World War I (abbreviated WWI), also known as the First World War, the Great War and The War to End War was a global military conflict that took place mostly in Europe between 1914 and 1918. The main combatants were the Allied Powers, led by France, the Russian Empire, the British Empire, Serbia, Belgium, and later Italy, Romania and the United States, who fought against the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, the German Empire, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire (present day Turkey).
Much of the fighting in World War I took place along the Western Front, within a system of opposing manned trenches and fortifications (separated by a "no man's land") running from the North Sea to the border of Switzerland. On the Eastern Front, the vast eastern plains and limited rail network prevented a trench warfare stalemate from developing, although the scale of the conflict was just as large. Hostilities also occurred on and under the sea and — for the first time — in the air. More than nine million soldiers died on the various battlefields, and millions more civilians perished.
The war caused the disintegration of four empires: the Austro-Hungarian, German, Ottoman, and Russian. Germany lost its overseas empire, and states such as Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia were created, or recreated, as in the cases of Lithuania and Poland. This contributed to a decisive break with the world order that had emerged after the Napoleonic Wars, which was modified by the mid-19th century’s nationalistic revolutions. The results of World War I would also be important factors in the development of World War II just over two decades later. Template:/box-footer
The Lewis Gun is a pre-World War I era squad automatic weapon/machine gun of American design that was most widely used by the forces of the British Empire. It first saw combat with the Belgian Army in World War I, and continued in service all the way through to World War II. It is visually distinctive because of a wide tubular cooling shroud around the barrel and top mounted pan magazines. The British quickly claimed it as their own, adopting it in late 1915 (much like their invention of the Peabody-Martini-Henry rifle). Each Lewis Gun required a team of two gunners, one to fire and one to carry ammunition and reload, and the whole rifle squad was trained to fire it in case the gunners were incapacitated.
"We will support Britain to the last man and the last shilling."
- — Andrew Fisher, August 1914
(December 5, 1861–February 29, 1928) was an Italian
general and a Marshal of Italy
. On the outbreak of the World War I
, he was assigned to the high command as head of the unit's operations under General Luigi Cadorna
. He was promoted to 2-star general
in June, 1916
, and assumed the command of the 49th division and then the 23rd army corps. The Battle of Caporetto
, in October 1917
, was disastrous to the army, and on November 8, 1917, he was called to succeed Cadorna as chief of general staff. Recovered what remained of the army, he organized the resistance on Mount Grappa
and at the Battle of the Piave River
. In 1918
he led the Italian troops in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto
, and in his famous bollettino della Vittoria
(Victory Address) he communicated the rout of the Austrian army and success of the Italians.
- ...that the Lake Tanganyika passenger ferry MV Liemba began its life as a German warship in World War I, spent eight years on the bottom of the lake, and later portrayed the Empress Luisa in the film The African Queen?