Argentine Primera División

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Primera División
Country Argentina
Confederation CONMEBOL
Founded 1891; 128 years ago (1891)[1][2]
Number of teams 30
Level on pyramid 1
Relegation to Primera B Nacional
Domestic cup(s) Copa Argentina
Supercopa Argentina
Copa Campeonato
International cup(s) Copa Libertadores
Copa Sudamericana
Current champions Boca Juniors
Most championships River Plate (36 titles) [3][4]
Most capped player Hugo Gatti (817)[5][6]
Top goalscorer Arsenio Erico (295)[7]
TV partners
Website Officlal webpage
2016 season

The Primera División (Spanish pronunciation: [pɾiˈmeɾa ðiβiˈsjon]; English: First Division) is a professional football league in Argentina.[8] It is the country's premier football division and is at the top of the Argentine football league system. Contested by thirty clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the Primera B Nacional (second division), with the team placed lowest at the end of the season being relegated. The season runs from February to May.[9]

In 1891 Argentina was the first country outside the United Kingdom to establish a football league. In the early years, only teams from Buenos Aires and Rosario[10] were affiliated to the national association. Teams from other cities would join in later years.

The Primera División turned professional in 1931 when 18 clubs broke away from the amateur leagues to form a professional one. Since then, the season has been contested annually in four different formats and calendars. The league has been under its current format since the 2014 season.

The Argentine championship was ranked in the top 10 as one of the strongest leagues in the world (for the 2001-2012 period) by the International Federation of Football History & Statistics (IFFHS). Argentina placed 7th after Premier League (England), La Liga (Spain), Serie A (Italy), Série A (Brazil), Bundesliga (Germany) and Ligue 1 (France).[11]



The 2016 season is played with 30 teams in two zones of 15 teams, Each team will played 14 times in one round-robin tournament against the other teams in zone and two more times against the rivalty in the "Fecha de Clásicos".

The champion gains a place to play the Supercopa Argentina v. the winner of Copa Argentina.


Relegation is based on an averaging system.[12] At the end of the season, the team with the worst three-year averages is relegated, while the winner of Primera B Nacional championship is promoted to Primera.

Averaging was instituted in 1983, two years after San Lorenzo de Almagro were relegated in 1981. That year, River Plate finished 18th out of 19 teams and would have been relegated under the old system. Racing and Nueva Chicago were the first teams to be relegated on average.[13] Boca Juniors was also struggling at that time and had a dismal 1984 season. These facts have led some to speculate that the averaging system was instituted to minimize the chance of big teams being relegated.

International Competitions

As of 2016, five teams from Argentina are eligible to play the Copa Libertadores. The champion and runner-up of Primera División automatically qualify to play the tournament. The other teams that gain a place are the runner-up of Copa Argentina, the winner of "Liguilla Pre-Libertadores" (a small tournament played by teams placed 3rd. to 6th. in Primera División) and the Argentine representative best placed at Copa Sudamericana.

For Copa Sudamericana, six teams are elegible to play the tournament. Teams placed 7th. to 18th. in Primera División qualify to play the "Liguilla Pre-Sudamericana", where four teams will gain a place for Copa Sudamericana. The Supercopa Argentina champion and the runner-up of Liguilla Pre-Libertadores are also elegible to play the Cup.


Round-robin tournaments (1891–1966)

The Copa Campeonato was the first trophy awarded by the AFA, then abandoned [14] and re-issued from 2013[15] to 2015.

In 1891 the Association Argentine Football League was established by Alex Lamont of St. Andrew's Scots School,[16] being the first football league outside of the British Isles.,[17] being Argentina the first country outside the United Kingdom to establish a football league. The first Primera División matches were played on 12 April 1891: Buenos Aires FC vs. St. Andrew's and Old Caledonians vs. Belgrano FC.[1][2]

A single double round-robin tournament was played each year, and the team with the most points was crowned as champion, except for 1936, during that year the winners of Copa de Honor and the Campeonato played a match for the championship title. The single tournament arrangement lasted until 1966.

During this period, the traditional "big five" clubs, namely, Boca Juniors, River Plate, Independiente, Racing and San Lorenzo dominated Argentine football. No other team besides them had won the league championship in these 36 years.[18][19][20][21] The most serious title challenge came from Banfield in 1951, when they gained the same points with Racing Club in the league table. However, they lost 1–0 in the two-legged first place playoffs and gave the title to Racing.[20]

Metropolitano and Nacional (1967–1985)

In 1967, the single tournament format was abandoned and replaced by two championships in each year: the Metropolitano and the Nacional. The Metropolitano only allowed clubs competing the old tournament to participate, while the Nacional was open to teams from regional tournaments.[21] The format of competition was also altered, with the double round-robin tournament be placed by the two-group championship Metropolitano and single round-robin Nacional in that year.

