Ranks of imperial consorts in China

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The ranks of imperial consorts have varied over the course of Chinese history but remained important throughout owing to its importance in management of the inner court and in imperial succession, which ranked heirs according to the prominence of their mothers in addition to their strict birth order. Regardless of the age, however, it is common in English translation to simplify these hierarchy into the three ranks of Empress, consorts, and concubines.[1]

Early history

There exists a class of consorts called Ying (Chinese: 媵) during early historical times in China. These were people who came along with brides as a form of dowry. It could be the female cousin or sister of the bride, or people from other countries (not necessarily from another race).

Worth noting is the fact that during the Shang Dynasty, there were times where two queens reigned at the same period.

The Rites of Zhou contains great details of an imperial consort ranking system. However, as the Rites of Zhou is considered by modern scholars to be merely a fictitious constitution for a utopian society, the system listed in that work of literature cannot be taken word for word. Rather, it offers a rough glimpse into the inner harem during the time.

Ranking System for Emperors

The Rites of Zhou states that for Emperors, they are entitled to the following:

  • 1 Empress (皇后)
  • 3 Madames (夫人)
  • 9 Imperial Concubines (嬪)
  • 27 Shifu's (世婦)
  • 81 Imperial Wives (御妻)

A grand total of 121 women. It was suggested that a system (not necessarily resembling the one listed above) was set up to prevent the situation of having two queens.

Ranking System for Others

According to the Rites of Zhou, Feudal Lords are entitled to 9 consorts in total, and cannot marry again after having 9 consorts, which makes for 1 wife and 8 consorts. For other officers, they are entitled to 1 wife and 1 consort. For normal citizens, only 1 wife is allowed.

Qin Dynasty

In the Qin Dynasty, there exists a much simplified ranking system. The Emperor's wife was called Queen (后), and other consorts, should they exist, along with the wives of Feudal Lords were called Madames (夫人)

Empress (皇后)

There can be one at any given time.

Madames (夫人)

There can be an unlimited number of Madames, within the rank there exists a system of sub-rankings.

Han Dynasty

During the Eastern Han period, the Emperor's principal wife was called Empress (后), and consorts were all called Madames (夫人). Within the rank of Madame, there exists a system of sub-rankings.

  • Zhaoyi (昭儀, created during the reign of Emperor Yuan)
  • Madame(夫人)
  • Beautiful Lady (美人)
  • Good Lady (良人)
  • Bazi (八子)
  • Qizi (七子)
  • Changshi (長使)
  • Shaoshi (少使)
  • Jieyu (婕妤, created by Emperor Wu)
  • Kenge (娙娥, created by Emperor Wu)
  • Ronghua (容華, created by Emperor Wu)
  • Chongyi (充依, created by Emperor Wu)
  • Wuguan (五官)
  • Shunchang (順常)
  • Wujuan (無涓)
  • Gonghe (共和)
  • Yuling (娛靈)
  • Baolin (保林)
  • Liangshi (良使)
  • Yezhe (夜者)

No limits were set on the number of consorts during this time, except for the Queen, which was limited to one.

The principal wife of the Crown Prince was called Consort (妃). There also exists a sub-ranking system for other consorts. They were called Liangdi (良娣) and Ruren (孺人). For grandchildren of the Emperor, their principal wives were called Madame (夫人). Consorts for these people have no titles, and were simple called people of the household (家人子).

When the Eastern Han (or Later Han Dynasty) began, the ranking system for consorts was dramatically scaled down, and only four ranks remained. They were Honoured Lady (貴人), Beautiful Woman (美人), Person of the Palace (宮人), and Cainü (采女).

No limits were set for these consorts. This later created situation when more than 20,000 women were living in the Palace during the reign of Emperor Huan and Emperor Ling

Cao Wei

Initial System

During the reign of Cao Cao, a new ranking system, as follows, was created. It expanded during the reigns of Cao Pi and Cao Rui.

  • Empress (皇后)
  • Madame (夫人)
  • Zhaoyi (昭儀)
  • Jieyu (婕妤)
  • Ronghua (容華)
  • Beautiful Lady (美人)

Cao Pi and Cao Rui Expansions

Cao Pi and Cao Rui further expanded the ranking system with the following ranks.

