Red Bull

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Red Bull
Type Energy drink
Distributor Red Bull GmbH
Country of origin Thailand
Introduced 1987
Color Amber
Ingredients Caffeine, taurine, sucrose and glucose, B-group vitamins, and alpine spring water
  • Original
  • Sugarfree
  • Cola
  • Total Zero
  • Red Edition
  • Blue Edition
  • Yellow Edition
  • Lime Edition
  • Silver Edition
  • F1 Edition
  • Orange Edition Zero
  • Cherry Edition Zero
Related products Red Bull Cola, Red Bull Energy Shot, Red Bull Sugar-Free, Red Bull Total Zero, Red Bull Racing, Red Bull Racing Team

Red Bull is an energy drink sold by Austrian company Red Bull GmbH, created in 1987. In terms of market share, Red Bull is the highest-selling energy drink in the world, with 5.387 billion cans sold in 2013.[1][2][3][4]

Austrian entrepreneur Dietrich Mateschitz was inspired by an existing energy drink named Krating Daeng (Thai: กระทิงแดง, Thai pronunciation: [kràtʰiŋ dɛːŋ]), which was first invented and sold in Thailand. He took this idea, modified the ingredients to suit the tastes of Westerners,[5] and, in partnership with Chaleo Yoovidhya, founded Red Bull GmbH in 1987 in Chakkapong, Thailand.

In Thai, daeng means red, and krating is the reddish-brown muscle-bound bovine called a "gaur", an animal slightly larger than the bison. Red Bull is sold in a tall and slim blue-silver can, while Krating Daeng is in a gold shorter can.[6] The two are different products, produced separately.

The Red Bull company slogan is "Red Bull gives you wings",[7] and the product is marketed through advertising, events (Red Bull Cliff Diving World Series, Red Bull Air Race, Red Bull Crashed Ice), sports team ownerships (RB Leipzig, FC Red Bull Salzburg, Red Bull Brasil, New York Red Bulls, Red Bull Racing, Scuderia Toro Rosso), celebrity endorsements, and music, through its record label Red Bull Records.[8]

Energy drinks have been associated with health risks, such as masking the effects of intoxication when consumed with alcohol,[9] and excessive or repeated consumption can lead to cardiac and psychiatric conditions.[10][11] However, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) concluded that an adequate consumption of Red Bull and other popular energy drinks is safe and that the amount of caffeine in standard Red Bull cans is unlikely to interact adversely with other typical constituents of energy drinks or with alcohol.[12] Energy drinks have the effects that caffeine and sugar provide, but there is no distinct evidence that the wide variety of other ingredients have any effect.[13]


In front of the Potala Palace, Tibet: a model of Red Bull in Chinese version is displayed.

Austrian entrepreneur Dietrich Mateschitz and Thai businessman Chaleo Yoovidhya founded Red Bull GmbH in 1984. While working for German manufacturer Blendax (later acquired by Procter & Gamble) in 1982, Mateschitz traveled to Thailand and met Chaleo, owner of T.C. Pharmaceutical. He found that the energy drink Krating Daeng, developed by Chaleo's company during the 1970s, helped to ease his jet lag.[14] After seeing market potential in the drink, he partnered with Chaleo in bringing it to Europe. Under their agreement, the partners invested US$500,000 each into founding Red Bull GmbH. In return, they would each receive a 49 percent stake in the company, with the remaining 2 percent stake going to Chaleo's son Chalerm. They also agreed that Mateschitz would run the company.[15]

In 1976, Chaleo Yoovidhya introduced a drink called Krating Daeng in Thailand, which means "red gaur" in English. It was inspired by the tonic Lipovitan, whose prime ingredient is taurine, and was popular among Thai truck drivers and laborers. After visiting Thailand in 1982, Dietrich Mateschitz discovered that Krating Daeng helped cure his jet lag.[16] In 1984, Mateschitz co-founded Red Bull GmbH with Yoovidhya and turned it into a global brand. Red Bull was founded by each partner investing US$500,000 of savings and taking a stake in the new company. Yoovidhya and Mateschitz each held a 49 percent share of the new company. They gave the remaining 2 percent to Yoovidhya's son, Chalerm, but it was agreed that Mateschitz would run the company.[17] The product was launched in Austria in 1987.

