President of Mongolia

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President of Mongolia
State emblem of Mongolia.svg
State Emblem of Mongolia
Tsakhiagiin Elbegdor.jpg
Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj

since 18 June 2009
Term length Four years, renewable once
Inaugural holder Punsalmaagiin Ochirbat
Formation 3 September 1992
State emblem of Mongolia.svg
This article is part of a series on the
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Foreign relations

The President of Mongolia (Mongolian: Монгол Улсын Ерөнхийлөгч, Mongol Ulsyn Yerönkhiilögch) is the head of state of Mongolia.[1] The Constitution of Mongolia implements a parliamentary system, so while he or she does wield significant political power, much of the President's role is ceremonial.

Current President Elbegdorj

1988: Early democracy

In 1988, Mr. Elbegdorj helped organize the first non-communist democratic political movement to create the Mongolian Democratic Union.[2] Mongolia became a democratic country in 1990 and in 1992 held its first national elections.[3]

1990: Beginning of U.S. relations

Modern relations with the United States started in the early 1990s. Then-U.S. President George H.W. Bush sent his Secretary of State, James A. Baker III, to Mongolia to express support for Mongolia's transition to a democratic government.[2]

President Elbegdorj has been known to quote former U.S. president Ronald Reagan as his inspiration for anti-communism and pro-democracy views.[2]

2011-2012: Modernization and expansion

Strategic international growth

According to the New York Times, U.S. President Barack Obama is interested in expanding relations with Mongolia. President Elbegdorj visited the White House in 2011 and U.S. Vice President Joseph Biden visited Elbedorj in Mongolia.[4]

In September 2012, President Elbegdorj addressed the 67th regular session of the United Nations General Assembly. In his address, he said that his main objective in his goal in transforming Mongolia to a democracy was to create a civil society ruled by law.[5]

Graph compares the GDP growth rate of Monglia and the world at-large. Data provided by the World Bank. Obtained through open-source Google Public Data at

Anti-corruption and economic growth

President Elbegdorj has pushed for decentralizing budget decisions.[6] His agenda has included anti-corruption and economic growth policies, and Mongolia's economy grew by 17 percent in 2011 and 12 percent in 2012.[3]

Under President Elbegdorj, the country is governed by the rule of law and the government imposes strict punishments for corruption, according to Forbes magazine.[5]

2013: Re-election

In 2013, Mongolia held its sixth free presidential election.[3] Elbegdorj was re-elected to a second term, beating wrestler Badmaanyambuu Bat-Erdene.[3]

The World Bank forecasted the country's 2013 economic growth at 12.5 percent.[7]

2014-2024: Fastest-growing economy in the world

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has listed Mongolia as one of the world's five fastest-growing economies and expects Mongolia to be the number one fastest-growing economy in the world over the next decade.[3] Economist expect that Mongolia's economy will grow by over 15 percent in 2014.[8] Mongolia is rich in mining resources equivalent to approximately $2 trillion.[8]

In 2014, the Washington Times called Mongolia "Central Asia's most open democratic state."[2]


The President is elected by the citizens of Mongolia. Political parties with representation in the State Great Khural nominate candidates. The President can be re-elected only one time. The President can be removed from office if two-thirds of the Khural find him guilty of abusing his powers or violating his oath.[9] Before inauguration, however, the President-elect has to renounce the membership of any political party.

Powers of the President

  • Nominating a candidate for the office of Prime Minister, who is then approved or rejected by the State Great Khural (parliament). This is largely a ceremonial responsibility, as the Khural will most likely reject any nominee who is not its own choice – in effect, the Prime Minister is appointed by the Khural.[9]
  • Vetoing the Khural's legislation (can be overridden with a two-thirds majority)[9]
  • Approving judicial appointments[9]
  • Appointing the Chief Judge of the Supreme Court of Mongolia[10]
  • Chairing the national security council[9]
  • Acting as commander in chief of the armed forces.[9]
  • Nominates the Prosecutor General, the official in charge of implementing the laws, who is then approved or rejected by the Khural.[11]