This change brought about a revolution in Argentine football, as small teams, like Estudiantes de La Plata at first, and Vélez Sarsfield, Chacarita Juniors and others in later years, broke down the hegemony of the five clubs who had won all the championships up to that date.

Between 1967 and 1969, the Metropolitano and Nacional had gone through several format changes. In the first three years, the Metropolitano was a two-group championship, with the best two teams from each group competing the semi-finals of the knock-out stage.[21]

The six best teams of each group would advance to the Nacional, with four more teams coming from regional tournaments, to compete for the Nacional championship in a single round-robin format. The seventh and eighth team of each group, alongside four teams from regional tournaments, played the Promocional tournament, which, in 1969, was replaced by the Petit tournament contested without regional teams. The ninth to twelfth teams of each group entered the Reclasificatorio tournament to determine the relegating teams.[21]

In 1970, the format of the Metropolitano and Nacional underwent a reform. Since that year, and until 1985, the Nacional had become a group tournament with playoffs, while the Metropolitano had been competed under a single or double round-robin system, except for the 1974, 1976 and 1979 edition, which were also contested as a group tournament with playoffs.[13][22]

Despite the format change in 1970, teams still entered the Nacional championship, Petit tournament and Reclasificatorio tournament according to their rankings in the Metropolitano in that year. However, in 1971, the tournaments were separated. Teams did not enter the Nacional by finishing at the top ranks of Metropolitano. On the other hand, the Petit tournament and Reclasificatorio tournament were abandoned. The Metropolitano and Nacional became two truly individual tournaments. Although the old system was reused in 1972, the separation was instituted again in 1973 and was adopted throughout the remaining Metropolitano and Nacional era.

The Metropolitano was always played first, until the order of the tournaments was reversed in 1982.[13]

European-styled seasons (1985–1991)

Following the advice of Argentina national football team's then coach Carlos Salvador Bilardo, the structure of play was modified in 1985. Traditionally, like other countries in Southern Hemisphere, football season began and ended according to the calendar year. However, upon the reform, European style season was adopted for the first time among all the South American countries. Moreover, instead of holding two championships every year, only one double round-robin tournament was contested, like football leagues in Europe. The team topping the table at the end of season was crowned the champion.

In 1985, after the Nacional was played, the Metropolitano was not held, while the new single tournament (1985/86) was played for the first time.

In 1988–89 season, three points were given to match winners. If a draw occurred, penalty shootout was taken place and the winner of the shootout would get two points while the loser still had one. This format was waived in the following season.

Apertura and Clausura (1991–2012)

Five years later, the single championship was split into two single-round tournaments, giving birth to the Apertura and Clausura arrangement. In 1991 the two champions played winner-take-all matches. This practice was very controversial, especially since one of the biggest teams Boca Juniors lost the finals against Newell's Old Boys, costing them their first official championship since 1981 despite an unbeaten run in the Clausura. In 1992 the game was held as well (this time between Newell's Old Boys and River Plate), but regardless of the result (which favored River Plate) both teams were awarded the title of Champion. After 1992, the practice was quickly abandoned, so that two champions (on equal footing) were crowned every season and no deciding game is played.

Originally, two points were given to match winners except the 1989/90 season. In 1995/96, the rule was changed and three points were given for a win, one for a draw and none for a loss since then.

Even though the current structure provides provincial teams a road to promotion, teams from the Buenos Aires-Rosario axis still dominate. Only one team from outside this axis has ever won a title (Estudiantes (LP), 5 times), and a reversal of this trend is unlikely to occur in the foreseeable future.

Inicial and Final (2012–14)

For the 2012–13 season, the Torneo Apertura and Clausura became "Torneo Inicial" and "Torneo Final," being disputed with the same format as before but proclaiming only one champion each season, unlike the last format that had two champions (Apertura and Clausura, respectively).[23]

Before those changes, a controversial project for the 2012–13 season had been proposed: it consisted in a new tournament that would contain both the Primera División and Primera B Nacional teams: the former was not going to have any relegated team in its 2011–12 season and include sixteen teams from the latter, Primera B Nacional. The tournament would also include a team from the Primera B Metropolitana and one from the Torneo Argentino A, creating a thirty-eight team league. These changes were strongly opposed by the media and the people, and finally the tournament was called off. However, the project for the new format was successfully picked up starting from the 2015 season.

