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Robinson's Arch

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Robinson's Arch
קשת רובינסון
slightly curved blocks form the spring of an arch in the middle of a wall of otherwise flat-faced stones
Remains of Robinson's Arch above the Herodian street
Location Jerusalem
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Part of Herodian Temple Mount
Height 21.25 metres (69.7 ft)
Builder Herod the Great
Material local limestone
Founded c. 20 BCE
Abandoned 70 CE
Periods early Roman Empire
Site notes
Excavation dates 1867–1870, 1968–1977, 1994–1996
Archaeologists Charles Warren, Benjamin Mazar, Ronny Reich, Yaacov Billig, Eli Shukron
Condition ruin, archaeological park
Public access yes

Robinson's Arch is the name given to a monumental staircase carried by an unusually wide stone arch, which once stood at the southwestern corner of the Temple Mount. It was built as part of the expansion of the Second Temple initiated by Herod the Great at the end of the 1st century BCE. Recent findings suggest that it may not have been completed until at least 20 years after his death. The massive stone span was constructed along with the retaining walls of the Temple Mount. It carried traffic up from ancient Jerusalem's Lower Market area and over the Tyropoeon street to the Royal Stoa complex on the esplanade of the Mount. The overpass was destroyed during the Great Jewish Revolt, only a few decades after its completion.

The arch is named after Biblical scholar Edward Robinson who identified its remnants in 1838. Excavations during the second half of the 20th century revealed both its purpose and the extent of its associated structures. Today the considerable surviving portions of the ancient overpass complex may be viewed by the public within the Jerusalem Archaeological Park. As it is adjacent to Jerusalem's Western Wall worship area, a portion is used by some groups as a place of prayer.


Robinson's Arch was constructed as part of King Herod's renovation and expansion of the Second Temple, announced in 20–19 BCE.[1] It was built to link the Tyropoeon Valley street, a major traffic artery in the Second Temple Period, with the Royal Stoa at the southern end of the Temple Mount platform.[2]

The site abuts a major ancient intersection. Opposite lay a large public square fronting the Temple's main Hulda Gates. The Tyropoeon street itself was lined with shops and formed part of the city's Lower Market. The Royal Stoa, an exceptionally large basilica complex which served various commercial and legal functions, looked down on the intersection from atop the Temple platform. Although the Stoa stood on the Temple esplanade, it was constructed upon an expansion added by Herod. It was therefore evidently not considered sacred by some at the time, allowing it to be used for mundane activities. The heavy public traffic to and from this edifice accounts for the width of the stepped street, which approximates that of a modern four-lane highway.[3]

Fragments of a gate once located at the top of the overpass have been recovered. From these, the gate's width has been calculated at 5 metres (16 ft). Due to the few extant gate remnants, it has not been established whether there may have been more than one gate. There may have been a single gate, a double gate, or even a triple gate opening into the Royal Stoa complex at this point.[4] This was one of four gates along the western wall of the compound:[5]

Now in the western quarters of the enclosure of the temple there were four gates; the first led to the king's palace, and went to a passage over the intermediate valley; two more led to the suburbs of the city; and the last led to the other city, where the road descended into the valley by a great number of steps, and thence up again by the ascent for the city lay over against the temple in the manner of a theater, and was encompassed with a deep valley along the entire south quarter.

— Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 15:410.[6]
a drawing showing a wide staircase leading up from a crowded street then turning right with steps ascending over a series of arches before turning right once again and going over a final large arch spanning the street below and passing under the columned gateway high above the streets below
Proposed reconstruction of Robinson's Arch


The arch was built as part of the Temple Mount's massive western retaining wall, which forms its eastern support. The voussoirs spring from a row of impost blocks which were cut to produce a dentil pattern. There have been some theories which speculate that the dentils were employed as part of a system used to shore up timber forms used during construction. However, this was a common decorative element employed in the region at the time, and archaeologists have noted that in this region of limited forests it is much more likely that packed earth, rather than expensive timbers, was used to support the form on which the arch was constructed.[7]

Upon completion the arch spanned 15 metres (49 ft) and had a width of 15.2 metres (50 ft). The stepped street it bore over a series of seven additional arches was more than 35 metres (115 ft) in length. Robinson's Arch itself stood 12 metres (39 ft) to the north of the southwestern corner of the Temple Mount's retaining wall, soaring some 17 metres (56 ft) over the ancient Tyropoeon street that once ran along the Temple Mount's western wall.[5][7] It was among the most massive stone arches of classical antiquity.[8]

