Right-wing terrorism

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Right-wing terrorism is terrorism motivated by a variety of far right ideologies and beliefs, including anti-communism, neo-fascism, neo-Nazism, racism, xenophobia. This type of terrorism has been sporadic, with little or no international cooperation.[1] The terrorist acts are generally poorly coordinated[citation needed], and few identifiable organizations have been involved. Modern right-wing terrorism first appeared in western Europe in the 1980s and in eastern Europe following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.[2]

Right-wing terrorists aim to overthrow governments and replace them with nationalist or fascist-oriented governments.[1] The core of this movement includes neo-fascist skinheads, far right hooligans, youth sympathisers and intellectual guides who believe that the state must rid itself of foreign elements in order to protect rightful citizens.[3] However, they usually lack a rigid ideology.[4]

Americas

Brazil

During Brazilian military government rule period, some bombing attempts happened where some far right-wing military engaged in the repression were involved. Two are the most famous. The Riocentro 1981 May Day Attack was a bombing attempt which happened on the night of Apr 30th 1981 is the most known and investigated one, because of the severe casualties suffered by its own terrorists. While a show to fund raising a NGO fighting for democracy and free elections was being run by many popular Brazilian music artists, also celebrating the upcoming to the work day holiday on May 1, a bomb exploded at Riocentro parking area killing army seargent Guilherme Pereira do Rosário and severely wounded captain Wilson Dias Machado which survived the bomb explosion. The bomb exploded inside a car where both were preparing the artifact for explosion. Seargent Guilherme do Rosário died instantaneously as the bomb was on his legs when it exploded. Both were the only casualties of this event.

The second is known as the Para-SAR case [5][6] which became public in the year of 1968. It was not able to reach the execution phase as it was made public to the press by the Brazilian Air Force captain Sérgio Ribeiro Miranda de Carvalho after a meeting with his superior brigadier João Paulo Burnier and chief of Para-SAR unity. Burnier told at that meeting a secret plan of bombing an extremely dense traffic area of Rio de Janeiro known as "gasômetro" during the rush hour and latter claim communists as guilty of these bombings. He expected with it to be able to run a witch-hunt against the growing political military opposition. Burnier also mentioned his intentions on making the Para-SAR, a Brazilian Air Force rescue unity, a tool for eliminating some military government political oppositors throwing them to the sea at a wide distance of the coast. On both of these events, no military involved on these actions or planning was arrested, charged or faced retaliation from the Brazilian military government. The only exception is captain Sérgio de Carvalho which had to leave the air force for facing his superiors retaliation after whistleblowing brigadier Burnier's plan.

Colombia

Colombian Paramilitary groups are known to be the parties responsible for most of the human rights violations in the latter half of the ongoing Colombian Armed Conflict.[7] The first paramilitary terrorist[8] groups were organized by U.S. military advisers who were sent during the Cold War to Colombia to combat the spread of leftist politicians, activists and guerrillas.[9][10]

According to several international human rights and governmental organizations, right-wing paramilitary groups have been responsible for at least 70 to 80% of political murders in Colombia per year.[7][11]

This groups are known to be financed and protected by elite landowners, drug traffickers, members of the security forces, right wing politicians and multinational corporations.[12][13][14][15]

Today's Paramilitary violence and terrorism is principally targeted towards peasants, unionists, indigenous people, human rights workers, teachers and left-wing political activists or their supporters.[16][17][18][19][20][21][22]

United States

During the 1980s, more than 75 right-wing extremists were prosecuted in the United States for acts of terrorism, although they carried out only six attacks during the decade.[23] In 1983, Gordon Kahl, a Posse Comitatus activist, killed two federal marshals and was later killed by police. Also that year, the white nationalist revolutionary group The Order (also known as the Brüder Schweigen or Silent Brotherhood) robbed several banks and armored cars, as well as a sex shop;[24] bombed a theater and a synagogue; and murdered radio talk show host Alan Berg.[25][26]

The April 19, 1995 attack on the Murrah federal building in Oklahoma, by the right-wing extremists Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, which killed 168 people.[27] McVeigh stated it was retaliation for the government's actions in Ruby Ridge and Waco.[28] McVeigh attended Michigan militia group gun shows.[29][30]

Eric Rudolph executed a series of terrorist attacks between 1996 and 1998. He carried out 1996 Centennial Olympic Park bombing — which claimed two lives and injured 111 — with the aim of to cancelling the games, claiming they promoted global socialism.[31] Rudolph confessed to bombing an abortion clinic in Sandy Springs, an Atlanta suburb, on January 16, 1997; the Otherside Lounge, an Atlanta lesbian bar, on February 21, 1997, injuring five; and an abortion clinic in Birmingham, Alabama on January 29, 1998, killing Birmingham police officer and part-time clinic security guard Robert Sanderson, and critically injuring nurse Emily Lyons.

