Prince Carl, Duke of Västergötland
Prince Carl of Sweden and Norway, Duke of Västergötland (27 February 1861 in Stockholm – 24 October 1951 in Stockholm), was a Swedish prince. Through his daughters, for whom he arranged excellent dynastic marriages, he is an ancestor of several European royals today, including the monarchs of Norway, Belgium and Luxembourg.
Carl was the third son of King Oscar II of Sweden-Norway by his wife, Sophia of Nassau. He was known as "the Blue Prince" (Blå Prinsen) because he often wore the blue-coloured uniform of the Life Regiment, to which he belonged in a ceremonial manner.
Marriage and children
In May 1897, Prince Carl was engaged to Princess Ingeborg of Denmark, the second daughter of King Frederick VIII of Denmark. Ingeborg's mother, Louise of Sweden, was a first cousin of Prince Carl. Nevertheless, in 1947, on the occasion of their 50th wedding anniversary, Carl admitted that their marriage had been completely arranged by their respective fathers, and Ingeborg herself added : "I married a complete stranger!".
The couple were married on 27 August 1897 at Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen and spent their wedding trip (honeymoon) in Germany. The marriage, arranged by their fathers and completely conventional in every way, was entirely harmonious. The couple were blessed with four children:
Growing up in a conventional and harmonious family, and inculcated with traditional family values in their childhood, Carl's children grew up to be happy and constructive adults, healthy in mind and body. All three daughters, being acquiescent to their parents' wishes, made dynastic marriages as desired and promoted by them, and became the matriarchs of their own successful families. Consequently, as many as four of the couple's grandchildren were to sit upon the thrones of Europe.
Candidate to the Norwegian throne
In 1905, during the political struggle in which Norway obtained its independence from Sweden, Prince Carl was seriously considered as a candidate for the Norwegian crown. It was thought that electing a Swedish prince as king was a less radical way for Norway to secede from the union, and hence a more peaceful approach. Carl was chosen because his eldest brother would inherit the Swedish throne, and his second brother had renounced his royal status to make an unsuitable marriage. However, Carl's father King Oscar II of Sweden did not approve of the proposal, as he saw the whole "riot" which precipitated the Norwegian crisis as a conspiracy and a betrayal against his rights as King of Norway, and he did not want any of his sons to be involved with people who he considered his enemies. Therefore, Prince Carl never became King of Norway. Instead, a Danish prince, Haakon VII, was elected after some diplomatic turbulence. As history turned out however, Prince Carl's daughter, Princess Märtha, married Haakon VII's son, the later King Olav V. The present King Harald V of Norway is hence a grandchild of Prince Carl, Duke of Västergötland.
In 1904, Prince Carl was appointed a Knight of the Norwegian Lion by Oscar II.
Prince Carl has the distinction of being the grandfather of three reigning European monarchs: King Harald V of Norway (son of his daughter, Princess Märtha), the late King Baudouin of the Belgians and his brother, King Albert II of the Belgians (sons of his daughter, Princess Astrid of Sweden). He is also the great-grandfather of King Philippe of the Belgians and Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg.
Titles, styles and arms