Although Herod's renovation of the Second Temple was initiated in late 1st century BCE, excavations beneath the street near the arch revealed three oil lamps of a type common in the first century CE and 17 identifiable coins, several of which were struck by Valerius Gratus, Roman procurator of Judea, in the year 17/18 CE. This means that the arch and nearby sections of the Western Wall were constructed after this date.[9]


The destruction of Robinson's Arch occurred during the events surrounding the Roman sacking of Jerusalem in 70 CE. It has traditionally been blamed on the Roman legions which destroyed the Temple Mount enclosure and eventually set fire to the entire city.[5] More recently, this has been attributed to the Zealot factions which had wrested control of the Temple Mount and fortified it prior to its fall. Some of these continued to hold out in Jerusalem's Upper City for a month after the city had been breached by the Romans.[7] By wrecking the overpass, as well as the viaduct at Wilson's Arch to the north, the defenders made access to the Temple platform much more difficult for besieging forces.[10]

South of the Temple Mount, excavators have uncovered an inscribed Roman milestone bearing the names of Vespasian and Titus, fashioned from one of the staircase handrails which stood on top of the arch. This places the destruction of the arch at no later than 79 CE.[11]

Rediscovery and excavations

a black and white photograph showing a patch of rough ground with a stone wall running along the right side and a series of stones sticking out at the bottom of the wall in the foreground, partially obscured by a shrub
Mid–19th-century view of Robinson's Arch

Four stone courses of the eastern spring of the arch, consisting of a row of impost blocks and three layers of voussoirs, have survived to modern times.[12] This remnant was first identified in 1838 by Biblical scholar Edward Robinson and now bears his name. At that time, prior to any excavations, remains of the arch were at ground level.[5] The ancient street level lay far underground, buried by debris from destruction of structures on the Temple Mount and later fill dumped into the Tyropoeon Valley over the centuries. Robinson believed he had identified the eastern edge of a bridge that linked the Temple Compound with the Upper City which lay on the ridge to the west.[2] During his investigations of 1867–1870, Charles Warren noted the presence of a large pier 13 metres (43 ft) west of the wall and the remains of the arch.[5] Warren concluded this was but one of many supports for a supposed series of arches supporting a bridge spanning the valley. He subsequently dug a series of seven shafts to the west at regular intervals, yet found no evidence of additional piers.

Only during Benjamin Mazar's excavations between 1968 and 1977 [13] was it discovered that the pier was in fact the western support of a single great arch.[2] The uncovered pier, 15.2 metres (50 ft) long and 3.6 metres (12 ft) wide, was preserved to a height of 5 metres (16 ft). Within its base were found four small hollow spaces, possibly for shops opening onto the Herodian–era Tyropoeon street that passes beneath the arch. The lintels of these survive in place and are themselves arched to relieve pressure from the weight of the pier's superstructure.[2] Mazar's excavations have revealed that the same pier was also the eastern external wall of a monumental building which Mazar suggested was the archives of Jerusalem mentioned by Josephus.[2][14] South of the building, excavators found the remains of six vault–supporting piers, gradually decreasing in height southwards over a distance of 35 metres (115 ft). These vaults, the building and Robinson's Arch, all supported a monumental flight of stairs which led the street up and over the Typropoeon street to the gate of the Royal Stoa at the top of the Temple Mount platform.[4] Numerous stone steps, some still adjoined, were also found nearby.[5]

Excavations near the arch resumed between 1994 and 1996, directed by Ronny Reich and Yaacov Billig. These have uncovered much of the debris from the collapse of the arch. The remains include both stairs from the staircase and stones from its rounded handrails. Some of these are still visible where they were found, at the Jerusalem Archaeological Park now occupying the site.[11]

Egalitarian prayer site

a color photograph looking up at a tall stone and wall showing a few rows of curved voussoir blocks protruding midway up the side
Robinson's Arch, 2009

The location of the arch along the western wall of the Temple Mount, yet at a distance from the Western Wall plaza, has prompted the Israeli Government to allow the area to be used for alternative services.[15] In 2003 Israel's Supreme Court disallowed women from reading the Torah or wearing traditional prayer shawls at the plaza itself, yet instructed the Israeli government to prepare the site of Robinson's Arch to host such events.[16] The site was inaugurated in August 2004 and has since hosted services by Reform and Conservative groups, as well as by other movements, such as Women of the Wall activists. This has resulted in the location being referred to as "HaKotel HaMasorti".[17]

