Business jet

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The BAe 125/Hawker 800 is the most common business jet[citation needed]

A business jet, private jet, or bizjet, or simply B.J.,[1] is a jet aircraft designed for transporting small groups of people. Business jets may be adapted for other roles, such as the evacuation of casualties or express parcel deliveries, and some are used by public bodies, government officials or the armed forces.

History

The Lockheed JetStar is the earliest Business Jet

The Lockheed JetStar, seating ten passengers and two crew, first flew on 4 September 1957. 204 aircraft were produced from 1957 to 1978, powered by four 3,300 pounds-force (15 kN) Pratt & Whitney JT12 turbojet engines, then Garrett TFE731 turbofan for a 44,500 pounds (20.2 t) MTOW, then two General Electric CF700 turbofans.

The smaller, 17,760 pounds (8.06 t) MTOW North American Sabreliner first flew on 16 September 1958. Powered by two Pratt & Whitney JT12 turbojet engines then Garrett TFE731, more than 800 were produced from 1959 to 1982.

The 25,000 pounds (11 t) MTOW British Aerospace 125 first flew on 13 August 1962, powered by two 3,000 pounds-force (13 kN) Armstrong Siddeley Viper turbojets. Its engine were replaced by Garrett TFE731, then Pratt & Whitney Canada PW300 turbofans. Almost 1,700 aircraft were produced between 1962 and 2013 after being marketed as the Hawker 800.

The 23,500 pounds (10.7 t) MTOW IAI Westwind, developed by Aero Commander, first flew on 27 January 1963, powered by two General Electric CJ610 turbojets, then Garrett TFE731. 442 were built from 1965 to 1987 and it was developed in the IAI Astra, re-branded as the Gulfstream G100.

The 29,000 pounds (13 t) MOTW Dassault Falcon 20 first flew on 4 May 1963, powered by two General Electric CF700, then Garrett ATF3 turbofans and Garrett TFE731. From 1963 to 1988, 508 were built and it is the basis of the Dassault Falcon family.

The first light jet first flew on 7 October 1963 : the Learjet 23. Powered by two 2,850 pounds-force (12.7 kN) General Electric CJ610, its 12,500 pounds (5.7 t) MTOW complies with FAR Part 23 regulations. 104 were built between 1962 and 1966 and it is the first member of the Learjet Family.

On 2 October 1966 the first large business jet first flew, the 65,500 pounds (29.7 t) MTOW Grumman Gulfstream II, powered by two 11,400 pounds-force (51 kN) Rolls-Royce Spey turbofans. From 1967 to the late 70s, 258 were built and it led to the ongoing Gulfstream Aerospace long range family.

The 11,850 pounds (5.38 t) MTOW Cessna Citation I first flew on 15 September 1969, powered by two 2,200 pounds-force (9.8 kN) Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D turbofans. Produced between 1969 and 1985 at 689 samples, it is the first of the Cessna Citation family.

Configuration

Though the early Lockheed Jetstar had four, most production business jets have two jet engines, mostly rear-mounted podded engine. If mounted below their low wing, it wouldn't allow sufficient engine clearance without a too long landing gear. The HondaJet is the exception with its over the wing engine pods.

Dassault Falcon still builds three-engine models derived from the Falcon 50, and the very light jets market has seen the introduction of several single-engine designs such as the Cirrus SF50.

Fleet

There were 17,721 business jets in the worldwide fleet at the end of 2011 with about 70% of the fleet in North America. The European market is the next largest, with growing activity in the Middle East, Asia, and Central America.[2] In 2014 the total airplane billing amounted to just over US$22 billion, and 722 business jets were delivered to customers across the globe.[3] Honeywell predicts 9,450 aircraft to be delivered during 2015-24, and most of these will be large.[4]

Because of their low-volume productions and long lead times, new aircraft orders can take two to three years for delivery. This causes many buyers to consider used aircraft, to attain shorter delivery times; as a result the market for used business jets is significant and active.

A 2010 study by the National Business Aviation Association found that small and midsize companies that use private jets produce a 219% higher earnings growth rate than those that strictly fly commercial.[5]

Operators

There are three basic types of operators who own, manage and operate private jets.[citation needed]

Flight departments

Flight departments are corporate-owned operators who manage the aircraft of a specific company. Ford Motor Company, Chrysler, and Altria are examples of companies that own, maintain and operate their own fleet of private aircraft for their employees. Flight departments handle all aspects of aircraft operation and maintenance. In the United States, flight-department aircraft operate under FAR 91 operating rules.