According to data compiled by the New America Foundation, since the 2001 September 11 attacks, right-wing extremists have committed at least 19 lethal terrorist attacks in the United States, resulting in the deaths of 48 people.[32]

White terrorism

"White terrorism"[33] is a similar term used to describe American domestic terrorist activities by conservative white people, often in the context of the idea that undue media attention is placed on Islamic terrorism and not domestic terrorism, often by white Americans. "White terrorism" is a term often attributable to race relations issues in the late 1800s. Organized white terrorism against the recently freed black slaves was a method employed by whites to keep the slaves in their place during the Reconstruction era.[34] "White terrorism, systematic, organised and relentless, targeted the dream with deadly accuracy" is the way one researcher described it.[35] The term was notably applied to the attempted assassination of Senator Gabrielle Giffords,[33] the 2015 Charleston Shooting,[36] Colorado Springs Planned Parenthood shooting, and the Occupation of the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge. Research by the New America Foundation has shown a higher percentage of attacks by right-wing extremists in America than for violent Islamist extremists in America.[37][38] Hillary Clinton has used this term as well.[39]

Europe

France

Neo-Nazis of the French and European Nationalist Party were responsible for a pair of anti-Muslim terror bombings in 1988. Sonacotra hostels in Cagnes-sur-Mer and Cannes were bombed, killing Romanian immigrant George Iordachescu and injuring 16 people, mostly Tunisians.

In an attempt to frame Jewish extremists for the Cagnes-sur-Mer bombing, the terrorists left leaflets bearing Stars of David and the name "Masada" at the scene of the crime, with the message "To destroy Israel, Islam has chosen the sword. For this choice, Islam will perish."[40]

Germany

In 1980, a right-wing terrorist attack in Munich, Germany killed the attacker and 14 other people, injuring 215. Fears of an ongoing campaign of major right-wing terrorist attacks did not materialize.[1]

In addition to several bank robberies, the German National Socialist Underground was responsible for the Bosphorus serial murders (2000-2006), the 2004 Cologne bombing and the murder of policewoman Michéle Kiesewetter in 2007. In November 2011, two members of the National Socialist Underground committed suicide after a bank robbery and a third member was arrested some days later.

Italy

In the August 1980 Bologna bombing, a group of right-wing terrorists exploded a bomb at a railroad station in Bologna, Italy, killing 85 people and injuring more than 180. According to the Italian police, the perpetrators were Valerio Fioravanti and Francesca Mambro, two members of the neo-fascist organization Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari. Both of the accused denied any connection with the attacks.[41]

In December 2011, far right CasaPound activists took part in targeted shooting of Senegalese traders in Florence, killing two and injuring three.[42][43]

Norway

On July 22, 2011, Norwegian right-wing extremist with Nazi[44][45] and fascist[46] sympathies, Anders Behring Breivik, carried out the 2011 Norway attacks, the largest mass killing of people in Norway by a single person during peacetime, excluding use of bombs. First he bombed several government buildings in Oslo, killing eight people and injuring more than 30. After the bombings, he went to Utøya island in a fake police uniform and began firing on people attending a political youth camp for the Worker's Youth League (AUF), a left-wing political party, killing 68 and injuring more than 60.

United Kingdom

In April 1999, David Copeland, a neo-Nazi, planted a series of nail bombs over 13 days, causing explosions in Brixton, Brick Lane (in east London), and Soho (in central London). His attacks, which were aimed at London's black, Bangladeshi and gay communities, resulted in three people being killed and more than 100 being injured.[47] Copeland was a former member of two far right political groups, the British National Party (BNP) and the National Socialist Movement. Copeland told police, "My aim was political. It was to cause a racial war in this country. There'd be a backlash from the ethnic minorities, then all the white people will go out and vote BNP."[48]