  • Zhaohua (昭華, created by Cao Pi)
  • Xiurong (修容, created by Cao Pi)
  • Good Lady (良人, created by Cao Pi)
  • The Honoured Imperial Concubine (貴嬪, created by Cao Pi)
  • The Decent Consort (淑妃, created by Cao Rui)
  • The Decent Concubine (淑媛, created by Cao Pi)
  • Shuncheng (順成, created by Cao Pi, abolished by Cao Rui)
  • Xiuyi (修儀, created by Cao Pi)

This created a final system with 12 ranks.

Jin Dynasty (265–420)

The system in the Jin Dynasty was based on the systems used in Cao Wei and the Han Dynasty, as follows

Madame Rankings

There exists three ranks for Madames.

  • The Honoured Imperial Concubine (貴嬪)
  • Madame (夫人)
  • The Honoured Lady (貴人)

Imperial Concubine Rankings

There exists nine ranks for Imperial Concubines

  • The Decent Consort "Shufei" (淑妃)
  • The Decent Concubine "Shuyuan" (淑媛)
  • The Decent Beauty "Shuyi" (淑儀)
  • Xiuhua (修華)
  • Xiurong (修容)
  • Xiuyi (修儀)
  • Jieyu (婕妤)
  • Ronghua (容華)
  • Chonghua (充華)

Other Ranks

There exists a ranking below Imperial Concubines also.

  • Beautiful Lady (美人)
  • The Talented Lady (才人)
  • The Average Talented Lady (中才人)

Southern Qi

The Southern Qi, like the other dynasties in the Southern and Northern Dynasties era, inherited the Jin system for their harems, albeit with some name changes.

Initial Ranking System

At the ascension of Emperor Gao to the throne, the Minister for Ceremonies (禮司) successfully petitioned the Emperor to establish the following system:

Empress

There was only 1 Empress.

Madames

There were three ranks for Madames:

  • The Honoured Imperial Concubine (貴嬪)
  • Madame (夫人)
  • The Honoured Lady (貴人)

Imperial Concubines

There were three ranks for Imperial Concubines:

  • Xiuhua (修華)
  • Xiuyi (修儀)
  • Xiurong (修容)
  • The Decent Consort (淑妃)
  • The Decent Concubine (淑媛)
  • The Decent Beauty (淑儀)
  • Jieyu (婕妤)
  • Ronghua (容華)
  • Chonghua (充華)

"Scattered Positions"

Three ranks were set aside in what became known as the "scattered positions" (散位)

  • Beautiful Lady (美人)
  • The Talented Lady (才人)
  • The Average Talented Lady (中才人)

1st Expansion

The system was expanded later in Emperor Gao's reign, and added the following new positions:

  • Liangdi (良娣)
  • Baolin (保林)

While the position of The Talented Lady (才人) was elevated to a more prestigious position.

2nd and 3rd Expansion

When Emperor Wu ascended to the throne, the Minister for Ceremonies (禮司) successfully petitioned the Emperor to once again expand the system.

This round of expansion involved elevating the position of The Decent Consort to a category all unto itself, with the following ranks:

  • The Decent Consort (淑妃)
  • The Honoured Lady (貴人)

The new category was just underneath the Queen. In the 7th year of Emperor Wu's reign, the position of Zhaorong (昭容) was created to fill the gap created when The Decent Consort was elevated to an independent category.

Chen Dynasty

Initially, during the reign of Emperor Wu, no specific ranking system for consorts were devised, due to the Emperor's desire to live a simple life. It was only until Emperor Wen's reign did a ranking system came into being for the Chen Dynasty.

The ranking system consists of the following:

Empress

There was only one Empress allowed at any time.

Madames

There were three sub-ranks within this category. Each titles within this rank may be held by only one person at any given time. This did not prevent the elevation of others into the title upon the death of an existing holder of the title in question.

  • Noble Consort (貴妃)
  • Honoured Imperial Concubine (貴嬪)
  • Guiji (貴姬)

Imperial Concubines

Each titles within this rank may be held by only one person at any given time. This did not prevent the elevation of others into the title upon the death of an existing holder of the title in question.