Charter companies

Charter operators own or manage private jets for multiple clients. Like traditional flight departments, charter companies handle all aspects of aircraft operation and maintenance. However, they are not aligned with just one corporation. They manage aircraft for a private owner or corporation and also handle the sales of available flight time on the aircraft they own or manage. Maintenance services can also be provided which typically include on-site or mobile repair, major and minor routine inspections, troubleshooting assistance away from base, avionics installation and repair, jet engine and battery service, interior modifications and refurbishment, Inspection Authority (IA) qualified inspectors, aircraft planning and budgetary projections, compliance with service bulletins, aircraft storage management, record keeping and management, technical appraisal of private jet purchases, leases and lease terminations, and Part 91 or Part 135 conformity inspections.[6]

In the United States, business aircraft may be operated under either FAR 91 as private operations for the business purposes of the owner, or under FAR 135 as commercial operations for the business purposes of a third party. One common arrangement for operational flexibility purposes is for the aircraft's owner to operate the aircraft under FAR 91 when needed for its own purposes, and to allow a third-party charter-manager to operate it under FAR 135 when the aircraft is needed for the business purposes of third parties (such as for other entities within the corporate group of the aircraft's owner).[7]

Fractional ownership

Since 1996 the term "fractional jet" has been used in connection with business aircraft owned by a consortium of companies. Under such arrangements, overhead costs such as flight crew, hangarage and maintenance are split among the users.

Fractional ownership, often called "time share", involves an individual or corporation who pays an upfront equity share for the cost of an aircraft. If four parties are involved, a partner would pay one-fourth of the aircraft price (a "quarter share"). That partner is now an equity owner in that aircraft and can sell the equity position if necessary. This also entitles the new owner to a certain number of hours of flight time on that aircraft, or any comparable aircraft in the fleet. Additional fees include monthly management fees and incidentals such as catering and ground transportation. In the United States, fractional-ownership operations may be regulated by either FAA part 91 or part 135.

Classes

Business Jets can be categorized according to their size.

Very light jets

The most sold VLJ is the Cessna Citation Mustang
Main article: Very light jets

A focus of development is at the low end of the market with small models, many far cheaper than existing business jets. Many of these fall into the very light jet (VLJ) category and are used by the air taxi industry. Cessna has developed the Mustang, a six-place twinjet (2 crew + 4 passengers) available for US$2.55 million. A number of smaller manufacturers have planned even cheaper jets; the first was the Eclipse 500 from Eclipse Aviation (now Eclipse Aerospace) which was originally available at around US$1.5 million.

Very light jets, also known as Microjets or VLJs, are designed to provide air travel, for example, to the more than 5,000 small community airports in the United States.[citation needed] VLJs are defined in the industry as having a maximum takeoff weight of not more than 10,000 pounds.[8] Aircraft of this class include:

Very light jets, 4 pax mission[13]
Model Price Pax Length Span int. L int. W Engines Thrust MTOW Range Cruise Fuel/nm var./hour[14]
Cirrus SF50 $2.0M 4-6 30.9 ft 38.3 ft 9.8 ft 5.1 ft 1 FJ33 1800 lb 6,000 lb 714 nm 278 kt 1.6 lb $662
Eclipse 500 $3.0M 4-5 33.5 ft 37.9 ft 10.0 ft 4.7 ft 2 PW610 1800 lb 6,000 lb 825 nm 317 kt 1.17 lb $889
Citation Mustang $3.4M 5-5 40.6 ft 43.2 ft 9.8 ft 4.6 ft 2 PW615 2920 lb 8,645 lb 963 nm 301 kt 1.73 lb $1,015
Phenom 100E $4.2M 5-7 42.1 ft 40.4 ft 11.0 ft 5.1 ft 2 PW617 3390 lb 10,582 lb 1,050 nm 324 kt 1.87 lb $1,152
HondaJet[15] $4.5M 5-6 42.6 ft 39.8 ft 12.1 ft 5.0 ft 2 HF120 4100 lb 9,963 lb 1,009 nm 378 kt 1.72 lb $1,135
Cessna Citation M2 $4.5M 7-7 42.6 ft 47.3 ft 11.0 ft 4.8 ft 2 FJ44 3930 lb 10,700 lb 1,174 nm 369 kt 1.99 lb $1,395