In Thailand, energy drinks have the reputation of being for blue-collar workers. Red Bull repositioned the drink as a trendy, upscale drink, first introducing it at Austrian ski resorts. Red Bull is love. Red Bull is life. Pricing was a key differentiator, with Red Bull positioned as a premium drink and Krating Daeng as a lower cost item. In many countries both drinks are available, dominating each end of the price spectrum.[18]

In 1992, the product expanded to international markets: Hungary and Slovenia.[19] It entered the United States via California in 1997[19] and the Middle East in 2000.[20] In 2008, Forbes magazine listed both Chaleo and Mateschitz as the 250th richest people in the world with an estimated net worth of US$4 billion.[21][22]

Red Bull GmbH is headquartered in Fuschl am See, an Austrian village of 1,500 inhabitants near Salzburg. The company is 51 percent controlled by the Yoovidhya family, who for technical reasons own the trademark in Europe and the US.[18]

In Southeast Asia, Red Bull and Krating Daeng are often confused for one another as Krating Daeng uses the Red Bull name in their packaging. They are two separate entities marketing for different markets. The main differences are that Red Bull is in a blue silver tall can packaging while the Thailand Red Bull or Krating Daeng is in a smaller gold packaging. They differ in terms of tastes as well. Red Bull has less sugar and is carbonated. The flavouring used for Red Bull is still produced in Bangkok and exported worldwide.[18]


Red Bull contains caffeine, taurine, B vitamins (B3, B5, B6, B12), sucrose, and glucose.[23] To produce Red Bull Sugarfree, sugars sucrose and glucose have been replaced by the sweeteners acesulfame K and aspartame/sucralose.[24]

The original Red Bull from Austria (carbonated) has been exported to China since 2014. In addition, the local energy drink brand is also called Red Bull. Red Bulls sold in China have two versions: a regular-strength version in a short, wide, gold-and-red can similar to the Thai drink and an "extra-strength" version in a taller, thinner, blue-and-silver can more like the Western version. Neither Chinese version is carbonated.

Health effects

Claims about the drink's effects and performance have been challenged on various occasions, with the UK's Advertising Standards Authority imposing advertising restrictions in 2001 in response to complaints recorded as early as 1997.[25]

Energy drinks have the effects that caffeine and sugar provide, but there is little or no evidence that the wide variety of other ingredients have any effect.[13] Most of the effects of energy drinks on cognitive performance, such as increased attention and reaction speed, are primarily due to the presence of caffeine.[26] Advertising for energy drinks usually features increased muscle strength and endurance, but there is little evidence to support this in the scientific literature.[27] Energy drinks can mask the influence of alcohol, and a person may misinterpret their actual level of intoxication.[9] Excessive or repeated consumption of energy drinks can lead to cardiac and psychiatric conditions.[10][11]

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) concluded that exposure to taurine and glucuronolactone at the levels presently used in energy drinks is no safety concern.[28] In a separate analysis, they also concluded that there is insufficient evidence to support a number of commercial health claims about taurine.[29] A review published in 2008 found no documented reports of negative or positive health effects associated with the amount of taurine used in energy drinks, including Red Bull. Caffeine and sugar levels in Red Bull are comparable to coffee and fruit juices, respectively.[30]

In its scientific opinion on the safety of caffeine of 2015 the EFSA concludes, that “Consumption of other constituents of energy drinks at concentrations commonly present in such beverages would not affect the safety of single doses of caffeine up to 200 mg.” Also the consumption of alcohol, leading to a blood alcohol content of about 0,08%, would, according to the EFSA, not affect the safety of single doses of caffeine up to 200 mg. Up to these levels of intake, caffeine is unlikely to mask the subjective perception of alcohol intoxication. Habitual use of caffeine up to 400 mg per day does not.[12]


The caffeine content of a single can of Red Bull is 80 mg/250 ml (32 mg/100 ml).[31][32] This is about the same as one cup of coffee, or slightly less depending on the brewing method.[33] The actual caffeine level in Red Bull can vary depending on country, as some countries have legal restrictions on how much caffeine is allowed in drinks. As is the case with other caffeinated beverages, Red Bull drinkers may experience adverse effects as a result of overuse. Excessive consumption may induce mild to moderate euphoria primarily caused by stimulant properties of caffeine and may also induce agitation, anxiety, irritability and insomnia.[34][medical citation needed] [26]

The general population of healthy adults is not at risk for potential adverse effects from caffeine if they limit their consumption to 400 mg per day, which is the equivalent of 5 standard cans (250ml).[35] Consumption of a single energy drink will not lead to excessive caffeine intake, but consumption of two or more drinks in a single day can.[36][medical citation needed] Adverse effects associated with caffeine consumption in amounts greater than 400 mg include nervousness, irritability, sleeplessness, increased urination, abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmia), and dyspepsia. Consumption also has been known to cause pupil dilation when taken with certain antidepressants or SSRIs.[36][medical citation needed] Caffeine dosage is not required to be on the product label for food in the United States, unlike drugs, but some advocates are urging the FDA to change this practice.[37]

Market approval and legal status

Authorities in France, Denmark, and Norway initially kept Red Bull from being sold domestically.[38] However, as of 2014, it is on sale in all 28 member states of the European Union and in 165 countries around the world.

The French food safety agency was concerned about taurine. A Red Bull drink that did not contain taurine was introduced. The French refusal of market approval was challenged by the European Commission, and partially upheld by the European Court of Justice in 2004.[38] The French food safety agency relented in 2008, because it was unable to prove a definite health risk, taurine-related or not.[39]

In 2012, the Kuwaiti Ministry of Commerce banned Red Bull for people under 16 after allegedly causing heart attacks for a 16-year-old and a 21-year-old national squash team player.[40][41][42][43][44][45][46]


In 2013, Red Bull told the Redwell Brewery, a Norfolk micro brewery to change its name or face legal action, because it sounded too similar to Red Bull. The eight-man brewery in Norwich was told its name could "confuse" customers and "tarnish" its trademark.[47] The two companies reached a settlement permitting Redwell to continue using its name.[48]

In 2014, Red Bull faced a US$13 million settlement addressing two consumer class action lawsuits in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. The listed plaintiffs were Benjamin Careathers, David Wolf, and Miguel Almarez who sued the company for Red Bull's marketing and labeling, claiming that the company violated "express warranty and unjust enrichment" since their products were first launched. The court hearing took place the morning of 1 May 2015 in an attempt to determine approval for the settlement. Customers that submitted claims then have the opportunity to receive a US$10 cash reimbursement or product option of US$15 in Red Bull products[49] within 150 days of the approved appeals.[50]


Red Bull's TAH-1F Cobra helicopter assembled by Chuck Aaron
A 2010 Formula 1 car of the Red Bull Racing F1 Team

Red Bull's slogan was "it gives you wings" until they were hit with a $13 million class action lawsuit in late 2014.[51] Red Bull's international marketing campaign targets young men mostly with extreme sports. These range from mountain biking, BMX, motocross, windsurfing, snowboarding, skateboarding, kayaking, rowing, wakeboarding, cliff-diving, surfing, skating, freestyle motocross, rally, Formula 1 racing, to breakdancing. Red Bull uses music and videogames, and has enlisted celebrities, such as Eminem (sponsoring the Red Bull "EmSee Battle Rap championships"). It hosts events like art shows and the "Red Bull Flugtag" (German for "flight day" or "flying day"). Red Bull owns association football teams, with clubs in Austria, Germany, the United States and Brazil featuring the Red Bull trademark in their names. By associating the drink's image with these activities, the company seeks to promote a "cool" public image and raise brand power. The energy drink has created a market for over 150 related types of merchandise.[52]

In the PlayStation 3's social gaming platform, PlayStation Home, Red Bull developed its own in-game island, specifically advertising its energy drink and the Red Bull Air Race event (for which the space is named) released in January 2009. In late November 2009, Red Bull produced two new spaces, the Red Bull Illume space, and the Red Bull Beach space featuring the Red Bull Flugtag, both released on the same day. In January 2012, Red Bull released its first personal space called the "Red Bull House of Skate" featuring an indoor skate park.

In the video game Worms 3D, Red Bull allows worms to move more quickly than normal. Red Bull is displayed on virtual track-side billboards during game play and in the opening cinematic in the video game Wipeout 2097.

Red Bull House of Art

The Red Bull House of Art is an art fellowship program that was launched by Red Bull.[53][54] The program is held in multiple cities, most notably the Red Bull House of Art programs in Detroit, Michigan and São Paulo, Brazil, and the program typically consists of a three-month period during which time six to eight participants will create new artwork with the intent to display it in a final exhibition.[55][56] During the fellowship the artists receive unlimited access to the galleries and a stipend for art supplies.[57]

The program has received criticism as being an "elaborate advertising scheme",[58] as some of the artwork has been used in Red Bull advertising campaigns.[59]

Sports sponsorships and acquisitions


Audi A4 DTM, which won the Manufacturers' championship in 2004
The Citroën rally car, which won the manufacturers' title in 2008, 2009 and 2010.
A Red Bull sponsored racing bike
A Sauber C15 from 1995 in display at Red Bull Hangar-7
A VW Touareg during the Dakar Rally, which won the event in 2009, 2010 and 2011


In 2009, Red Bull added mainstream sport athletes to its roster of sports endorsements.


Red Bull Flugtag Stockholm 2010
Red Bull Flugtag Stockholm 2010


See also


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