In July 2007, Robert Cottage, a former BNP member, was convicted for possessing explosive chemicals in his home – described by police at the time of his arrest as the largest amount of chemical explosive of its type ever found in this country.[49] In June 2008, Martyn Gilleard, a British Nazi sympathizer, was jailed after police found nail bombs, bullets, swords, axes and knives in his flat.[50] Also in 2008, Nathan Worrell was found guilty of possession of material for terrorist purposes and racially aggravated harassment. He was described by anti-terror police as a "dangerous individual". The court heard that police found books and manuals containing "recipes" to make bombs and detonators using household items, such as weedkiller, at Worrell's flat.[51] In July 2009, Neil Lewington was planning on waging a terror campaign using weapons made from tennis balls and weedkiller against those he classified as "non British".[52]

In 2012, the British Home Affairs Committee warned of the threat of far right terrorism in the UK, claiming it had heard "persuasive evidence" about the potential danger and cited the growth of similar threats across Europe.[53]

Members of Combat 18 (C18), a neo-Nazi organisation based on the concept of "leaderless resistance", have been suspected in numerous deaths of immigrants, non-whites, and other C18 members.[54] Between 1998 and 2000, dozens of Combat 18 members in the UK were arrested on various charges during dawn raids by the police.[55][56] A group calling itself the Racial Volunteer Force split from C18 in 2002, although it has retained close links to its parent organization.[57] Some journalists believed that the White Wolves are a C18 splinter group, alleging that the group had been set up by Del O'Connor, the former second-in-command of C18 and member of Skrewdriver Security.[58] Racist attacks on immigrants continue from members of C18.[59] Weapons, ammunition and explosives have been seized by police in the UK and almost every country in which C18 is active.

Northern Ireland

British far-right activists supplied funds and weaponry to Loyalist terrorist groups in Northern Ireland during the Troubles.[60] Since the end of the conflict, some members of Loyalist groups have been orchestrating a series of racist attacks in Northern Ireland,[61][62][63] including pipe bomb and gun attacks on the homes of immigrants.[64][65][66][67][68] As a result, Northern Ireland has a higher proportion of racist attacks than other parts of the UK,[63][69] and has been branded the "race-hate capital of Europe".[70]