Light jets

The Cessna Citation II is the most widespread Light jet

Light jets have been a staple of the business jet industry since the advent of the Learjet 23 in the early 1960s. They provide access to small airports and the speed to be an effective air travel tool. Aircraft of this class include:

Light Jets, 4 pax mission[13]
Model Price Pax Length Span int. L int. W Engines Thrust MTOW Range Cruise Fuel/nm var./hour[14]
Cessna Citation CJ3+ $8.0M 8-9 51.2 ft 53.3 ft 15.7 ft 4.8 ft 2 FJ44 5640 lb 13,870 lb 1,802 nm 377 kt 2.07 lb $1,680
SyberJet SJ30i $8.3M 5-6 46.8 ft 42.3 ft 12.5 ft 4.8 ft 2 FJ44 4600 lb 13,950 lb 2,205 nm 408 kt 1.68 lb $1,608
Phenom 300 $9.0M 7-10 51.2 ft 52.2 ft 17.2 ft 5.1 ft 2 PW535E 6720 lb 17,968 lb 1,903 nm 411 kt 2.34 lb $1,758
Cessna Citation CJ4 $9.0M 8-9 53.3 ft 50.8 ft 17.3 ft 4.8 ft 2 FJ44 7242 lb 17,110 lb 1,927 nm 416 kt 2.55 lb $1,970
Learjet 70 $11.3M 6-7 56.0 ft 50.9 ft 17.7 ft 5.1 ft 2 TFE731 7700 lb 21500 lb 1934 nm 427 kt 2.48 lb $2,166

Mid-size jets

Nearly 1700 BAe 125/Hawker 800 have been built

These aircraft are suitable for longer-range travel such as transcontinental flights and for travel with larger passenger capacity requirements. Aircraft of this class include:

Mid-size jets, 4 pax mission[13]
Model Price Pax Length Span int. L int. W Engines Thrust MTOW Range Cruise Fuel/nm var./hour[14]
Cessna Citation XLS+ $12.8M 9-12 52.5 ft 56.3 ft 18.5 ft 5.7 ft 2 PW545 8238 lb 20200 lb 1719 nm 395 kt 3.01 lb $2,303
Learjet 75 $13.8M 8-9 58.0 ft 50.9 ft 19.8 ft 5.1 ft 2 TFE731 7700 lb 21500 lb 1912 nm 426 kt 2.51 lb $2,172
Citation Latitude $16.3M 9-10 62.3 ft 72.3 ft 21.8 ft 6.4 ft 2 PW300 11814 lb 30800 lb 2658 nm 400 kt 3.59 lb $2,936
Embraer Legacy 450 $16.6M 7-9 64.6 ft 66.4 ft 20.6 ft 6.8 ft 2 HTF7000 12160 lb NA 2575 nm[21] <458 kt NA $2,789

Super mid-size jets

The most widespread super mid-size jet is the Challenger 300

Super mid-size jets feature wide-body cabin space, high-altitude capability, speed, and long range. These jets combine transatlantic capability with the speed and comfort of a wide-body, high-altitude aircraft. Aircraft of this class include:

Super mid-size jets, 4 pax mission[13]
Model Price Pax Length Span int. L int. W Engines Thrust MTOW Range Cruise Fuel/nm var./hour[14]
Citation Sovereign+ $17.9M 9-12 63.5 ft 72.3 ft 25.3 ft 5.7 ft 2 PW300 11814 lb 30775 lb 3063 nm 401 kt 3.16 lb $2,699
Embraer Legacy 500 $20.0M 8-12 68.1 ft 66.4 ft 24.6 ft 6.8 ft 2 HTF7000 14072 lb 37919 lb 3125 nm 433 kt 3.6 lb $3,180
Cessna Citation X+ $23.4M 9-12 73.6 ft 69.2 ft 25.2 ft 5.7 ft 2 AE3007 14068 lb 36600 lb 3370 nm 465 kt 3.31 lb $4,099
Gulfstream G280 $24.5M 10-19 66.8 ft 63.0 ft 25.8 ft 7.2 ft 2 HTF7000 15248 lb 39600 lb 3600 nm 452 kt 3.55 lb $3,163
Challenger 350 $26.7M 9-11 68.7 ft 69.0 ft 25.2 ft 7.2 ft 2 HTF7000 14646 lb 40600 lb 3250 nm 448 kt 3.76 lb $3,152

