Raymond Gruender

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Raymond Gruender
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit
Assumed office
June 5, 2004
Nominated by George W. Bush
Preceded by Pasco Bowman
Personal details
Born (1963-07-05) July 5, 1963 (age 55)
St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.
Alma mater Washington University

Raymond W. Gruender (born July 5, 1963 in St. Louis, Missouri) is a federal judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit.

Education and early career

Gruender attended Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri and earned three degrees: an A.B., a J.D., and an M.B.A.. In 2006, he received the Distinguished Young Alumni Award from the law school.[1]

Prior to joining the federal bench, Gruender worked as an attorney both in private practice and public service. After law school, he was in private practice at Lewis, Rice & Fingersh from 1987–1990, at which point he became an Assistant United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Missouri. In 1994, he ran for election as St. Louis County Attorney and lost to the incumbent. He then returned to private practice at Thompson Coburn. In 1996, he was the Missouri state campaign director for Bob Dole's president campaign.[2] In 2000, he left Thompson Coburn to rejoin the United States Attorneys' Office, and in 2001 he became the United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Missouri, a position he remained in until his confirmation to the Eighth Circuit in 2004.[3]

Nomination and confirmation

Gruender was nominated to the Eighth Circuit by President George W. Bush on September 29, 2003 to fill a seat vacated by Judge Pasco Bowman II. The United States Senate confirmed him almost eight months later on May 20, 2004 by a vote of 97-1, with the only vote against his confirmation coming from U.S. Sen. Tom Harkin.[4] Gruender received his commission on June 5, 2004.


A recent empirical study of the ideology of federal circuit court judges ranked Gruender as one of the most conservative judges on a circuit court. [5]

Gruender authored the Eighth Circuit's opinion in In Re Union Pacific Railroad Employment Practices Litigation, No. 06-1706, which concluded that the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 did not give female employees the right to insurance coverage for contraceptives used solely to prevent pregnancy.[6][7] This opinion has been cited in the context of the debate over the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act contraception mandate.[8][9][10]

In Planned Parenthood Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota v. Rounds, No. 05-3093, a panel of the Eighth Circuit upheld an injunction that struck down a South Dakota informed consent law that required abortion providers to inform patients, among other things, that an "abortion will terminate the life of a whole, separate, unique, living human being." Gruender dissented, arguing that the law was constitutional and did not unduly burden women seeking abortions or infringe on the freedom of speech of physicians. The Eighth Circuit heard the case en banc and ruled in 2008 by a vote of 7-4, in an opinion authored by Gruender, that the law was, on its face, constitutional.[11][12]

In Little Rock School District v. North Little Rock School District, No. 04-2923 (2006), Gruender opposed the opinion of a panel of the Eighth Circuit that affirmed the district court's conclusion that federal desegregation monitoring should remain in effect in Little Rock, Arkansas. After the desegregation effort of the Little Rock Nine in 1957, the federal government began monitoring the school district in 1965. The Eighth Circuit agreed with the district court that the Little Rock district did not successfully evaluate its academic programs for how well they helped black students. Gruender dissented, arguing that the district court abused its discretion in mandating federal monitoring by using "impossibly subjective" criteria. The district court subsequently agreed with Gruender's reasoning and freed the school district from federal desegregation monitoring. In 2009, the Eighth Circuit then upheld the district court's decision in another appeal, No. 07-1866.[13][14]

Former Clerks

Clerk Started Finished School (Year) Current Employment
Leigh Svetanics Gutting 2004 2005 St. Louis University School of Law (1998) Thompson Coburn, St. Louis, Mo.[15]
Michael Longmeyer 2004–2007 2010-2013 Ave Maria School of Law (2004) Armstrong Teasdale, St. Louis, Mo.[16]
Sean O'Donnell 2004 2005 University of Texas School of Law (2002) Federal Programs Branch, Civil Division, United States Department of Justice
Brian P. Casey 2004 2005 Notre Dame Law School (2004) Assistant United States Attorney, Western District of Missouri, Kansas City, Mo.
Christopher Goddard 2005 2006 Washington University in St. Louis School of Law (2005) Office of General Counsel, Washington University in St. Louis, Mo.[17]
Teresa (née Zakaria) Chisholm 2005 2006 Ave Maria School of Law (2005) Reising, Ethington, Barnes, Kisselle, P.C., Troy, Mich.[18]
Abigail Willie 2005 2006 Southern Methodist University, Dedman School of Law (2000) Career clerk, Hon. Charles E. Rendlen, III, United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eighth Circuit, St. Louis, Mo.
Stephen J. Spiegelhalter 2005 2006 Georgetown University Law Center (2001) Formerly with the FCPA Unit of the Fraud Section, Criminal Division, United States Department of Justice and an Assistant United States Attorney in the District of Columbia; now Counsel and Compliance Officer for Global Risk and Investigations at IBM, Washington, DC.
Caroline A. Newman 2006 2007 University of Connecticut School of Law (2006) Tax Division, United States Department of Justice
Sarah M. Markwood 2006 2008 Penn State University Dickinson School of Law (2006)
Daniel J. Kelly 2006 2007 Ave Maria School of Law (2003) Senior Counsel, Alliant Techsystems, Minneapolis, Minn.
Derek T. Muller 2007 2008 Notre Dame Law School (2007) Pepperdine University School of Law, Malibu, Calif. [19]
Shardul S. Desai 2007 2008 Duke University School of Law (2007) Assistant United States Attorney, Western District of Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, Pa.[20]
Melanie Edwards Nichols 2007 2009 Washington University in St. Louis School of Law (2007) Trinity Law School, Santa Ana, Calif.
Anglee Agarwal 2008 2009 University of Chicago School of Law (2008) Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, Washington, D.C.
Stephen F. MacGuidwin 2008 2009 Michigan State University College of Law (2008) Varnum LLP, Grand Rapids, Mich.[21]
Katherine Crytzer 2009 2010 George Mason University School of Law (2009) Kirkland & Ellis, Washington, D.C.[22]
Kevin A. Hinkley 2008 2010 Harvard Law School (2008) Webster Szanyi, Buffalo, N.Y.[23]
Joseph P. Minta 2009 2010 Yale Law School (2009) Mayer Brown, Washington, D.C.[24]
Michael F. Perry 2009 2010 Harvard Law School (2009) Goodwin Procter, Boston, MA[25]
David Fotouhi 2010 2011 Harvard Law School (2010) Gibson Dunn, Washington, D.C.[26]
Samuel B. Gedge 2010 2011 Harvard Law School (2010) Wiley Rein, Washington, D.C.[27]
John D. Ohlendorf 2010 2011 Harvard Law School (2010) Fellow, Georgetown University Law Center[28]
Will Scharf 2011 2012 Harvard Law School (2011) Bryan Cave, St. Louis, MO[29]
Jad Mills 2011 2012 Harvard Law School (2011) Irell & Manella, Los Angeles, CA[30]
Samuel D. Green 2011 2012 Pepperdine University School of Law (2011) Jenner & Block, Los Angeles, CA[31]