The court-ordered compromise, however, continues to be contentious. Reform and "Women of the Wall" activists consider the location to be unsatisfactory, in part due to the designation of the park as an archaeological site and the resulting restrictions on access and worship,[16][17][18] and in part due to their perceived treatment as "second class-citizens" and their exclusion from the Western Wall plaza.[19] Eric Yoffie, president of the Union for Reform Judaism, has also expressed the opinion that "The wall as it's been understood by the Jewish people does not mean Robinson's Arch ... It just doesn't."[16]

photograph depicting a platform raised over ruins and set against the backdrop of a high stone wall
Azarat Yisrael Plaza (prayer platform), Robinson's Arch, established August 2013

In April 2013 Jewish Agency chairman Nathan Sharansky proposed a solution for resolving the controversy over female prayer at the Western Wall, calling for the renovation of the site at the foot of Robinson's Arch to make it accessible to worshippers at all hours of the day.[20] On 25 August 2013, a new 4,480 square foot prayer platform was completed at Robinson's Arch, with access at all hours, as promised.[21] The area is named "Azarat Yisrael"[22] (or in more proper pronunciation, "Ezrat Yisrael"[23]). After some controversy regarding the question of authority over this prayer area, the announcement was made that it would come under the authority of a future government-appointed "pluralist council" that would include non-Orthodox representatives.[24]

See also



  1. "The Jerusalem Temple". Retrieved 20 February 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Stern 1993, pp. 740–742.
  3. Ben Dov 1985, pp. 121–132.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Ben Dov 1985, pp. 130–133.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Mazar 2002, pp. 34–41.
  6. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XV, 410
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Ben Dov 1982, pp. 122–133.
  8. Ben Dov 1985, p. 121.
  9. "Building the Western Wall: Herod Began it but Didn't Finish it". Israel Antiquities Authority. Retrieved 23 November 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Ben Dov 1985, p. 133.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Reich 2008, pp. 1809–1811.
  12. Mazar 1975, p. 132.
  13. "Qedem Abstracts". Institute of Archaeology – Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Retrieved 20 February 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Josephus, The Jewish War II, 425
  15. "Robinson's Arch". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 20 February 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 Nathan-Kazis, Josh (5 February 2010). "Embassy Letter on Kotel Rubs Salt in the Wound". The Jewish Daily Forward. New York, New York. Retrieved 13 July 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. 17.0 17.1 Sachs, Andrew (18 March 2009). "The Rabbi and the Pope". The Jerusalem Post. Jerusalem, Israel. Retrieved 13 July 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. Ner-David, Haviva (12 January 2010). "The Robinson's Arch 'Solution' Is No Solution". The Jewish Daily Forward. New York, New York. Retrieved 20 February 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. Ilan, Shahar (20 February 2005). "Battle of Wills and Walls". Haaretz. Tel Aviv, Israel. Retrieved 13 July 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. Maltz, Judy (10 April 2013). "Women of the Wall urge Jerusalem police to refrain from arrests at upcoming service". Haaretz. Retrieved 11 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. Jaffay,Nathan, "Is Western Wall Prayer Platform a Step Forward For Women -- or Back?", The Jewish Daily Forward, 30 August 2013, retrieved 15 June 2014
  22. Pollack, Suzanne, Separate — but not equal, Washington Jewish Week, 28 August 2013, retrieved 16 June 2014.
  23. The construct form of "azarah" is "ezrat" according to the Even Shoshan dictionary. It specifically mentions "ezrat nashim" (Court of the women), with vowel pointing.
  24. "Pluralist Council Will Oversee Robinson's Arch at Western Wall", Jewish Daily Forward (from Jewish Telegraphic Agency press release), published 6 March 2014, retrieved 15 June 2014


  • Ben-Dov, Meir (1982). The Dig at the Temple Mount (in Hebrew). Jerusalem: Keter. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Ben Dov, Meir (1985). In the Shadow of the Temple. New York, New York: Harper & Row, Publishers. ISBN 0-06-015362-8.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Mazar, Benjamin (1975). The Mountain of the Lord. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc. ISBN 0-385-04843-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Mazar, Eilat (2002). The Complete Guide to the Temple Mount Excavations. Jerusalem: Shoham Academic Research and Publication. ISBN 965-90299-1-8.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Ronny Reich and Yaacov Billig (2008). Stern Ephraim, ed. The Robinson's Arch Area. The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. 5. The Israel Exploration Society. ISBN 978-965-221-068-5. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Stern Ephraim, ed. (1993). The Western Wall of the Temple Mount and Remains in the Tyropoeon Valley. The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. 2. The Israel Exploration Society. pp. 740–742. ISBN 978-0-13-276296-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links