Robert Crumb

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Robert Crumb
An elderly man with a white beard, round glasses, a beret-like hat, a dark vest, and a necktie.  He faces down right, looking into an open book.
Crumb in Chestertown, 2010
Born Robert Dennis Crumb
(1943-08-30) August 30, 1943 (age 79)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
Nationality American
Pseudonym(s) R. Crumb
Notable works
Spouse(s) Aline Kominsky-Crumb (m. 1978)
Children Sophie Crumb , Jesse Crumb
Relatives Charles Crumb, Jr. (brother)
Maxon Crumb (brother)
Carol DeGennaro (sister)[1]
Sandra Colorado (sister)[1]
Charles Crumb (father)
Beatrice Crumb (mother)

Robert Dennis Crumb (born August 30, 1943) is an American cartoonist and musician who often signs his work R. Crumb. His work displays a nostalgia for American folk culture of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and satire of contemporary American culture.

Crumb rose to prominence after the 1968 debut of Zap Comix, the first successful underground comix publication. Popular creations of his from this era include countercultural characters such as Fritz the Cat and Mr. Natural, and the images from his "Keep on Truckin'" strip. Following the decline of the underground in the mid-1970s, he moved towards biographical and autobiographical subjects while refining his drawing style, a heavily crosshatched pen-and-ink style inspired by late 19th- and early 20th-century cartooning. Much of his work appeared in a magazine he founded, Weirdo (1981–1993), which was one of the most prominent publications of the alternative comics era.

In 1991, Crumb was inducted into the comic book industry's Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame. He is married to cartoonist Aline Kominsky-Crumb, with whom he has frequently collaborated. Their daughter Sophie Crumb has also followed a cartooning career.

Early life (1943–1966)

Robert Crumb was born on August 30, 1943, in Philadelphia to a Catholic household[2] of English and Scottish ancestry, and is a descendant on his mother's side of former U.S. president Andrew Jackson.[citation needed][3] His father, Charles V. Crumb, authored the book Training People Effectively,[2] and was a Combat Illustrator for 20 years in the United States Marine Corps.[citation needed] His mother Beatrice was a housewife who reportedly abused diet pills and amphetamines. Charles and Beatrice's marriage was unhappy and the children were frequent witnesses to their parents' arguments.[4] The couple had four other children: sons Charles Junior (1942–93) and Maxon (b. 1944), both of whom suffered from mental illness; and daughters Carol (b. 1940) and Sandra (b. 1946).[5] The family moved to Milford, Delaware, when Crumb was twelve; there he was an average student whose teachers strongly discouraged him from cartooning.[6]

Inspired by the works of Walt Kelly, Fleischer Brothers animation, and others, Crumb and his brothers drew their own comics.[2] Crumb's cartooning developed as his older brother Charles pushed him and provided him with constant critical feedback on his work. In 1958 the brothers self-published three issues of Foo in imitation of Harvey Kurtzman's satirical Humbug and Mad. They sold them door-to-door with little success, souring the young Crumb on the comic-book business.[7] At fifteen, Crumb became obsessed with collecting jazz and blues records from the 1920s to the 1940s.[2] At 16 he abandoned the Catholic faith.[8]


Early work (1962–1966)

Crumb's father gave him $40 when he left home after high school.[8] His first job, in 1962, was drawing novelty greeting cards for American Greetings[9] in Cleveland, Ohio. He stayed with the company for four years, producing hundreds of cards for the company's Hi-Brow line; his superiors had him draw in a cuter style that was to leave a footprint on his work throughout his career.[10] In Cleveland he met a group of young bohemians such as Buzzy Linhart, Liz Johnston, and Harvey Pekar. Dissatisfied with greeting card work, he tried to sell cartoons to comic book companies, who showed little interest in his work. In 1965, cartoonist Harvey Kurtzman printed some of Crumb's work in the humor magazine he edited, Help!. Crumb moved to New York, intending to work with Kurtzman, but Help! ceased publication shortly after. Crumb briefly illustrated bubblegum cards for Topps before returning to Cleveland and American Greetings.[9]