  • The Decent Concubine (淑媛)
  • The Decent Beauty (淑儀)
  • Shurong (淑容)
  • Zhaohua (昭華)
  • Zhaorong (昭容)
  • Zhaoyi (昭儀)
  • Xiuhua (修華)
  • Xiuyi (修儀)
  • Xiurong (修容)

Common Titles

There are five titles within this rank.

  • Jieyu (婕妤)
  • Ronghua (容華)
  • Chonghua (充華)
  • Chenghui (承徽)
  • Lierong(列榮)

Scattered Positions

Three titles exist in this rank. There were no limits on the number of holders for the following title.

  • Beautiful Lady (美人)
  • The Talented Lady (才人)
  • Good Lady (良人)

Northern Wei

During the reign of Emperor Daowu, the consort ranking system was very simple, and only contained the rank of Madame. However, there existed an unwritten, subjective system of prestige rankings in between the Madames. It was during the reign of Emperor Taiwu did a system of rankings listed below came into force:

  • Empress (皇后)
  • Left and Right Zhaoyi (左右昭儀)
  • The Honoured Lady (貴人)
  • Jiaofang (椒房)

Ranking Reform

During the sinification of the Northern Wei Dynasty, Emperor Xiaowen reformed the consort ranking system to the system below.

  • Empress (皇后)
  • Left and Right Zhaoyi (左右昭儀)
  • Madame (夫人)
  • Imperial Concubine of the Third Class (三嬪)
  • Imperial Concubine of the Sixth Class (六嬪)
  • Shifu (世婦)
  • Imperial Woman (御女)

Northern Qi

In the beginning, there were only three ranks for Northern Qi's consort's: Madame (夫人), Imperial Concubine (嬪), and Imperials (御). However, as Emperor Wucheng ascended to the throne, a system of rankings more sophisticated than any devised before was promulgated.

Empress (皇后)

  • Only one person may hold the Empress (皇后) at any given time.

E-Ying (左右娥英)

There were two positions: Left and Right E-Yings (左右娥英). Only one person may hold each one of the positions at any given time, which means no more than two people can hold positions in this rank.

The Decent Consort

Only one person may hold this title at any given time.

Zhaoyi (左右昭儀)

There were two positions: Left and Right E-Zhaoyis (左右昭儀). Only one person may hold each one of the positions at any given time, which means no more than two people can hold positions in this rank.

Madame (夫人)

There were three sub-ranks within the rank of Madame (夫人):

  • Madame HongDe (弘德夫人)
  • Madame ZhengDe (正德夫人)
  • Madame ChongDe (崇德夫人)

Upper Imperial Concubines

There were three sub-ranks within the rank of Madame of the Upper Imperial Concubines (上嬪):

  • Longhui (隆徽)
  • Guangyou (光猷)
  • Zhaoxun (昭訓)

Lower Imperial Concubines

There were six sub-ranks within the rank of Madame of the Lower Imperial Concubines (下嬪):

  • Xuanhui (宣徽)
  • Xuanming (宣明)
  • Ninghui (凝暉)
  • Ninghua (凝華)
  • Shunhua (順華)
  • Guangxun (光訓)

Shifu

There were 27 sub-ranks within the rank of Shifu (世婦), and each title can only be held by one person at any given time:

Imperial Woman

There were 81 sub-ranks within the rank of Imperial Woman (御女), and each title can only be held by one person at any given time:

Scattered Positions

  • The Talented Lady (才人)
  • Cainu (采女)

Northern Zhou

Initially, Northern Zhou only had a system that allows for six madames. However, during the reign of Emperor Xuan, five Empresses were created - unprecedented by Chinese standards:

  • Yang Lihua, The Great Empress of Tianyuan (天元大皇后楊麗華)
  • Zhu Manyue, The Great Empress of the Heaven (天大皇后朱滿月)
  • Empress Chen Yueyi, Chen Yueyi, The Great Center Empress of the Heaven (天中大皇后陳月儀)
  • Empress Yuchi Chifan, Yuchi Chifan, The Great Left Empress of the Heaven (天左大皇后尉遲熾繁)
  • Empress Yuan Leshang, Yuan Leshang, The Great Right Empress of the Heaven (天右大皇后元樂尚)

In addition, there were an innumerable number of consorts in the harem.

