Revolutionary Serbia

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Revolutionary Serbia
Србија/Srbija
1805–1815
Revolutionary Serbia in 1813.
Capital Topola (1805–13)
Gornja Crnuća (1815)
Government Autonomous principality[clarification needed]
Grand Leader
 •  1805–13 Karađorđe (first)
 •  1815– Miloš Obrenović (second)
History
 •  Establishment of government 1805
 •  First Serbian Uprising 1804–13
 •  Ičko's Peace July 1806–January 1807
 •  Russian–Serbian Alliance 10 July 1807
 •  Restoration of Ottoman rule October 1813
 •  Second Serbian Uprising 1815–17
 •  Transformation into the Principality of Serbia 1815
Area
 •  1815[1] 24,440 km2 (9,440 sq mi)
Population
 •  1815[1] est. 332,000 
     Density 14/km2 (35/sq mi)
Preceded by
Sanjak of Smederevo

Revolutionary Serbia or Karađorđe's Serbia (Serbian: Карађорђева Србија) refers to the state established by Serbian revolutionaries in Ottoman Serbia (Sanjak of Smederevo) after successful military operations against the Ottoman Empire and establishment of government in 1805. The Sublime Porte first officially recognized the state as autonomous in January 1807, however, the Serbian revolutionaries rejected the treaty and continued fighting the Ottomans until 1815, when ceasefire and autonomy was agreed.

Political history

First Serbian Uprising

Stratimirović's Memorandum

  • Stratimirović's Memorandum (1804)[2]

Ičko's Peace

Between July and October 1806 Petar Ičko, an Ottoman dragoman (diplomat) and representative of the Serbian rebels, negotiated a peace treaty known in historiography as "Ičko's Peace". Ičko had been sent to Constantinople twice in the latter half of 1806 to negotiate peace. The Ottomans seemed ready to grant Serbia autonomy following rebel victories in 1805 and 1806, also pressured by the Russians, who had taken Moldavia and Wallachia; they agreed to a sort of autonomy and clearer stipulation of taxes in January 1807, by which time the rebels had already taken Belgrade. The rebels rejected the treaty and sought Russian aid to their independence, while the Ottomans had declared war on Russia in December 1806. A Russian-Serbian alliance treaty was signed on 10 June 1807.

Russian–Serbian Alliance

On 10 July 1807, the Serbian rebels under Karađorđe signed an alliance with the Russian Empire during the First Serbian Uprising. After the Ottoman Empire had allied itself with Napoleon in late 1806, and was attacked by Russia and Britain, it sought to meet the demands of the Serbian rebels. At the same time, the Russians offered the Serbs aid and cooperation. The Serbs chose alliance with the Russians over autonomy under the Ottomans (as set by the "Ičko's Peace"). Karađorđe was to receive arms, and military and medical missions, which proved to be a turning point in the Serbian Revolution.

Proclamations

  • A proclamation (Slavonic-Serbian: Проглашенie) calling for the unity of Serbs, dated 21 February 1809.[3]
  • A proclamation with 15 points, dated 16 August 1809.[4]

Treaty of Bucharest (1812)

Second Serbian Uprising

Government

Rule was divided between Grand Leader Karađorđe, the Narodna Skupština (People's Assembly) and the Praviteljstvujušči Sovjet (Ruling Council), established in 1805.

Ruling Council

The Ruling Council was established by recommendation of the Russian Minister for Foreign Affairs Chartorisky and on the proposal of some of the dukes (Jakov and Matija Nenadović, Milan Obrenović, Sima Marković).[5] The idea of Boža Grujović, the first secretary, and Matija Nenadović, the first president, was that the council would become the government of the new Serbian state.[6] It had to organize and supervise the administration, the economy, army supply, order and peace, judiciary, and foreign policy.[6]

Ministers

See also

References

  1. Michael R. Palairet (2002). The Balkan Economies C.1800-1914: Evolution Without Development. Cambridge University Press. pp. 16–. ISBN 978-0-521-52256-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Vladislav B. Sotirović. ""The Memorandum (1804) by the Karlovci Metropolitan Stevan Stratimirović", Serbian Studies: Journal of the North American Society for Serbian Studies, Vol. 24, 2010, № 1−2, ISSN 0742-3330, 2012, Slavica Publishers, Indiana University, Bloomington, USA, pp. 27−48".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Vjesnik Kr. državnog arkiva u Zagrebu. 17-18. Tisak zaklade tiskare narodnih novina. 1915. p. 124.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Trifunovska 1994, pp. 3–4.
  5. Janković 1955, p. 18.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Čubrilović 1982, p. 65.

Sources