Crumb married Dana Morgan in 1964. Nearly destitute, the couple traveled in Europe, during which Crumb continued to produce work for Kurtzman and American Greetings, and Dana stole food.[11] The relationship was unstable as Crumb frequently went his own way, and he was not close to his son Jesse (b. 1965).[12]

In 1965 and 1966 Crumb had a number of Fritz the Cat strips published in the men's magazine Cavalier. Fritz had appeared in Crumb's work as early as the late 1950s; he was to become a hipster, scam artist, and bohemian until Crumb abandoned the character in 1969.[10]

Crumb was becoming increasingly uncomfortable with his job and marriage when in June 1965 he began taking LSD, a psychedelic drug that was then still legal. He had both good and bad trips. One bad trip left him in a muddled state for half a year, during which for a time he left Dana; the state ended when the two took a strong dose of the drug together in April 1966.[13] Crumb created a number of his best-known characters during his years of LSD use, including Mr. Natural, Angelfood McSpade, and the Snoid.[14]

Zap and underground comix (1967–1979)

In January 1967 Crumb came across two friends in a bar who were about to leave for San Francisco; Crumb was interested in the work of San Francisco-based psychedelic poster artists, and on a whim asked if he could join them.[14] There, he contributed upbeat LSD-inspired countercultural work to underground newspapers. The work was popular, and Crumb was flooded with requests, including to illustrate a full issue of Philadelphia's Yarrowstalks.[15]

Independent publisher Don Donahue invited Crumb to make a comic book; Crumb drew up two issues of Zap Comix, and Donahue published the first[15] in February 1968 under the publisher name Apex Novelties. Crumb had difficulty at first finding retailers who would stock it, and took to selling the first run himself out of a baby carriage.[16]

Crumb met cartoonist S. Clay Wilson, an art school graduate who saw himself as a rebel against middle-class American values and whose comics were violent and grotesque. Wilson's attitude inspired Crumb to give up the idea of the cartoonist-as-entertainer and to focus on comics as open, uncensored self-expression; in particular, his work soon became sexually explicit, as in the pornographic Snatch he and Wilson produced late in 1968.[16]

The second issue of Zap appeared in June with contributions from Wilson and poster artists Victor Moscoso and Rick Griffin. Unsatisfied with Donahue's handling of Zap Crumb took it to the Print Mint, who in December published the still-unreleased issue as #0 and a new third issue with Gilbert Shelton joining the roster of regulars.[16]

Crumb was a prolific cartoonist in the late 1960s and early 1970s; at his peak point of output he produced 320 pages over two years.[8] He produced much of his best-known work then,[17] including his Keep on Truckin' strip, and strips featuring characters such as the bohemian Fritz the Cat, spiritual guru Mr. Natural, and oversexed African-American stereotype Angelfood McSpade.[citation needed]

Weirdo (1980–1993)

While meditating in 1980 Crumb conceived of a magazine with a lowbrow aesthetic inspired by punk zines, Mad, and men's magazines of the 1940s and 1950s.[18] From 1981 Crumb edited the first eight issues of the twenty-eight issue run of Weirdo, published by Last Gasp;[19] his contributions and tastes determined the contents of the later issues as well, edited by Peter Bagge until #16, and Aline for the remainder of the run.[18] The magazine featured cartoonists new and old, and had a mixed response; Art Spiegelman, who co-edited the slicker Raw, called it a "piece of shit", and Crumb's fumetti was so unpopular that it has never appeared in Crumb collections.[20]

Later life (1994–present)

The Crumbs moved into a house in southeastern France in 1991, which is said to have been financed by the sale of six Crumb sketchbooks.[21] The Terry Zwigoff-directed Crumb documentary appeared in 1994[22] — a project on which Zwigoff had been working since 1985.[19]

In 2009, after four years of work, Crumb produced The Book of Genesis, an unabridged illustrated graphic novel version of the biblical Book of Genesis.[23][24][25][26][27][28]

Professional collaborations

In the early 1980s, Crumb collaborated with writer Charles Bukowski on a series of comic books, featuring Crumb's art and Bukowski's writing.[29]

Crumb's collaboration with David Zane Mairowitz, the illustrated, part-comic biography and bibliography Introducing Kafka, a.k.a. Kafka for beginners, is one of his less sexual- and satire-oriented, comparably highbrow works since the 1990s. It is well-known and favorably received, and due to its popularity was republished as R. Crumb's Kafka.

