal:Weather/On this day list/March 24/0

March 25

1948: A second tornado in six days struck Tinker Air Force Base, after the first official tornado prediction ever issued.

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Edward Norton Lorenz (May 23, 1917 – April 16, 2008) was an American mathematician and meteorologist, and a pioneer of chaos theory. He discovered the strange attractor notion and coined the term butterfly effect. Lorenz was born in West Hartford, Connecticut. He studied mathematics at both Dartmouth College in New Hampshire and Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. During World War II, he served as a weather forecaster for the United States Army Air Corps. After his return from the war, he decided to study meteorology. Lorenz earned two degrees in the area from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he later was a professor for many years.

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Mammatus cloud

Rolling thunder cloud

Gafilo 2004-03-06 0655Z.jpg
Cyclone Gafilo

Mammatus cloud

Farmer walking in dust storm Cimarron County Oklahoma2.jpg
Dust Bowl

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Template:/box-header Weather: Meteorology | Atmosphere | Basic meteorological concepts and phenomena | Climate | Clouds | Cyclones | Floods | Precipitation| Seasons | Severe weather and convection | Snow | Storms | Tornadoes | Tropical cyclones | Weather events | Weather lore | Weather hazards | Weather modification | Weather prediction | Weather warnings and advisories| Winds Template:/box-footer

Template:/box-header WikiProject Meteorology is a collaborative effort by dozens of Wikipedians to improve the quality of meteorology- and weather-related articles. If you would like to help, visit the project talk page, and see what needs doing.

WikiProject Severe weather is a similar project specific to articles about severe weather. Their talk page is located here.

WikiProject Tropical cyclones is a daughter project of WikiProject meteorology. The dozens of semi-active members and several full-time members focus on improving Wikipdia's coverage of tropical cyclones.

WikiProject Non-tropical storms is a collaborative project to improve articles related to winter storms, wind storms, and extratropical weather.

Wikipedia is a fully collaborative effort by volunteers. So if you see something you think you can improve, be bold and get to editing! We appreciate any help you can provide! Template:/box-footer


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