|Jmol 3D model||Interactive image|
|Molar mass||55.08 g·mol−1|
|Odor||sweetish, pleasant, ethereal|
|Density||772 mg mL−1|
|Melting point||−100 to −86 °C; −148 to −123 °F; 173 to 187 K|
|Boiling point||96 to 98 °C; 205 to 208 °F; 369 to 371 K|
|11.9% (20 °C)|
|Vapor pressure||270 μmol Pa−1 kg−1|
Refractive index (nD)
|105.3 J K−1 mol−1|
|189.33 J K−1 mol−1|
Std enthalpy of
|15.5 kJ mol−1|
Std enthalpy of
|−1.94884–−1.94776 MJ mol−1|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Propionitrile, also known as ethyl cyanide and propanenitrile, is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH2CN. It is a simple aliphatic nitrile. The compound is a colourless, water-soluble liquid. It is used as a solvent and a precursor to other organic compounds.
- CH3CH2CH2OH + O2 + NH3 → CH3CH2CN + 3 H2O
Propionitrile is a byproduct of the electrodimerisation of acrylonitrile to adiponitrile.
Propionitrile is a solvent similar to acetonitrile but with a slightly higher boiling point. It is a precursor to propylamines by hydrogenation. It is a C-3 building block in the preparation of the drug flopropione by the Houben-Hoesch reaction.
In 1979, the Kalama (Vega) plant in Beaufort, South Carolina experienced an explosion during the production of propanenitrile by nickel-catalyzed reduction of acrylonitrile. This site is now one of the two Superfund cleanup sites in South Carolina.
- "Propionitrile". NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. USA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 4 April 2011. Identification. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Merck Index, 11th Edition, 7839
- CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 52nd Ed., p. D-153
- HSDB: Propionitrile, TOXNET, U.S. National Library of Medicine, retrieved 30 Oct 2015
- "propionitrile - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 26 March 2005. Identification. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
- Cite error: Invalid
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- Peter Pollak, Gérard Romeder, Ferdinand Hagedorn, Heinz-Peter Gelbke "Nitriles" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2002, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a17_363
- Willhite, Calvin C.; Ferm, Vergil H.; Smith, Roger P. (1981). "Teratogenic effects of aliphatic nitriles". Teratology. 23 (3): 317–323. PMID 6266064. doi:10.1002/tera.1420230306.
- First Five-Year Review Report for Kalama Specialty Chemicals, Beaufort, Beaufort County, South Carolina, United States Environmental Protection Agency