A friend of Harvey Pekar, Crumb illustrated many of the award winning American Splendor comics by Pekar, including the first issues (1976).[30] Crumb collaborates with his wife, Aline Kominsky-Crumb, on many strips and comics, including Self-Loathing Comics and work published in The New Yorker.[31]

Crumb's work also appeared in Nasty Tales, a 1970s British underground comic. The publishers were acquitted in a celebrated 1972 obscenity trial at the Old Bailey in London; the first such case involving a comic. Giving evidence at the trial, one of the defendants said of Crumb: "He is the most outstanding, certainly the most interesting, artist to appear from the underground, and this (Dirty Dog) is Rabelaisian satire of a very high order. He is using coarseness quite deliberately in order to get across a view of social hypocrisy."[32][33]

Crumb has created several sets of trading cards. His full-color, pen & ink portraits of 36 early great blues singers and musicians is entitled "Heroes of the Blues Trading Cards". In the fashion of baseball cards, the back of each card contains a short bio written by Stephen Calt. Crumb's portraits capture the humanity and individuality of each performer. This set of 36 3"x4" cards was originally published by Eclipse Books in 1995. Other similar sets of cards published since that time are entitled, "Early Jazz Greats" and "Pioneers of Country Music". In 2006, all 3 sets of cards were collected together in a 240-page book entitled, "R. Crumb's Heroes of Blues, Jazz and Country", which included a 21-song CD of songs by many of those depicted in the trading cards. Terry Zwigoff, the film maker, and Dave Jasen, the ragtime pianist and pop archivist, contributed to the written text. Another set of 36 cards published in 2010 is entitled "R. Crumb Trading Cards" (Denis Kitchen Publishing Co.) and features short stories on the back of each card about Crumb's familiar comic book characters: Mr. Natural, Fritz the Cat, etc. As of 2011, all 4 of these decks of trading cards are still in print.

A theatrical production based on his work was produced at Duke University in the early 1990s. Directed by Johnny Simons, and co-starring Avner Eisenberg and Nicholas de Wolff, the development of the play was supervised by Crumb, who also served as set designer, drawing larger-than-life representations of some of his most famous characters all over the floors and walls of the set.[citation needed]

Musical projects

Crumb has frequently drawn comics about his musical interests in blues, country, bluegrass, cajun, French Bal-musette, jazz, big band and swing music from the 1920s and 1930s, and they also heavily influenced the soundtrack choices for his band mate Zwigoff's 1994 Crumb documentary. In 2006, he prepared, compiled and illustrated the book R. Crumb's Heroes of Blues, Jazz & Country, with accompanying CD, which derived from three series of trading cards originally published in the 1980s.[34]

Crumb was the leader of the band R. Crumb & His Cheap Suit Serenaders, for which he sang lead vocals, wrote several songs and played banjo and other instruments. Crumb often plays mandolin with Eden and John's East River String Band and has drawn three covers for them: 2009's Drunken Barrel House Blues, 2008's Some Cold Rainy Day, and 2011's Be Kind To A Man When He's Down on which he plays mandolin. With Dominique Cravic, he founded "Les Primitifs du Futur" — a French-style band based on musette / folk, jazz and blues — and played on its 2000 album World Musette.[35] He also provided the cover art for this and other albums.

Crumb has released CDs anthologizing old original performances gleaned from collectible 78-rpm phonograph records. His That's What I Call Sweet Music was released in 1999 and Hot Women: Women Singers from the Torrid Regions in 2009. Crumb drew the cover art for these CDs as well.

In 2013, Crumb played mandolin with the Eden and John's East River String Band on their album Take A Look at That Baby and also took part in the accompanying music video.

Album covers

Crumb has illustrated many album covers, including most prominently Cheap Thrills by Big Brother and the Holding Company and the compilation album The Music Never Stopped: Roots of the Grateful Dead.