Superfinal (2013-14)

Once Inicial and Final tournaments have finished, both winners had to play a match for the Copa Campeonato (familiarly known as Superfinal). The AFA had previously determined that the first edition (played in 2013) would be considered as a Primera División official title (2012-13 season), therefore Vélez Sarsfield awarded its 10th official championship after defeating Newell's.[24]

Nevertheless, from the 2014 edition it was determined that the Superfinal would not be considered as a Primera División title but an official cup.[25]

Due to the 2015 and 2016 seasons were played as single tournaments with only one champion per season, the Copa Campeonato has not held since then.

2014-present: One tournament again

Starting August 2014, the "Torneo de Transición" was held, with 20 teams participating (17 from the 2013–14 season and 3 promoted from the 2013–14 Primera B Nacional). No teams were relegated at the end of the championship.[26]

In 2015 the format switched to a tournament with 30 teams. The first five clubs of the Zonas A y B of 2014 Primera B Nacional season promoted to the Primera División. Those 10 teams, with the addition of the 20 clubs currently participating in the top division, qualified to contest the next season.[27]

That same year, the AFA announced the format for the next five seasons of the Primera División:[28]

  • In the first half of 2016, the league will be contested between thirty teams. Three teams will be relegated to and one team will be promoted from Primera B Nacional.
  • From August 2016 to June 2017, the league will be contested between twenty-eight teams. Four teams will be relegated to and two teams will be promoted from Primera B Nacional.
  • From August 2017 to June 2018, the league will be contested between twenty-six teams. Four teams will be relegated to and two teams will be promoted from Primera B Nacional.
  • From August 2018 to June 2019, the league will be contested between twenty-four teams. Four teams will be relegated to and two teams will be promoted from Primera B Nacional.

Current teams


Since the first championship held in 1891, 27 different clubs have been won the Primera División title at least once. The most successful club is River Plate, with 36 titles.[3][4] Other successful clubs are Boca Juniors with 31, Racing with 17, Independiente with 16 and San Lorenzo with 15.

Top Scorers

The all-time top scorer of Primera División Argentina is Paraguayan forward Arsenio Erico with 295 goals.[7][7] Most players on the all-time top scorers table had their golden age before the 1970s, with all of the top five all-time scorers having retired before 1973. The only player retired after this year in the top twenty list is Martín Palermo, who had played for Estudiantes (LP) and Boca in the Primera División.

Media coverage

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 "Hace 120 años, el fútbol tenía su primer torneo local", Clarín, 12 April 2011
  2. 2.0 2.1 1891 Argentine Primera División at
  3. 3.0 3.1 Campeones de Primera División at AFA website
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Torneo Argentino de Primera División - Títulos por Equipo",
  5. "Biografía: Hugo Orlando Gatti" on AFA website
  6. "Récord en el fútbol argentino: a sus 43, jugará su partido 818 y superará histórica marca de Gatti" on, 5 Nov 2014
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Revista de la AFA, p. 13, Jul 2013
  8. "Argentina Primera Division"
  9. "Así será el torneo de Primera División",, 28 Dec 2015
  10. Argentina - 1ra. División 1894 by José Carluccio, 19 Nov 2008
  11. "The strongest Leagues of the World of the 21st Century", IFFHS, retrieved 2013-08-12
  12. "Promedios: The Argentine relegation system explained"
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 "Final Tables Argentina 1981-1990" at RSSSF
  14. Memoria y Balance 1935 - Argentine Football Association Library
  15. "Una Copa con mucha historia", Diario Uno, 27 June 2013
  16. Historia del Fútbol Amateur en la Argentina, by Jorge Iwanczuk. Published by Autores Editores (1992) – ISBN 9504343848
  17. "Salvation Army", The Guardian, 4 June 2006
  18. "Final Tables Argentina 1931-1940 (Professional)" at RSSSF
  19. "Final Tables Argentina 1941–1950" at RSSSF
  20. 20.0 20.1 "Final Tables Argentina 1951–1960" at RSSSF
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 "Final Tables Argentina 1961-1970" at RSSSF
  22. "Final Tables Argentina 1971-1980" at RSSSF
  23. "AFA: Se aprobaron los cambios en los torneos de fútbol", Radio Continental web, 9 May 2012
  24. "Vélez venció a Newell's y es el Supercampeón", Clarín, 29 Dec 2013
  25. "La AFA homologó la final de River como una copa nacional", Cancha Llena, 28 May 2014
  26. Se sorteó el Fixture del Torneo de Transición, que arrancará en agosto y el 'Súper' en la 10ª
  27. "Confirmado: El próximo torneo será con 30 equipos" on, 11 Nov 2014
  28. "Asociación del Fútbol Argentino Boletín 4978" (PDF) (in Spanish). AFA. Retrieved 14 October 2015. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links