There is debate about who should be considered the first President of Mongolia. The title does not actually date back to before Mongolia's democratisation, but the office itself is seen as extending through Mongolia's period of communist rule. Sometimes, the Bogd Khan (seen as the reincarnations of senior lama) are seen as Mongolia's first "presidents", but more commonly, the title is given to the secular leaders who followed them. Balingiin Tserendorj, who was acting head of state in 1924, is sometimes seen as the first president, but it was not until Navaandorjiin Jadambaa was appointed Chairman of the State Great Khural in November that there was an official leader. Only a day later, the leadership role was reorganized as the Chairman of the Presidium of the State Little Khural (the Little Khural being the executive committee of the Great Khural). Later, the Little Khural was abolished, and its powers were returned to the Great Khural – as such, the title of the president became Chairman of the Presidium of the State Great Khural. This was shortly afterwards changed to Chairman of the Presidium of the People's Great Khural, following a change in nomenclature. Finally, in 1990, the title President of Mongolia was adopted.

List of presidents (since 1992)

             People's Revolutionary Party              Social Democratic Party              Democratic Party

Portrait Name
Elected Term of office Party
1 Ochirbat-Punsalmaa.jpg Punsalmaagiin Ochirbat
Пунсалмаагийн Очирбат
(1942– )
3 September 1990 6 June 1993 People's Revolutionary Party
(1) 1993 6 June 1993 20 June 1997 Social Democratic Party
2 Natsagiin Bagabandi (Cropped).png Natsagiin Bagabandi
Нацагийн Багабанди
(1950– )
1997 20 June 1997 6 June 2001 People's Revolutionary Party
2001 6 June 2001 24 June 2005
3 Nambaryn Enkhbayar 2005.jpg Nambaryn Enkhbayar
Намбарын Энхбаяр
(1958– )
2005 24 June 2005 18 June 2009 People's Revolutionary Party
4 Tsakhiagiin Elbegdor.jpg Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj
Цахиагийн Элбэгдорж
(1963– )
2009 18 June 2009 10 July 2013 Democratic Party
2013 10 July 2013 Incumbent
(Term expires 10 July 2017)

Latest election

e • d Summary of the 26 June 2013 Mongolian presidential election results
Candidate Party Votes %
Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj Democratic Party 622,794 50.89
Badmaanyambuugiin Bat-Erdene Mongolian People's Party 520,380 42.52
Natsagiin Udval Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party 80,563 6.58
Invalid/blank votes 13,688
Total 1,239,784 100
Registered voters/turnout 1,864,273 66.50
Source: Mongolian Electoral Commission

See also

References and external links

  1. Montsame News Agency. Mongolia. 2006, ISBN 99929-0-627-8, p. 42
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Gertz, Bill (3 February 2011). "Mongolian president uses Reagan playbook". The Washington Times. Washington, D.C. Retrieved 5 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Mullany, Gerry (26 June 2013). "Mongolia Re-Elects Leader to Another 4-Year Term". The New York Times. New York, NY. Retrieved 5 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Perlez, Jane (9 July 2012). "From Mongolia, Clinton Takes a Jab at China". The New York Times. New York, NY. Retrieved 5 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. 5.0 5.1 Schoen, Doug (25 September 2012). "Elbegdorj On US Tour". Forbes. New York, NY. Retrieved 5 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. "Elbegdorj scrapes home". The Economist. London, United Kingdom. 29 June 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "Mongolia Economic Update November 2013". The World Bank. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank Group. 6 November 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. 8.0 8.1 Sizemore, Charles (12 January 2014). "Frontier Markets: Investing In Mongolia". Forbes. New York, NY. Retrieved 5 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 Montsame News Agency. Mongolia. 2006, ISBN 99929-0-627-8, p. 43
  10. Montsame News Agency. Mongolia. 2006, Montsame News Agency Foreign Service Office, ISBN 99929-0-627-8, p. 45
  11. Montsame News Agency. Mongolia. 2006, Foreign Service office of Montsame News Agency, ISBN 99929-0-627-8, p. 44