See also

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Aubrey, p. 45
  2. Moghadam, p. 57
  3. Moghadam, pp. 57-58
  4. Moghadam, p. 58
  5. "Brasileiros magazine".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. "Fatos magazine" (PDF). June 1, 1985.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. 7.0 7.1 Constanza Vieira (August 27, 2008). "International Criminal Court Scrutinises Paramilitary Crimes". Inter Press Service.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  9. Rempe, 1995
  10. Livingstone, 2004: p. 155
  11. HRW, 1996: "III: The Intelligence Reorganization"
  12. Schulte-Bockholt, Alfredo (2006). The Politics of Organized Crime and the Organized Crime of Politics: a study in criminal power. Lexington. p. 95.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Marc Chernick (March–April 1998). "The paramilitarization of the war in Colombia". NACLA Report on the Americas. 31 (5): 28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Brittain, 2010: pp. 129–131
  15. Forrest Hylton (2006). Evil Hour in Colombia. Verso. pp. 68–69. ISBN 978-1-84467-551-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Michael Taussig (2004). Law in a Lawless Land: Diary of limpieza in Colombia. New Press.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. Elizabeth F. Schwartz (Winter 1995–1996). "Getting Away with Murder: Social Cleansing in Colombia and the Role of the United States". The University of Miami Inter-American Law Review. 27 (2): 381–420.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. Lovisa Stannow (1996) "Social cleansing" in Colombia, MA Thesis, Simon Fraser University
  19. Alfredo Molano (2005). The Dispossessed: Chronicles of the desterrados of Colombia. Haymarket. p. 113.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, "Colombia: Activities of a Colombian social cleansing group known as 'Jóvenes del Bien' and any state efforts to deal with it" , 2 April 2004
  21. Brittain, 2010: pp. 132–135
  22. William Avilés (May 2006). "Paramilitarism and Colombia's Low-Intensity Democracy". Journal of Latin American Studies. 38 (2): 380.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. Smith, pp. 25-26
  24. "Free the Order Rally". Southern Poverty Law Center. Spring 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. "Death List Names Given to US Jury". New York Times. September 17, 1985. Retrieved 2007-08-25.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. Morris Dees and Steve Fiffer. Hate on Trial: The Case Against America's Most Dangerous Neo-Nazi. Villard Books, 1993. page xiiv
  27. Michael, p. 107
  28. "McVeigh offers little remorse in letters". The Topeka Capital-Journal. Associated Press. June 10, 2001. Archived from the original on February 27, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. Marks, p. 103
  30. MacQuarrie, Brian (April 19, 2005). "Militias' era all but over, analysts say". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on March 17, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4600480
  32. "Deadly Attacks Since 9/11". New America. Retrieved 25 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. 33.0 33.1 Cole, Juan (January 15, 2011). "White Terrorism". Arab American News.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  34. Schenk, David H. (April 30, 2014). "Freedmen with Firearms: White Terrorism and Black Disarmament During Reconstruction". Journal of the Civil War Era. Gettysburg College.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  35. Butchart, Ronald E. "Black hope, white power: emancipation, reconstruction and the legacy of unequal schooling in the US South, 1861–1880." Paedagogica historica 46.1-2 (2010): 33-50.
  36. Butler, Anthea. "Shooters of color are called 'terrorists' and 'thugs.' Why are white shooters called 'mentally ill'?". Washington Post. Retrieved 10 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  37. Joanna Plucinska. "Study: White Extremists More Dangerous Than Islamists Since 9/11". TIME.com.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. "You Are More Than 7 Times As Likely To Be Killed By A Right-Wing Extremist Than By Muslim Terrorists". ThinkProgress.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  39. Derek Hunter (11 January 2016). "Hillary: 'White Terrorism' And 'Police Violence' Are Just As Big A Threat As ISIS [VIDEO] - The Daily Caller". The Daily Caller.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. Greenhouse, Steven (20 December 1988). "Immigrant Hostel Bombed in France". New York Times. Retrieved 20 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  41. La storia d'Italia, Vol. 23, Dagli anni di piombo agli anni 80, Torino, 2005, pag. 587
  42. "Viewpoint: Killer Breivik's links with far right". BBC News. August 27, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  43. Kington, Tom (December 23, 2011). "Ezra Pound's daughter aims to stop Italian fascist group using father's name". The Guardian. London.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  44. Leif Stang (18 April 2012). "Close to Nazism". Dagbladet (in Norwegian). <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  45. Daniel Vergara (10 January 2014). "Breivik vill deportera "illojala judar"". Expo Idag (in Swedish). <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  46. Eva-Therese Grøttum; Marianne Vikås (10 May 2013). "Breivik seeks to start the fascist party". VG Nett (in Norwegian). <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  47. Buncombe, Andrew; Judd, Terri; and Bennett, Jason. "'Hate-filled' nailbomber is jailed for life", The Independent, 30 June 2000.
  48. "The Nailbomber", BBC Panorama, 30 June 2000.
  49. http://www.newstatesman.com/2009/07/mehdi-hasan-muslim-terrorism-white-british
  50. "Man guilty over nail bombs plot". BBC News. June 24, 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  51. "Racist who had bomb kit jailed for campaign against couple". The Guardian. London. December 13, 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  52. "Man 'on cusp' of bombing campaign". BBC News. June 29, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. "Home Affairs Committee warns of far-right terror threat". BBC News. February 6, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  54. "Ex-Combat 18 man speaks out". BBC News. 25 November 2001.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  55. "MI5 swoops on Army 'neo-Nazis'", Sunday Telegraph, 7 March 1999
  56. BNP Under the skin: Profile of Adrian Marsden, BBC News
  57. "Combat 18" at www.metareligion.com
  58. Stuart Millar, "Anti-terror police seek White Wolf racist over bombs"
  59. "Belfast racists threaten to cut Romanian baby's throat", Belfast Telegraph, 17 June 2009
  60. Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas. Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism, and the Politics of Identity. NYU Press, 2003. pp.40–41, 45
  61. "UVF 'behind racist attacks in south and east Belfast'". Belfast Telegraph, 3 April 2014.
  62. Chrisafis, Angelique. "Racist war of the loyalist street gangs". The Guardian, 10 January 2004.
  63. 63.0 63.1 "Race hate on rise in NI". BBC News, 13 January 2004.
  64. "Two arrested over racist pipe bomb attacks in Londonderry". BBC News, 10 March 2014.
  65. "Loyalists hit out at racist attacks". BBC News, 3 July 2003.
  66. "Police probe after bomb attacks". BBC News, 2 June 2005.
  67. "Mother of South Belfast racist attack to leave home". Belfast Daily. 25 May 2013.
  68. "Gun attack: Family at home during 'hate crime' in west Belfast". BBC News, 24 April 2014.
  69. "Bitter tide of violent racial hate recalls the worst of the Troubles". Irish Independent, 8 August 2004.
  70. "Ulster 'is race hate capital of Europe'". BreakingNews.ie. 26 June 2006.

References