Sui

In the beginning of the Sui Dynasty, there existed a simple system of rankings for imperial consorts

  • 1 Empress
  • 3 Imperial Concubines
  • 9 Shifu
  • 38 Imperial Women

There also existed a system of Female Imperial Officers (女官) to manage ceremonial affairs in the harem. The system was based on similar systems in the past.

However, since the Empress at the time, Dugu Qieluo, was jealous of others, no consorts were actually installed.

1st Expansion

After Dugu Qieluo died, Emperor Wen expanded the ranks of the consorts to the following:

  • 1 Empress
  • 3 Honoured Ladies (new creation)
  • 9 Imperial Concubines (up from 3)
  • 27 Shifu (up from 9)
  • 81 Imperial Women (up from 38)

2nd Expansion

During the reign of Emperor Yang, the ranking system was expanded yet again, based on systems in the past, to the following.

  • 1 Empress (皇后)
  • 3 Madames
    • 1 Guifei (貴妃)
    • 1 Shufei (淑妃)
    • 1 Defei (德妃)
  • 9 Imperial Concubines
  • 12 Jieyu
  • 15 Shifu, Beautiful Ladies, and Talented Ladies in total
  • 24 Baolin (保林)
  • 24 Imperial Women
  • 37 Cainu (采女)

Tang

Indigenous tribals from southern China were used as eunuchs during the Sui and Tang dynasties.[2]

Initial System

During the early ages of the Tang Dynasty, a system based on previous dynasty's systems, as shown below, was used

Empress

Only one person may hold this title at any given time.

Consorts

There were four titles within this rank, which consists of:

  • Guifei (貴妃)
  • Shufei (淑妃)
  • Defei (德妃)
  • Xianfei (賢妃).

Only 1 person may hold each of the titles at any given time.

Imperial Concubines

There were nine titles within this rank, which includes

  • Zhaoyi (昭儀)
  • Zhaorong (昭容)
  • Zhaoyuan (昭媛)
  • Xiuyi (修儀)
  • Xiurong (修容)
  • Xiuyuan (修媛)
  • Chongyi (充儀)
  • Chongrong (充容)
  • Chongyuan (充媛)

All of equal rank. Only 1 person may hold each of the titles at any given time.

Other Titles

In additions, there were nine Jieyu's (婕妤), nine Beautiful Ladies (美人), nine Talented Ladies (才人), 27 Baolin (保林), 27 Imperial Woman (御女), and 29 Cainu's (采女).

1st Reform

The first reform of the ranks occurred during the Emperor Gaozong's reign, which creating the following system

  • 1 Empress (皇后)
  • 2 Zande (贊德)
  • 4 Xuanyi (宣儀)
  • 5 Chenggui (承閨)
  • 5 Chengzhi (承旨)
  • 6 Weixian (衛仙)
  • 8 Gongfeng (供奉)
  • 20 Shijie (侍櫛)

2nd Reform

The second reform of the ranks occurred during the reign of Emperor Xuanzong, and created the following system:

  • 1 Empress (皇后)
  • 1 Noble Consort (貴妃. This position was originally of equal rank to other consorts. But during the time of Yang Guifei, this position became much more prestigious)
  • 3 Consorts (妃)
    • 1 Huifei (惠妃)
    • 1 Lifei (麗妃)
    • 1 Huafei (華妃)
  • 6 Yi's (儀)
    • 1 Poyi (波儀)
    • 1 Deyi (德儀)
    • 1 Xianyi (賢儀)
    • 1 Shunyi (順儀)
    • 1 Wanyi (婉儀)
    • 1 Fangyi (芳儀)
  • 4 Beautiful Ladies (美人)
  • 7 Talented Ladies (才人)
  • 2 Shanggong (尚宮)
  • 2 Shangyi (尚儀)
  • 2 Shangfu (尚服)

Ranks of crown prince's imperial consorts

Tang dynasty's crown prince's wife is called crown princess (太子妃), which is hold by only one person at any given time. There are 5 other ranks of consorts:

  • 2 Liangdi (良娣)
  • 6 Liangyuan (良媛)
  • 10 Chenghui (承徽)
  • 16 Zhaoxun (昭訓)
  • 24 Fengyi (奉儀)

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period

During these times, governments were replaced frequently, and as a result, it is difficult for modern scholars to get any solid information on ranking systems during these times.