Between 1974 and 1984, Crumb drew at least 17 album covers for Yazoo Records/Blue Goose Records, including those of the Cheap Suit Serenaders. He also created the revised logo and record label designs of Blue Goose Records that were used from 1974 onward.

In 1992 and 1993, Robert Crumb was involved in a project by Dutch formation The Beau Hunks and provided the cover art for both their albums The Beau Hunks play the original Laurel & Hardy music 1 and 2. He also illustrated the albums' booklets.

In 2009, Crumb drew the artwork for a 10-CD anthology of French traditional music compiled by Guillaume Veillet for Frémeaux & Associés.[36] The following year, he created three artworks for Christopher King's Aimer Et Perdre: To Love And To Lose Songs, 1917–1934 [37] and, in 2011, he once again played mandolin on an Eden and John's East River String Band album (Be Kind to a Man When He's Down) for which he also created the album cover artwork.


File:Fritz the Cat front cover.jpg
Front cover of Fritz the Cat.

Crumb is a prolific artist and contributed to many of the seminal works of the underground comix movement in the 1960s, including being a founder of Zap Comix, contributing to all 16 issues, and additionally contributing to the East Village Other and many other publications including a variety of one-off and anthology comics. During this time, inspired by psychedelics and cartoons from the 1920s and 1930s, he introduced a wide variety of characters that became extremely popular, including Fritz the Cat and Mr. Natural. Sexual themes abounded in all these projects, often shading into scatological and pornographic comics. In the mid-1970s, he contributed to the Arcade anthology; in the 1980s, to Weirdo (which he created and co-edited).

As Crumb's career progressed, his comic work became more autobiographical. He frequently collaborates with his wife, Aline Kominsky-Crumb, on comics.

From 1987 to 2005 Fantagraphics Books published the seventeen-volume Complete Crumb Comics[38] and ten volumes of sketches. Crumb (as "R. Crumb") contributes regularly to Mineshaft magazine, which, since 2009, has been serializing "Excerpts From R. Crumb's Dream Diary".[39]

In January 2015, Crumb was asked to submit a cartoon to the left-wing magazine Libération as a tribute for the Charlie Hebdo shooting. He sent a drawing titled "A Cowardly Cartoonist," depicting an illustration of the backside of Crumb's friend Mohamid Bakshi, while referencing the prophet.[40][41]


As told by Crumb in his biographical film, his artwork was very typical in the beginning. His earlier works show a more restrained style. In Crumb's own words, it was a lengthy drug trip (possibly LSD) that "left him fuzzy for two months" and led to him adopting the surrealistic, psychedelic style for which he has become known.

Crumb has been acclaimed for his attention to detail and satirical edge, but has also generated a significant amount of controversy for his graphic and very disturbing portrayals of sexuality and psychology.There exists a feminist backlash against his comics because they became more "violently misogynistic, as he graphically poured what were essentially his masturbatory fantasies onto the printed page. Women were raped, dismembered, mutilated, and murdered, sometimes all at once."[42][citation needed]

Crumb has admitted that he rarely starts a comic with a clear idea of where he wants to go, and usually employs a stream-of-consciousness method when drawing.[citation needed]

A peer in the underground comics field, Victor Moscoso, commented about his first impression of Crumb's work, in the mid-1960s, before meeting Crumb in person: "I couldn't tell if it was an old man drawing young, or a young man drawing old."[43] Robert Crumb's cartooning style has drawn on the work of cartoon artists from earlier generations, including Billy DeBeck (Barney Google), C. E. Brock (an old story book illustrator), Gene Ahern's comic strips, George Baker (Sad Sack), Ub Iwerks's characters for animation, Isadore Freleng's drawings for the early Merrie Melodies and Looney Tunes of the 1930s, Sidney Smith (The Gumps), Rube Goldberg, E. C. Segar (Popeye) and Bud Fisher (Mutt and Jeff). Crumb has cited Carl Barks, who illustrated Disney's "Donald Duck" comic books and John Stanley (Little Lulu) as formative influences on his narrative approach, as well as Harvey Kurtzman.

Crumb has also cited his extensive LSD use as a factor that led him to develop his unique style.[44][45]

After issues 0 and 1 of Zap, Crumb began working with others, of whom the first was S. Clay Wilson. Crumb said, about when he first saw Wilson's work "The content was something like I'd never seen before, ... a nightmare vision of hell-on-earth ..." And "Suddenly my own work seemed insipid ..."[46]

Crumb remains a prominent figure, as both artist and influence, within the alternative comics milieu. He is hailed as a genius by such comic book talents as Jaime Hernandez, Daniel Clowes, and Chris Ware. In the fall of 2008, the Institute of Contemporary Art in Philadelphia hosted a major exhibition of his work, which was favorably reviewed in The New York Times[45] and in The Philadelphia Inquirer.[47]

Awards and honors

Crumb has received several accolades for his work, including a nomination for the Harvey Special Award for Humor in 1990 and the Angoulême Grand Prix in 1999.

With Jack Kirby, Will Eisner, Harvey Kurtzman, Gary Panter, and Chris Ware, Crumb was among the artists honored in the exhibition "Masters of American Comics" at the Jewish Museum in New York City, from September 16, 2006 to January 28, 2007.[48][49]

In the media

In addition to numerous brief television reports, there are at least three television or theatrical documentaries dedicated to Crumb.

  • Prior to the 1972 release of the film version of Fritz the Cat,[50] Austrian journalist Georg Stefan Troller (de:Georg Stefan Troller) interviewed Crumb for a thirty-minute documentary entitled Comics und Katerideen on Crumb's life and art – which he describes as "the epitome of contemporary white North America's popular art" – as an episode of his Personenbeschreibung (literally "Person's description") documentary-format broadcast on the German TV network ZDF. The documentary also includes a "making-of" look at the [then?] forthcoming Fritz movie, featuring production background interviews with Ralph Bakshi. By the mid-to-late 2000s, it could still be seen on rotation as part of the Personenbeschreibung series on the ZDF-owned digital specialty channel ZDFdokukanal (in 2009 replaced by the new channel ZDFneo).
  • The Confessions of Robert Crumb (1987)
  • Crumb (1994), a documentary film by Terry Zwigoff

In the 2003 movie American Splendor, Crumb was portrayed by James Urbaniak. Crumb's wife Aline was quoted as saying she hated the interpretation and never would have married Robert if he was like that.

In 2006, Crumb brought legal action against after their Web site used a version of his widely recognizable "Keep on Truckin'" character. The case was expected to be settled out of court.

Underground rap artist Aesop Rock mentions Crumb several times in his lyrics, including in the songs "Catacomb Kids" from the album None Shall Pass and "Nickel Plated Pockets" from his EP "Daylight".

R. Crumb's Sex Obsessions, a collection of his most personally revealing sexually-oriented drawings and comic strips, was released by TASCHEN publishing in November 2007. In August 2011, following concerns about his safety, Crumb cancelled plans to visit the Graphic 2011 festival in Sydney, Australia after a tabloid labeled him a "self-confessed sex pervert" in an article headlined "Cult genius or filthy weirdo?".[51][52]

In 2012, Crumb appeared in five episodes of John's Old Time Radio Show talking about old music, sex, aliens and Bigfoot. He also played 78-rpm records from his record room in southern France. He continues to appear on the show, for which he has now[when?] recorded fourteen one-hour podcasts.

Personal life

Crumb has been married twice: to Dana Morgan in 1964[11] who gave birth to their son Jesse in 1965.[8] In 1978, Crumb divorced Dana and married cartoonist Aline Kominsky, with whom Crumb has frequently collaborated.[17] In September 1981 Aline gave birth to Crumb's second child, Sophie.[19] They moved to a small village near Sauve in southern France in 1991.[53]

Bibliography (selection)

  • Zap issues from 1 and 0 (1968) through at least 9 (1978) and several more, Apex Novelties, Print Mint, Last Gasp and other transient brand names, generally under Crumb's control. 0 and 1 are all drawn by Crumb, the rest have strips by others also.
  • R. Crumb's Head Comix', anthology published by Viking Press in 1968, ISBN unknown. Re-issued by Fireside Press in 1988, with a new introduction by Crumb; ISBN 0-671-66153-1.
  • R. Crumb's Fritz the Cat, Robert Crumb, 1969, Ballantine, New York, (no ISBN listed)
  • R. Crumb's Comix and Stories, April 1964, Number One, "copyright 1969", Rip Off Press. This contains a single story about Fritz the Cat and incest.
  • Uneeda Comix, "the Artistic Comic!', July 1971, The Print Mint. Several short strips by Crumb. The longest, last and strongest continues onto the back cover in color.
  • Hytone Comix, all Crumb, 1971, Apex Novelties
  • The People's Comics, 1972, Golden Gate. All Crumb. This contains the strip in which there is Crumb Land (a black void), and also the strip in which Fritz the Cat is killed.
  • Artistic Comics, 1973, Golden Gate Publishing Company. All Crumb, but pictures of Aline(?).
  • Best Buy Comics, 1979, Apex Novelties. R. Crumb and Aline Kominsly.
  • Snoid Comics, 1980, "Kitchen Sink Enterprises, a division of Krupp Comic Works, Inc.". All Crumb.
  • Bible of Filth, Futuropolis, 1986.
  • The Complete Crumb Comics, 17 Volumes, Fantagraphics
  • R. Crumb Sketchbook, Vol 1–10, Fantagraphics.
  • Mineshaft #5–#26
  • R. Crumb's America, 1995, SCB Distributors. ISBN 0-86719-430-8
  • The R. Crumb Coffee Table Art Book, Edited and designed by Peter Poplaski, 1997, Little Brown and Company, ISBN 0-316-16306-6
  • Odds & Ends, 2001, Bloomsbury UK. ISBN 978-0-7475-5309-0
  • R. Crumb's Heroes of Blues, Jazz & Country, 2006, Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 978-0-81093-086-5
  • Your Vigour for Life Appalls Me, 2008, Turnaround Publisher, ISBN 978-1-56097-310-2
  • The Book of Genesis, 2009, W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-06102-4 OCLC 317919486
  • The Book of Mr. Natural, July 2010, Fantagraphics. ISBN 978-1-60699-352-1
  • The Complete Record Cover Collection, November 2011, W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-08278-4
  • Sweeter Side of R. Crumb, 2011, W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-33371-8
  • Drawn Together: The Collected Works of R. and A. Crumb, October 2012, Liveright. R. Crumb and Aline Crumb. ISBN 978-0-871-40429-9

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 Lovece, Frank (June 2, 1995). "A new documentary focuses on Robert Crumb -- Crumb highlights the cartoonist's dysfunctional family". Entertainment Weekly.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Duncan & Smith 2013, p. 158.
  3. Crumb, Robert Crumb Family Comics. Last Gasp, 1998. ISBN 0-86719-427-8, where he discusses his ancestry at length in a hand-written essay.
  4. Crumb, Maxon, edited by Maxon Crumb ; (1998). Crumb Family Comics. San Francisco, Calif.: Last Gasp. pp. 105, 129. ISBN 0867194278.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link) CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Duncan & Smith 2013, p. 158; Goldstein 2013, p. 517.
  6. Maremaa 2004, p. 29.
  7. Maremaa 2004, pp. 29–30.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Goldstein 2013, p. 517.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Duncan & Smith 2013, p. 159.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Maremaa 2004, p. 30.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Burgess 2000.
  12. Goldstein 2013, p. 518.
  13. Holm 2005, pp. 46–47.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Holm 2005, p. 47.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Holm 2005, pp. 47–48.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 Harvey 1996, p. 195.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Duncan & Smith 2013, p. 160.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Holm 2005, p. 83.
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Holm 2005, p. 82.
  20. Holm 2005, pp. 83–85.
  21. Holm 2005, p. xx.
  22. Holm 2005, p. 97.
  23. Gustines, George Gene (October 23, 2009). "Graphic Books Best-Seller List" (book review). The New York Times. Retrieved October 27, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. "R. Crumb on Genesis (slide show)". October 18, 2009. Retrieved January 14, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. Bloom, H., "Yahweh Meets R. Crumb", The New York Review of Books, 56/19 (December 3, 2009).
  26. R. Crumb. "Crumb's 'Genesis,' A Sexy Breasts-And-Knuckles Affair". Retrieved January 14, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. Heer, Jeet. "Word Made Fresh: R. Crumb gives visual form to the first book of the Bible", Bookforum, September/October/November 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-04 (access requires registration).
  28. "Robert Crumb" and "Robert Crumb, Part 2" (transcript of National Film Theatre appearance), The Guardian (UK), March 18, 2005. Genesis referenced in latter.
  29. Popova, Maria. "R. Crumb Illustrates Bukowksi" Retrieved September 25, 2014.
  30. McArdle, Terence. "Harvey Pekar dead: American Splendor comic writer was 70" Washington Post. July 13, 2010.
  31. Jones, Jonathan. "Self-Loathing Comics, Robert Crumb (1994)" The Guardian, 19 August 2000. Retrieved September 25, 2014.
  32. "Nasty Tales Trial 2". February 9, 1973. Retrieved January 14, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. "International Times" journal, #147, February 9, 1973, pp. 17–20.
  34. Danny Baker, "What a feast of Crumbs", The Observer, 8 October 2006. Retrieved December 17, 2013
  35. World Musette – Les Primitifs du Futur : Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards : AllMusic
  36. "World music France : une anthologie des musiques traditionnelles Enregistrements realises entre 1900 et 2009 (10 cds) – Frémeaux & Associés éditeur , La Librairie Sonore". Retrieved January 14, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  37. Aimer et Perdre : To Love & To Lose Songs, 1917–1934 «
  38. Holm 2005, p. 85.
  39. Palmieri, Gioia. "Update". Mineshaft Magazine. Retrieved December 11, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. Legendary Cartoonist Robert Crumb on the Massacre in Paris New York Observer 10 January 2015 [1]
  41. "A Kind of Sleaze" The Paris Review 12 January 2015
  43. The Comics Journal #246
  44. The R. Crumb Coffee Table Art Book at p. 67
  45. 45.0 45.1 Mr. Natural Goes to the Museum, September 5, 2008, The New York Times
  46. The Art of S. Clay Wilson, Ten Speed Press, 2006, p. vii.
  47. Out from underground, August 31, 2008, Philadelphia Inquirer
  48. "Exhibitions: Masters of American Comics". The Jewish Museum. Retrieved August 10, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>. WebCitation archive.
  49. Kimmelman, Michael. "See You in the Funny Papers" (art review), The New York Times, October 13, 2006.
  50. J.C. Maçek III (August 2, 2012). "'American Pop'... Matters: Ron Thompson, the Illustrated Man Unsung". PopMatters.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  51. AFP: Graphic artist Crumb cancels Australia visit
  52. Fulton, Adam (August 10, 2011). "A toxic turn and safety fears soured cartoonist on visit". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved October 18, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. Farber, Celia (January 10, 2015). "Legendary Cartoonist Robert Crumb on the Massacre in Paris".The New York Observer.

Works cited

Further reading

  • Crumb Family Comics. Trade Paperback Collection of stories by each member of the R Crumb family
  • The R. Crumb Coffee Table Art Book. (ISBN 0-316-16306-6, 1997).
  • The R. Crumb Handbook, Published by MQ Publications, London, 2005, ISBN 1-84072-716-0
  • The Captain Is Out to Lunch and the Sailors Have Taken Over the Ship (1998) written by Charles Bukowski and illustrated by Robert Crumb.
  • Busted! Drug War Survival Skills (2005) written by M. Chris Fabricant and illustrated by Robert Crumb.
  • Robert Crumb, written by D. K. Holm, published by Pocket Essentials, 2003 (revised edition 2005), 13 digit ISBN 978-1-904048-51-0.
  • R. Crumb and Mineshaft. A brief history, with letters and art, of Robert Crumb's ongoing collaboration with Mineshaft magazine.

External links