Robert Paul Brenner (born November 28, 1943, in New York) is a professor of history and director of the Center for Social Theory and Comparative History at UCLA, editor of the socialist journal Against the Current, and editorial committee member of New Left Review. His research interests are Early Modern European History; economic, social and religious history; agrarian history; social theory/Marxism; and Tudor–Stuart England.
He has contributed to a debate among Marxists on the "Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism,"  emphasizing the importance of the transformation of agricultural production in Europe, especially in the English countryside, rather than the rise of international trade as the main cause of the transition. His influential 1976 article on "Agrarian class structure and economic development in pre-industrial Europe" set forth the controversial "Brenner thesis."He argued that smallholding peasants had strong property rights and had little incentive to give up traditional technology or go beyond local markets, and thus no incentive toward capitalism.
- 1993: Merchants and revolution : commercial change, political conflict, and London's overseas traders, 1550–1653 (Princeton, Princeton University Press) ISBN 0-691-05594-7
- 2002: The boom and the bubble : the US in the world economy (New York, Verso) ISBN 1-85984-636-X
- 2006: The economics of global turbulence : the advanced capitalist economies from Long Boom to Long Downturn, 1945–2005 (New York, Verso) ISBN 978-1-85984-730-5
- 2009: Property and progress : the historical origins and social foundations of self-sustaining growth (London, Verso) ISBN 978-1-84467-318-6
- Center for Social Theory and Comparative History (CSTCH) Home Page
- Curriculum Vitae. Robert Paul Brenner
- The Brenner Debate: Agrarian Class Structure and Economic Development in Pre-industrial Europe. Editors: T. H. Aston, Trevor Henry Aston, C. H. E. Philpin. Contributors: R. H. Hilton, Robert Brenner, M. M. Postan, John Hatcher, Patricia Croot, David Parker, Heide Wunder, Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, Guy Bois, J. P. Cooper, Arnost Klima. Past and Present Publications. Cambridge University Press, 1987.
- Brenner, Robert. "Agrarian Class Structure and Economic Development in Pre-industrial Europe". Past and Present 70 (1976), pp. 30–74
- "Dobb on the Transition From Feudalism to Capitalism". Cambridge Journal of Economics, 1978, 2, 121-140
- "The economy after the boom: a diagnosis", International Viewpoint, 342, July/August 2002.
- The origins of capitalism (with Chris Harman). International Socialism Issue 111, 3rd July 2006.
- "Structure vs. Conjuncture: The 2006 elections and the rightward shift". New Left Review. New Left Review. II (43): 48. January–February 2007.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Devastating Crisis Unfolds", Against the Current, 132, January/February 2008.
- "The Economy in a World of Trouble", International Viewpoint, 411, April 2009.
- "What is Good for Goldman Sachs is Good for America - The Origins of the Present Crisis" (October 2, 2009). Center for Social Theory and Comparative History. Paper 2009–11.
- "Robert Brenner: The Consequences of Dependence on Asset Price Bubbles" (April 8, 2010). Rethinking Capitalism Conference. University Center, UC Santa Cruz