External links

See also


  1. http://www.wulaw.wustl.edu/alumni/index.asp?id=2323
  2. http://business.highbeam.com/435553/article-1G1-57266928/dole-wont-debate-perot-during-visit-but-gop-candidate
  3. Johnson, Matthew E. (December 2004). "New Faces on the 8th Circuit: Do Recent Appointments Portend a Change?". Bench & Bar of Minnesota. Retrieved 2010-04-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=108&session=2&vote=00102
  5. http://lawdigitalcommons.bc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3125&context=bclr&sei-redir=1&
  6. Walter, Donna (2007-03-21). "8th Circuit rules pregnancy act doesn't require contraceptive". The Kansas City Daily News-Press. Retrieved 2010-04-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "Eighth Circuit Holds That Benefits Plans Excluding All Contraceptives Do Not Discriminate Based On Sex" (PDF). Harvard Law Review. 121: 1447–1454. 2008. Retrieved 2010-04-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. http://www.lifenews.com/2012/03/20/hhs-birth-control-mandate-has-no-legal-precedent/
  9. http://www.nationalreview.com/bench-memos/294273/eeoc-and-federal-contraceptive-regulation-michael-fragoso
  10. http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/017/093aasuz.asp?page=1
  11. Colb, Sherry (2008-07-09). "The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit Approves An "Informed Consent" Requirement for Abortions: The Slippery Quality of Statutory Definitions". FindLaw's Writ. Retrieved 2010-04-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Slevin, Peter (2008-07-20). "Ruling Gives South Dakota Doctors a Script to Read". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2010-04-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Bartels, Charles (2009-04-02). "Little Rock school desegregation order upheld". FOX News. Associated Press. Retrieved 2010-04-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. "Court upholds Little Rock desegregation". Bay State Banner. Associated Press. 2006-06-29. Retrieved 2010-04-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. "Leigh Svetantics Gutting, Thompson Coburn LLP". Retrieved 2010-10-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. "Michael Longmeyer, Armstrong Teasdale LLP". Retrieved 2010-04-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. "Christopher Goddard, General Counsel, Washington University in St. Louis". Retrieved 2010-04-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. "Teresa Chisholm, Reising Ethington". Retrieved 2010-04-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. "Derek T. Muller, Pepperdine University School of Law". Retrieved 2013-01-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. "Removed Alien Charged With Re-entering U.S. After Deportation". Retrieved 2013-01-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. "Stephen F. MacGuidwin, Varnum LLP". Retrieved 2013-01-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. "Katherine Crytzer, Kirkland & Ellis LLP". Retrieved 2013-01-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. "Kevin A. Hinkley, Webster Szanyi". Retrieved 2013-01-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. "Joseph P. Minta, Mayer Brown". Retrieved 2013-01-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. "Michael F. Perry, Goodwin Procter". Retrieved 2013-01-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. "David Fotouhi, Gibson Dunn". Retrieved 2013-01-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. "Samuel B. Gedge, Wiley Rein LLP". Retrieved 2013-01-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. "Georgetown Law, Center for the Constitution: Our Team". Retrieved 2013-01-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. "William O. Scharf, Bryan Cave". Retrieved 2014-02-12.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. "Jad Mills, Irell & Manella LLP". Retrieved 2014-02-12.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. "Samuel Green, Jenner & Block". Retrieved 2014-02-12.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
Legal offices
Preceded by
Audrey Fleissig
44th U.S. Attorney for the Eastern District of Missouri
Succeeded by
James Martin
Preceded by
Pasco Bowman
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit