Republic of China Army

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Republic of China Army
Zhōnghuá Mínguó Lùjūn
Flag of the Republic of China Army.svg
Flag of the Republic of China (Taiwan) Army
Active 1924–present
Country  Taiwan
Size 130,000 (2008 est.)
Part of Republic of China Armed Forces
Colors Gold & Green
Engagements Northern Expedition
Sino-Soviet conflict (1929)
Long March
Second Sino-Japanese War
World War II
Battle of Baitag Bogd
Chinese Civil War
Battle of Guningtou
Battle of Yijiangshan Islands
Vietnam War
Commander-in-chief ROCA General's Flag.svg Gen. Chiu Kuo-cheng (邱國正)[1]
Deputy Commander-in-chief ROCA Lieutenant General's Flag.svg Lt. Gen. Pan Chia-yu (潘家宇)
Deputy Commander-in-chief ROCA Lieutenant General's Flag.svg Lt. Gen. Chen Chuan-kuan (陳泉官)
Emblem Republic of China Army (ROCA) Logo.svg
Republic of China Army
Traditional Chinese 中華民國陸軍
Simplified Chinese 中华民国陆军

The Republic of China Army (ROCA; Chinese: 中華民國陸軍; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Lùjūn) is the largest branch of the Republic of China Armed Forces. An estimated 80% of the ROC Army is located on Taiwan, while the remainder are stationed on the smaller islands of Kinmen, Matsu and Penghu.

As the final line of defense against a possible invasion by the People's Liberation Army (PLA), the primary focus is on defense and counterattack against amphibious assault and urban warfare.


General Chiu Kuo-cheng, the incumbent commander of the ROC Army
ROC Army Logistics Command

The ROC Army's current operational strength includes 3 armies, 5 corps. As of 2005, the Army's 35 brigades include 25 infantry brigades, 5 armoured brigades and 3 mechanized infantry brigades.[2][3][4] All infantry brigades stood down and transferred to Reserve Command after 2005.

This update reflects the ROCA order of battle at the conclusion of the Jinjing Restructuring Plan in 2008.

A new type of unit called defense team (守備隊) is being introduced. These are formed by elements of de-activated brigades under each area defense command. The strength of a defense team may vary from one or more reinforced battalions, making it roughly equal to a regiment. The team CO is usually a full colonel.[5]

Republic of China Army Command Headquarters (中華民國國防部陸軍司令部)

The ROC Army CHQ is headed by a 3-star general and is responsible for overall command of all ROC Army assets. Army GHQ is subordinate to the Chief of the General Staff (military), the Minister of National Defense (civilian) and the ROC President.
  • Internal Units: Personnel, Combat Readiness and Training, Logistics, Planning, Communications, Electronics and Information, General Affairs, Comptroller, Inspector General, Political Warfare.
  • Aviation and Special Forces Command (航空特戰指揮部)
  • 601 Air Cavalry Brigade (original special force battalion assigned transferred back to 862nd Brigade)
  • 602 Air Cavalry Brigade (original special force battalion assigned transferred back to 862nd Brigade)
  • 603 Air Cavalry Brigade (this is a phantom unit, only exists on paper, no manpower, units, helicopters assigned)
  • 101st Reconnaissance Battalion (better known as Sea Dragon Frogman, has a company station in Kinmen, Matsu, 3 in Penghu, and other frontline islands)
  • Special Forces Command (特戰指揮部) In charge of 3 training centers
  • Army Airborne Training Center (大武營「陸軍空降訓練中心」)
  • Army Special Forces Training Center (谷關「陸軍特戰訓練中心」)
  • Army Winter and Mountain Training Center (武嶺寒訓中心)
  • Special Operation Command
  • 862 Special Operation Group (originally 862nd Special Operation Brigade, with 3rd, 4th, and 6th battalion that transferred back from aviation brigades)
  • 871 Special Operation Group (units unknown)
  • 6th Army Corps (第六軍團指揮部): Northern Taiwan
  • Guandu Area Command
  • Lanyang Area Command
  • 269 Mechanized Infantry Brigade
  • 542 Armor Brigade
  • 584 Armor Brigade
  • 21 Artillery Command
  • 53 Engineer Group
  • 73 Signals Group
  • 33 Chemical Warfare Group
  • 8th Army Corps (第八軍團指揮部): Southern Taiwan
  • 333 Mechanized Infantry Brigade
  • 564 Armor Brigade
  • 43 Artillery Command
  • 54 Engineer Group
  • 75 Signals Group
  • 39 Chemical Warfare Group
ROC Military Police Special Forces disembarking from a UH-1H helicopter from the ROC Army 602nd Air Cavalry Brigade during a counter-terrorism exercise.
An honor guard stands guard at the National Martyrs Shrine in Taipei.
  • 10th Army Corps (第十軍團指揮部): Central Taiwan
  • 234 Mechanized Infantry Brigade (will receive CM-32 "Clouded Leopard" wheeled IFV beginning of 2011)[6]
  • 586 Armor Brigade
  • 58 Artillery Command
  • 52 Engineer Group
  • 36 Chemical Warfare Group
  • 74 Signals Group
  • Hua-Tung Defense Command (花東防衛指揮部): Eastern Taiwan
  • Hualien (花蓮) Defense Team
  • Taitung (台東) Area Command
  • Kinmen Defense Command (金門防衛指揮部)
  • Jindong (金東, Kinmen East) Defense Team
  • Jinshih (金西, Kinmen West) Defense Team
  • Shihyu (獅嶼) Defense Team
  • Artillery Group
  • Penghu Defense Command (澎湖防衛指揮部)
  • 1 Armored Battalion, 1 Armored Infantry Battalion, 1 Armored Cav Battalion, 1 mixed Artillery Battalion.
  • Matsu Defense Command (馬祖防衛指揮部)
  • Beigao (北高) Area Command
  • Juguang (莒光) Area Command
  • Dongyin Area Command (東引地區指揮部)
  • Logistics Command (後勤指揮部)
  • Education, Training and Doctorine Command (教育訓練暨準則發展指揮部)
  • Republic of China Military Academy, Training & Command Schools, Chemical Warfare Corps, Engineering Corps, Arsenal Development.
  • Armed Force Reserve Command (後備指揮部)
  • 9 active infantry brigades, 24 Reserve brigades (Activated only in time of war)

ROC Army's former Army Missile Command was transferred to ROC Air Force in 2006.


The Republic of China Military Academy trains officers for the army in a four-year program.


The Republic of China Army originated from Chinese National Revolutionary Army, which was founded by Sun Yat-sen's Kuomintang (KMT) in 1924, when the Whampoa Military Academy was established with Soviet military assistance. Whampoa Military Academy, which was presided by Chiang Kai Shek, was tasked with the objective of training a professional Chinese revolutionary army (革命軍人) to unify China during the Warlord Era . It participated in the Northern Expedition, the Second Sino-Japanese War (during World War II) and the Chinese Civil War before withdrawing with the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949.

After 1949, the ROC Army has participated in combat operations on Kinmen and the Dachen Archipelago against the PLA in the Battle of Kuningtou, and in the First and Second Taiwan Strait Crisis. In addition to these major conflicts, ROCA commandos were regularly sent to raid the Fujian and Guangdong coasts. Until the 1970s, the stated mission of the Army was to retake the mainland from the People's Republic of China. Following the lifting of martial law in 1988 and the democratization of the 1990s, the mission of the ROC Army has been shifted to the defense of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu from a PLA invasion.

With the reduction of the size of the ROC armed forces in recent years, the Army has endured the largest number of cutbacks as ROC military doctrine has begun to emphasize the importance of offshore engagement with the Navy and Air Force. Subsequent to this shift in emphasis, the ROC Navy and Air Force have taken precedence over the ROC Army in defense doctrine and weapons procurement.[7] Recent short-term goals in the Army include acquisition and development of joint command and control systems, advanced attack helicopters and armored vehicles, Multiple Launch Rocket System and field air defense systems. The Army is also in the process of transitioning to an all volunteer force.[4]


The CM-32 Armoured Vehicle, currently under production (mobile-gun platform variant is shown).
File:M60A3 Taiwan 03.jpg
An ROCA M60A3 TTS Main Battle Tank.

From the 1990s onwards, the Republic of China Army launched several upgrade programmes to replace out-dated equipment with cutting edge state of the art advanced weapons, also increasing its emphasis on forces that could be rapidly deployed and were suited for combat in Taiwan's heavily urbanized environment. Orders were placed with the United States for M60A3 Patton tanks, M109A6 "Paladin" howitzers and AH-1W SuperCobra attack helicopters, as well as updating existing equipment.

Along with the other ROC military branches, the ROC Army has extensive experience in the construction and utilization of underground tunnels and bases gained during the People's Republic of China's bombardments of Kinmen and Matsu during the Cold War and many facilities are rumoured to be located underground in undisclosed locations.

In July 2007 it was reported that the ROC Army would request the purchase of 30 AH-64E Apache Guardian attack helicopters from the US in the 2008 defence budget.[8] The 2008 defense budget also listed a request for 60 UH-60M Black Hawk helicopters as a partial replacement for the UH-1Hs currently in service.[9] It has been reported that the ROC Army will seek new third generation main battle tanks, as the M60A3s are aging. The possible tanks under consideration are the US M1A2, UK Challenger, German Leopard 2A6, French AMX-56 Leclerc and the Israeli Merkava. However, it is expected to procure the US M1A2 due to closer military ties.[10]

The U.S. Government announced on October 3 2008 that it plans to sell $6.5 billion worth of arms to Taiwan ending the freeze of arms sales to Taiwan. Amongst other things, the plans include $2.532 billion worth of 30 AH-64D Apache Longbow Block III Attack helicopters with night-vision sensors, radar, 173 Stinger Block I air-to-air missiles and 1000 AGM-114L Hellfire missiles.[11] and 182 Javelin missiles will also be available with 20 Javelin command launchers and is estimated to cost $47 million.[12][13]

On January 29, 2010, US Government announced 5 notifications to US Congress for arms sales to Taiwan. Of the total 6.392 billion US dollars in the 5 announcements, ROC Army will receive 60 UH-60M and other related things for cost of 3.1 Billion.[14]

On August 31, 2010, it was announced for next year's defense budget, ROCA plan for next generation MBT has been put on hold, due to lack of budget.[15]

Armoured vehicles

Vehicle Origin Type In service Notes
M1A1  United States Main battle tank 120 To be deployed in northern Taiwan before 2020
M60A3 TTS  United States Main battle tank 460 Some are transferred to ROCMC[16]
CM-11 (M48H)  Republic of China Main battle tank 450 Assembled in Taiwan 1988-1994. Some transferred to ROCMC
CM-12  Republic of China Medium Tank 100 Modified in Taiwan from M48A3[17]
M48A3  Republic of China Medium Tank 50 Received 309 M48A1/A2 in the 1970s, modified in Taiwan to M48A3, 250 upgraded to CM-12 standard[17]
M41  United States Light Tank 50 50 M41D Modified in Taiwan, some M41 are in used by ROCMC
CM-32  Republic of China Infantry fighting vehicle 652 In production, first batch of 600, first unit will be 200th MIB in Central Taiwan.[6] 368 vehicles entering service by 2017-2018
CM-21  Republic of China Armoured personnel carrier 1,000+ Various variants produced from 1982 to 2009. CM-21/A1 personnel carrier
CM-22 mortar carrier for 107mm/120mm mortar
CM-23 mortar carrier for 81mm mortar
CM-24/A1 ammo carrier, can carry either 90 rounds of 155mm or 42 rounds 203mm
CM-25 TOW launcher
CM-26 Command Track
CM-27/A1 Recovery
M113  United States Armoured personnel carrier 675 Various variants, including personnel carrier, mortar carrier, ammo carrier, TOW launcher(retired), command and recovery[18]
V-150S  United States Armoured personnel carrier 300 With Southern Army Group, 298th Mech Inf Brigade
Humvee  United States Infantry fighting vehicle 2,000-2,500 Various variants, including to carry local made machine guns and TOW 2A launchers, and others.


Weapon Origin Type In service Notes
M110A2  United States 203mm Self-propelled Howitzer 75
M109A2/A5  United States 155mm Self-Propelled Howitzer 197/28[19] Some transferred to ROCMC
M108  United States 105mm Self-propelled Howitzer 90 [19]
M1  United States 240mm Fixed/Towed Howitzer 30+ Stationed in Kinmen/Quemoy and Matsu
M115  United States 203mm Towed Howitzer 90[19]
M59 "Long Tom"  United States 155mm Towed Howitzer 390[19]
M101  United States 105mm Towed Howitzer 650
M712 Copperhead  United States 155mm Laser-guided AP Artillery shell  ??
Kung Feng VI  Republic of China 117mm or 126mm Tracked MRL 72 24 per Corp[20]
RT/LT-2000  Republic of China 117mm, 180mm, or 227mm Wheeled MRL 43 57 ordered

Helicopters and UAVs

Aircraft Origin Type In service[4][21] Notes
AH-64E Apache  United States Attack helicopter 29 30 ordered, one lost to crash[22][23]
AH-1W SuperCobra  United States Attack helicopter 61
Bell OH-58D Kiowa  United States Light Observation Helicopter 38
OH-6A Cayuse [24]  United States Light Observation Helicopter  ??
Bell TH-67A Creek  United States Training helicopter 12
Boeing CH-47SD Chinook  United States Heavy Transport Helicopter 8
UH-60M Black Hawk  United States Utility helicopter 45 [25] 60 ordered. Delivery starts mid December 2014 for first 6, rest to arrive by in seven batches with full delivery by 2018[26]
AIDC UH-1H Iroquois  Republic of China Utility helicopter Fewer than 40 118 built under licence by AIDC
Chung Shyang II UAV  Republic of China Recon UAV 32

Anti-aircraft weapons

Platform Origin Type In service Notes
AIM-9 Sidewinder  United States air-to-air missile 300 AIM-9S. Carry by AH-1W[27]
AIM-92 Stinger  United States air-to-air missile 173 Block I, ordered for AH-64D Block III APACHE Longbow Attack Helicopters[28]
Sky Sword II (TC-2)  Republic of China surface-to-air missile  ?? carried by Tracked/Wheeled Trucks
MIM-72/M48 Chaparral  United States surface-to-air missile 40 In service with Southern Army Group only. With 646 rounds of MIM-72F and 302 rounds of MIM-72E/G/J[19]
Sky Sword I (TC-1)  Republic of China surface-to-air missile  ?? carried by Tracked/Wheeled Trucks
M-1097 Avenger (AN/TWQ-1)  United States surface-to-air missile 74 In service with Northern and Central Army Group only, came with 1299 Stingers purchased in the same deal[19]
M42 Duster  United States anti-aircraft gun  ?? Still in service with Northern and Central Army Group anti-air units, 1 battalion each.[29]
Dual Mounted Stinger (DMS)  United States surface-to-air missile 116 55 Stinger DMS launchers with 465 RMP rounds, from US Army stockpile and rebuilt/refurbished, sold to Taiwan May 1996 for 80 million.[30] 61 Stinger DMS launchers with 728 rounds, delivered between 1996 and 1998 for 180 million, some transferred to ROCMC[19]
FIM-92 Stinger  United States surface-to-air missile  ??

Anti-ship weapons

Platform Origin Type In service Notes
Hsiung Feng III  Republic of China Anti-Ship Missile (AShM)  ?? Truck platform[31]
Hsiung Feng II  Republic of China Anti-Ship Missile (AShM)  ?? Truck platform

Anti-tank weapons

Platform Origin Type In service Notes
Hellfire AGM-114L  United States anti-tank missile 1,000 On order to be carried by AH-64E
Hellfire AGM-114K3  United States anti-tank missile 240 Carried by AH-1W and OH-58D since 1999
Hellfire AGM-114C  United States anti-tank missile 684 Carried by AH-1W and OH-58D[19]
Hellfire AGM-114M3  United States anti-tank missile 449 By AH-1W or OH-58D, ordered 9/2002[28]
BGM-71 TOW-2A/B  United States anti-tank missile 3,100+ rounds and 163+ launchers[32] Used by ROC Army and ROCMC on HUMVEE, M-113, CM-25, and on AH-1W and OH-58D helicopters. After 1997, Taiwan purchased 1786 TOW-2A and 290 TOW-2B[33]
FGM-148 Javelin  United States anti-tank missile 360 and 40 launchers 182 with 20 launchers on order
APILAS  France anti-tank missile 1,000 Over 1,000 delivered by 1998
M136 (AT4)  Sweden rocket-propelled grenade  ?? Licence-built in US
M72 LAW  United States rocket-propelled grenade  ?? Produced locally as the Type 66
Hydra 70[34]  United States air-to-surface rocket  ?? Carry by AH-64E, AH-1W, or OH-58D

Other surface attack weapons

Platform Origin Type In service Notes
Yun Feng  Republic of China supersonic cruise missile  ?? Truck platform
Hsiung Feng IIE  Republic of China subsonic cruise missile  ?? Truck platform[31]

Small arms

Weapon Origin Type Notes
T75K1  Taiwan 9mm pistol Based on M9/Beretta 92
Glock 17  Austria 9mm pistol
USP  Germany 9mm pistol
T51  Taiwan .45 ACP pistol License-produced M1911A1
Uzi  Israel 9mm submachine gun
Type 77 SMG  Taiwan 9mm submachine gun
Calico M960  United States 9mm submachine gun
MP5A5  Germany 9mm submachine gun
FN P90  Belgium 5.7x28mm personal defense weapon
Franchi SPAS-12  Italy 12-gauge combat shotgun
M1014  Italy 12-gauge semi-automatic shotgun
M16A1  United States 5.56mm NATO assault rifle Limited use only
T65  Taiwan 5.56mm NATO assault rifle
T86  Taiwan 5.56mm NATO rifle & 40mm grenade launcher Evaluation Only
G36C  Germany 5.56mm NATO carbine assault rifle
AUG  Austria 5.56mm NATO assault rifle
M4A1  United States 5.56mm NATO carbine assault rifle
T91 carbine  Taiwan 5.56mm NATO carbine assault rifle Current standard issue
Type 57  Taiwan 7.62mm NATO battle rifle License-produced M14
M24  United States .308 Win sniper rifle
T93 sniper rifle  Taiwan .308 Win sniper rifle
SSG-2000   Switzerland .308 Win sniper rifle
DSR-1  Germany .308 Win sniper rifle
PSG-1  Germany .308 Win sniper rifle
Barrett M82A1 and also M107A1  United States .50 BMG sniper rifle Used with Army Special Forces
FN Minimi or T75 light machine gun  Belgium 5.56mm NATO squad automatic weapon
T74 general-purpose machine gun  Taiwan 7.62mm NATO general-purpose machine gun Based on FN MAG
M2  United States .50 BMG heavy machine gun
T85 grenade launcher  Taiwan 40mm grenade launcher
MGL Mk-1  South Africa 40mm grenade launcher
Mk-19 Mod 3  United States 40mm automatic grenade launcher Licensed production in Taiwan

Future weapons and acquisition

Platform Origin Type Notes
XT-99  Republic of China 9mm machine pistol In development from Glock 18, SIG P226, FN FNP-45, Five-seveN, and PDW[35]
MSR 9mm  Republic of China 9mm submachine gun In development from HK MP5, Magpul FMG-9, B&T MP9, FN P90, and PDW[36]
XT-97  Republic of China 5.56mm NATO assault rifle Designed in 2008 due for service in 2011 for Special forces[37]
XT-100  Republic of China 6.8mm SPC assault rifle In development from Gas-Operation, M951-KIT02, BGV-QDSF, and Harris BRM-S[38]
XT-101  Republic of China 3-in-one assault rifle In development from 6.5 Grendel, Diamondhead D-45, Ergo 4015, and Vltor EMod[39]
MUSR  Republic of China 3-in-one assault rifle In development from FN Scar, HK416, SG 550, AK-12, ARX-160, ACR, and XCR[40]
XT-98  Republic of China 7.62mm NATO battle rifle In development from Mk 14 EBR, FN FAL, SR-25, and LWRC REPR[35]
Yun Feng  Republic of China Supersonic Cruise missile Production for the new missile is scheduled to begin in 2014[41]

See also

References & notes

  2. "Speculative ROC Army ORBAT". Retrieved 2006-03-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "ROC Army". Retrieved 2006-03-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "2004 National Defense Report" (PDF). ROC Ministry of National Defense. 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-03-11. Retrieved 2006-03-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. August 12, 2007. Retrieved Sept 16, 2009
  6. 6.0 6.1 "ROC Army 602nd Air Cav Brigade 2010 Open Base Exercise In The Rain". Retrieved 2010-11-14. External link in |work= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Roy, Denny (2003). "Taiwan's Threat Perceptions: The Enemy Within" (PDF). Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> See "Reforming the Armed Forces", page 5.
  8. "Taiwan to Buy Apaches to Counter China Threat". Defense News. 2007-07-09. Retrieved 2007-10-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. "Report says Taiwan sold 1 billion rifle bullets to U.S." Retrieved 2007-11-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. The Washington Post Missing or empty |title= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  14. "USDA New Release" (PDF). 2010-01-29. Retrieved 2010-01-29.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. "Next Year Defense Budget Believed To Be Lowest In 5 Years". United Daily newspaper. 2010-08-31. Retrieved 2010-09-12.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. "ROCMC's 66th Brigade Receiving New Tanks". Retrieved 2010-11-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. 17.0 17.1 "". Retrieved 2010-01-14. External link in |title=, |work= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. "ROC Army M113 TOW Launchers are phased out into history". Retrieved 2010-04-05. External link in |work= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 "". Retrieved 2010-01-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. "hojiyi". Retrieved 2010-06-19. External link in |work= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. "Aviation & Special Warfare Command". Retrieved 2007-07-16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. Crash destroys Taiwanese AH-64E Apache -, 26 April 2014
  23. Taiwan received fifth and last batch of AH-64E Apache attack helicopters -, 20 October 2014
  25. "Second batch of UH-60s arrive in Taiwan - IHS Jane's 360". Retrieved 2015-06-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. "". Retrieved 2010-01-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. 28.0 28.1 "". Retrieved 2010-01-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. "ROCAF air defense open base". Retrieved 2010-10-09.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. "". Retrieved 2010-01-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. 31.0 31.1
  32. "". Retrieved 2010-01-09.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. "2 TOW Missiles Missed During Exercise". Archived from the original on May 29, 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-29.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  35. 35.0 35.1
  37. "XT-97-Assault-File". Retrieved 2010-08-12. External link in |work= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links