Large jets

More than 1000 Challenger 600 have been produced
Large Jets, 4 pax mission[13]
Model Price Pax Length Span int. L int. W Engines Thrust MTOW Range Cruise Fuel/nm var./hour[14]
Embraer Legacy 600 $26.0M 13-14 86.4 ft 69.5 ft 42.4 ft 6.9 ft 2 AE3007 15906 lb 49604 lb 3430 nm 406 kt 4.69 lb $3,740
Falcon 2000S/EX $28.4M 10-19 66.3 ft 70.2 ft 26.2 ft 7.7 ft 2 PW300 14000 lb 41000 lb 3540 nm 431 kt 3.6 lb $3,150
Embraer Legacy 650 $31.6M 13-14 86.4 ft 69.5 ft 42.4 ft 6.9 ft 2 AE3007 18040 lb 53572 lb 3919 nm 415 kt 4.7 lb $3,860
Challenger 650 $32.4M 10-19 68.4 ft 64.3 ft 25.6 ft 7.9 ft 2 CF34 18440 lb 48200 lb 4020 nm 419 kt 4.47 lb $3,385
Falcon 2000LXS/EX $33.7M 8-19 66.3 ft 70.2 ft 26.2 ft 7.7 ft 2 PW300 14000 lb 42800 lb 4075 nm 431 kt 3.64 lb $3,090
Gulfstream 450 $41.0M 14-19 89.3 ft 77.8 ft 37.0 ft 7.3 ft 2 Tay engines 27700 lb 74600 lb 4328 nm 452 kt 6.03 lb $4,747
Falcon 900LX/EX $43.3M 12-19 66.3 ft 70.2 ft 33.2 ft 7.7 ft 3 TFE731 15000 lb 49000 lb 4695 nm 420 kt 4.04 lb $3,588
Global 5000 $50.4M 13-19 96.8 ft 94.0 ft 40.7 ft 7.9 ft 2 BR700 29500 lb 92500 lb 5520 nm 463 kt 6.48 lb $5,094
Falcon 7X $53.8M 12-19 76.1 ft 86.0 ft 39.1 ft 7.7 ft 3 PW300 19206 lb 70000 lb 5760 nm 454 kt 5.13 lb $3,850

Including long range jets:

Ultra Long Range Jets, 8 pax mission[13]
Model Price Pax Length Span int. L int. W Engines Thrust MTOW Range Cruise Fuel/nm var./hour[14]
Dassault Falcon 8X $57.5M 12-19 80.3 ft 86.3 ft 42.7 ft 7.7 ft 3 PW300 20166 lb 73,000 lb 6,450 nm 454 kt 5.04 lb $3,804
Gulfstream G550 $61.5M 16-19 96.4 ft 93.5 ft 42.6 ft 7.3 ft 2 BR700 30770 lb 91,000 lb 6,708 nm 453 kt 5.7 lb $4,731
Global 6000 $62.3M 13-19 99.4 ft 94.0 ft 43.3 ft 7.9 ft 2 BR700 29500 lb 99,500 lb 6,147 nm 464 kt 6.74 lb $5,150
Gulfstream G650 $66.6M 16-19 99.8 ft 99.6 ft 46.8 ft 8.5 ft 2 BR700 33800 lb 99,600 lb 6,912 nm 481 kt 5.91 lb $4,843
Gulfstream G650ER $68.7M 16-19 99.8 ft 99.6 ft 46.8 ft 8.5 ft 2 BR700 33800 lb 103,600 lb 7,437 nm 482 kt 6.03 lb $4,848

VIP Airliners

Boeing Business Jets are the most widespread bizliners

Business Airliner can be contracted in Bizliner.[24] Airliners converted into business jets are used by sports teams or VIPs with a large entourage or press corps. Such airplanes can face operational restrictions based on runway length or local noise restrictions. They can be the most expensive type of private jet as they provide the greatest space and capabilities.

