Process (science)

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The process of science is the scientific method. This is the process of constructing an accurate, reliable, repeatable model of the real world, by scientists collectively working towards this goal over time.[1]

The scientific method is the complex process of "doing science", that is, being expert in the content area and the scientific method. For the student, this includes learning the complex subject matter of science, as well as become well versed in designing methodologically sound scientific experiments. The student of science must have well-developed frameworks for both.[2]

In science, every sequence of change in a real object is process, which at least in principle is observable using the scientific method. Therefore, all sciences analyze processes.

Study of processes

Science is the empirical study of processes through the scientific method.[3] Processes are always properties of dynamic systems; they are characterized by such system attributes as variables and parameters. Every process model has distinguished input and output variables, and it can be autonomous or controlled.

The recognition of a process is an arbitrary subjective mental operation/event because it depends on different circumstances: the observer's goal, perception and conceptualization tools.

There are numerous taxonomies of processes, and, roughly speaking, they are divided into: continuous and discrete, stable and not stable, convergent or not convergent, cyclic and not cyclic, linear and not linear. They are grouped according to the name of the domain in which they are analyzed.


Recently teaching of science has shifted away from a focus on content to a concentration on methods of gaining knowledge through scientific processes and practices.[4]

A limited study of the skills of teachers taking two education courses in teaching science methods, an introductory and the other advanced. courses, the results of a questionnaire showed they had a "limited conceptual understanding of science process skills." However, although they lacked adequate conceptual understanding and could not give accurate definitions of science processes, their performance was higher on tests of science process skills in new situations.[5]

Some examples of physical, technological and biological processes

combustion, crystallization, centrifugation, diffraction, diffusion, dispersion, distillation, electrolysis, electrophoresis, emulsification, evaporation, hydrolysis, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, oxidation, phosphorescence, pyrolysis, reduction, reflection, refraction, scattering, sedimentation, sublimation, birth, cell division, fermentation, fertilization, germination, growth, geotropism, heliotropism, hybridization, metamorphosis, photosynthesis, transpiration


  1. "Introduction to the Scientific Method". University of Rochester. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  2. Morgan (Demewolf), Kelly (January 2013). "Why designing experiments is so hard for students & what we can do to help!". Kelly Morgan Science. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  3. Schafersman, Steven D. "An Introduction to Science Scientific Thinking and the Scientific Method:". Department of Geology, Miami University. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  4. "Science Processes". NASA. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  5. Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Frackson Mumba; Simeon Mbewe (2012). "How Pre-service Teachers’ Understand and Perform Science Process Skills" (PDF). Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education,. 8 (3): 167–176. Retrieved 26 March 2013.