However, it is known that the Later Tangs uses the following system:

  • Zhaorong (昭容)
  • Zhaoyi (昭儀)
  • Zhaoyuan (昭媛)
  • Chushi (出使)
  • Yuzheng (御正)
  • Shizhen (侍真)
  • Yicai (懿才)
  • Xianyi (咸一)
  • Yaofang (瑤芳)
  • Yide (懿德)
  • Xuanyi (宣一)

Whether there were any limits to the holders of these titles are unknown.

Song

The Song Dynasty's system was sub-divided in six commonly known Titles:

  • Empress (皇后)
  • Consorts (妃)
  • Imperial Concubines (嫔)
  • Jieyu (婕妤)
  • Beautiful Ladies (美人)
  • Talented Ladies (才人)

as well as the unofficial title of Yushi (御侍), who have not been consummated by the Emperor.

However, Consorts and Concubines can also be further classified under different title such as 貴妃、淑妃、德妃、賢妃 (for Consorts) and 太儀、貴儀、妃儀、淑儀、婉儀、順儀、順容、淑容、婉容、昭儀、昭容、昭媛、修儀、修容、修媛、充儀、充媛 (for Concubines).

Jin Dynasty, 1115–1234

Yuan

During the Yuan Dynasty, the ranking system was at its simplest, and only consists of Empress, Consort, and Imperial Concubine. No limits were set on the number of people who could enjoy the title, so multiple Empresses could exist.

Although the number of ranks were few, there existed a subsystem of ranking by prestige inside the Yuan harem. The tent (Chinese: 宮帳, translated term from Mongolian: 斡兒垛) that a consort lives in often determines their status. These tents often contain multiple Empresses, Consorts, and Imperial Concubines. In the many tents that existed, the first Empress of the first tent is considered to be the most prestigious consort.

Massive numbers of Korean boy eunuchs, Korean girl concubines, falcons, ginseng, grain, cloth, silver, and gold were sent as tribute to the Mongol Yuan dynasty.[3][4][5][6][7][8] such as the Korean eunuch Bak Bulhwa and Korean Empress Gi. Goryeo incurred negative consequences as a result of the eunuch Bak Bulhwa's actions.[9] The tribute payment brought much harm to Korea.[4]

Ming

The Ming Dynasty's system was simple with five commonly used Titles:

  • Empress (皇后)
  • Imperial Noble Consort (皇贵妃)
  • Noble Consorts (贵妃)
  • Consorts (妃)
  • Imperial Concubines (嫔)

Other known Titles including:

  • Jieyu (婕妤)
  • Zhaoyi (昭儀)
  • Zhaorong (昭容)
  • Noble Ladies (贵人)
  • Beautiful Ladies (美人)
  • Talented Ladies (才人)
  • First Class Female Attendant (选侍)
  • Second Class Female Attendant (答应)

Korean eunuchs and Korean girl concubines were sent as tribute to the Ming dynasty,[10][11][12][13][14] in imitation of the previous dynasty's precedent,[15] as were Vietnamese women and eunuchs.[16] There were Korean, Jurchen, Mongol, and Vietnamese eunuchs under the Yongle Emperor.[17] Korean eunuchs and Korean virigins were delivered from Korea to the Ming Xuanzong Emperor.[18][19] Muslim eunuchs and Mongol eunuchs were present in the Ming court.[20] There were Korean, Jurchen, Central Asian, and Mongol eunuchs under Yongle.[21] Mongol eunuchs served under Yongle while he was Prince of Yan.[22][23][24] Vietnamese eunuchs like Ruan Lang, Ruan An, Fan Hong, Chen Wu, and Wang Jin were sent by Zhang Fu to the Ming.[25][26] Muslim eunuchs were sent as ambassadors to the Timurids.[27][28] Zheng He was a eunuch who worked for Yongle (Zhu Di).[29] People who performed massages and eunuchs were solicited by Hongwu from Vietnam.[30]

Korean officials were beaten by Korean eunuch ambassadors working for the Ming.[14] A Korean King and Korean officials were publicly disparaged in 1398 by the Ming Korean eunuch Sin Kwi-saeng and many Korean girl concubines were delivered to the Ming.[31][32]