Aircraft of this class include:

VIP Airliners, 4/8 pax mission[13]
Model Price Pax Length Span int. L int. W Engines Thrust MTOW Range Cruise Fuel/nm var./hour[14]
Embraer Lineage 1000E $53.0M 13-19 118.9 ft 94.2 ft 84.3 ft 8.8 ft 2 CF34 37000 lb 120152 lb 4602 nm 446 kt 9.61 lb $5,827
BBJ1 737-700 (8 pax) $71.4M 19-149 110.3 ft 117.4 ft 79.2 ft 11.6 ft 2 CFM56 54600 lb 171,000 lb 6,237 nm 442 kt 10.72 lb $6,851
ACJ318 $72.0M 18-132 103.2 ft 111.8 ft 70.2 ft 12.1 ft 2 CFM56 46600 lb 149900 lb 4300 nm 436 kt 10.14 lb $6,573
ACJ319 (8 pax) $87.0M 19-156 111.0 ft 111.8 ft 78.0 ft 12.2 ft 2 CFM56 54000 lb 168,650 lb 6,002 nm 442 kt 10.92 lb $6,926
BBJ2 737-800 $88.8M 19-189 129.5 ft 117.4 ft 98.3 ft 11.6 ft 2 CFM56 54600 lb 174200 lb 5622 nm 444 kt 11.37 lb $7,675
ACJ320 $95.0M 18-179 123.3 ft 111.8 ft 90.3 ft 12.1 ft 2 CFM56 54000 lb 171950 lb 4330 nm 438 kt 11.1 lb $7,965
BBJ3 737-900ER $96.5M 19-215 138.2 ft 117.4 ft 107.2 ft 11.6 ft 2 CFM56 54600 lb 187700 lb 5496 nm 446 kt 12.37 lb $7,396

See also

References

  1. Gunston 1986, p. 65
  2. "2012 Report". Corporate Jet Investor. 
  3. Asp, Maria. "Business Jet Sales taking off". Private Jet and Aviation Magazine. Retrieved 5 May 2015. 
  4. Warwick, Graham. "Large-Cabin Aircraft To Dominate Business Jet Sales" Aviation Week & Space Technology, 30 December 2014. Accessed: 5 January 2015. Archived on 5 January 2015
  5. Glab, Jim. "Flying on Private Jets". Executive Travel Magazine. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  6. "Private Jet Maintenance". Presidential Aviation. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  7. Epstein, Jonathan M. (1 October 2013). "Placing Your Aircraft With An Aircraft Charter-Management Company". Holland & Knight. Retrieved 4 October 2013. 
  8. Global Security, "Very Light Jet"
  9. 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 9.15 9.16 9.17 9.18 9.19 9.20 9.21 9.22 9.23 9.24 9.25 9.26 "Aircraft Guide". Air Partner (charter). 
  10. 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10 10.11 10.12 10.13 10.14 10.15 10.16 10.17 10.18 10.19 10.20 10.21 10.22 10.23 10.24 10.25 10.26 10.27 10.28 "Aircraft Information". Jet Advisors (consulting). 
  11. 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 11.11 11.12 11.13 11.14 11.15 11.16 11.17 11.18 11.19 "Aircraft Guide". Air Charter Service (charter). 
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 "Very light jets". Flying (magazine). 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 "Purchase Planning Handbook". Business & Commercial Aviation. Aviation Week. May 2015. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 Variable costs only excluding capital, annual costs and crew : fuel, maintenance, reserves, misc. "Hourly operating costs of 45 jets compared". Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association. 16 November 2015. 
  15. "Honda Jet Operating Costs" (PDF). Aircraft Cost Calculator. August 2014. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 "Light jets". Flying (magazine). 
  17. 17.00 17.01 17.02 17.03 17.04 17.05 17.06 17.07 17.08 17.09 17.10 17.11 17.12 "Your Fleet". Delta Private Jets (carrier). 
  18. 18.00 18.01 18.02 18.03 18.04 18.05 18.06 18.07 18.08 18.09 18.10 18.11 18.12 18.13 18.14 18.15 "Jets". Business Avia Partner (charter). 
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 "Fleet Comparison". NetJets (fractional ownership). 
  20. 20.0 20.1 "Mid-size jets". Flying (magazine). 
  21. "Embraer’s Legacy 450 Executive Jet awarded Brazilian certification" (Press release). Embraer. 11 August 2015. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 "Super mid-size jets". Flying (magazine). 
  23. "Heavy jets". Flying (magazine). 
  24. Chad Trautvetter (17 June 2010). "Airbus Sees Great Promise for Bizliner Orders in China". Aviation International News. 

External links

Media related to Business jets at Wikimedia Commons