Zhu Shuang 朱樉 (Prince Min of Qin 秦愍王) had some boys castrated and women seized after a war against minority Tibetic peoples and as a result was reprimanded.[33][34][35][36]

On 30 Jan 1406, the Ming Yongle Emperor expressed horror when the Ryukyuans castrated some of their own children to become eunuchs in order to give them to Yongle. Yongle said that the boys who were castrated were innocent and didn't deserve castration, and he returned the boys to Ryukyu and instructed them not to send eunuchs again.[37]

An anti pig slaughter edict led to speculation that the Zhengde emperor adopted Islam due to his use of Muslim eunuchs who commissioned the production of porcelain with Persian and Arabic inscriptions in white and blue color.[38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46] Muslim eunuchs contributed money in 1496 to repairing Niujie Mosque. Central Asian women were provided to the Zhengde Emperor by a Muslim guard and Sayyid Hussein from Hami.[47] The guard was Yu Yung and the women were Uighur.[48] It is unknown who really was behind the anti-pig slaughter edict.[49] The speculation of him becoming a Muslim is remembered alongside his excessive and debauched behavior along with his concubines of foreign origin.[50][51] Muslim Central Asian girls were favored by Zhengde like how Korean girls were favored by Xuande.[52] A Uighur concubine was kept by Zhengde.[53] Foreign origin Uighur and Mongol women were favored by the Zhengde emperor.[54]

There were 100,000 eunuchs at the height of their numbers during the Ming.[55][56][57][58]

Qing

The Qing Dynasty's system was among one of the simpler systems in Chinese history. There were eight classes:

The system was solid, but the number of consorts an emperor actually had during the Qing Dynasty was subject to wild variations. The Kangxi Emperor holds the record for having the most consorts with 79, while the Guangxu Emperor holds the record for having the least consorts, with one empress and two consorts - a total of just three consorts.

The tradition of ranking concubines ended as the Qing Dynasty was overthrown. However, the practice of giving rank to people who "unofficially" (lives with, but never marry) have more than one wife is still widespread. In addition, the term Madame is still used, albeit rarely and only in very formal settings, as an honorific title towards another person's wife in China.

The Qing dynasty received Korean girls from the Joseon.[59] Many Korean women were subjected to rape at the hand of the Qing forces, and as a result were unwelcomed by their families even if they were released by the Qing after being ransomed.[60]

After the Second Manchu invasion of Korea, Joseon Korea was forced to give several of their royal princesses as concubines to the Qing Manchu regent Prince Dorgon.[61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68] In 1650 Dorgon married the Korean Princess I-shun (義/願).[69] The Princess' name in Korean was Uisun and she was Prince Yi Kaeyoon's (Kumrimgoon) daughter.[70] Dorgon married two Korean princesses at Lianshan.[71]

The number of eunuchs under the Ming experienced a massive decrease under the Qing.[72] The Qing had 2,000 eunuchs.[73]

See also

References

  1. "Empresses and Consorts: Selections from Chen Shou's Records of the Three States with Pei Songzhi's Commentary". China Review International, Vol. 8, No. 2, Fall 2001, pp. 358–363.
  2. https://web.archive.org/web/20101204064626/http://www.ihp.sinica.edu.tw/~asiamajor/pdf/1949/1949-53.pdf
  3. Katharine Hyung-Sun Moon (January 1997). Sex Among Allies: Military Prostitution in U.S.-Korea Relations. Columbia University Press. pp. 40–. ISBN 978-0-231-10642-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 4.0 4.1 Boudewijn Walraven; Remco E. Breuker (2007). Korea in the Middle: Korean Studies and Area Studies : Essays in Honour of Boudewijn Walraven. Amsterdam University Press. pp. 57–. ISBN 978-90-5789-153-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Gwyn Campbell; Suzanne Miers; Joseph C. Miller (8 September 2009). Children in Slavery through the Ages. Ohio University Press. pp. 136–. ISBN 978-0-8214-4339-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Jinwung Kim (2012). A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in Conflict. Indiana University Press. pp. 172–. ISBN 0-253-00024-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Ki-baek Yi (1984). A New History of Korea. Harvard University Press. pp. 157–. ISBN 978-0-674-61576-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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