Rochefort, Charente-Maritime

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Rochefort
270x250px
Coat of arms of Rochefort
Coat of arms
Rochefort is located in France
Rochefort
Rochefort
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Country France
Region Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes
Department Charente-Maritime
Arrondissement Rochefort
Intercommunality Pays Rochefortais
Government
 • Mayor (2008–2014) Bernard Grasset
Area1 21.95 km2 (8.47 sq mi)
Population (2008)2 25,676
 • Density 1,200/km2 (3,000/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 17299 / 17300
Elevation 0–29 m (0–95 ft)
(avg. 5 m or 16 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.
File:Rochefort SPOT 1146.jpg
Rochefort (centre-right) seen from Spot Satellite
Rochefort arsenal, in 1690

Rochefort (French: [ʁɔʃ.fɔʁ]) is a commune in southwestern France, a port on the Charente estuary. It is a sub-prefecture of the Charente-Maritime department.

History

In December 1665, Rochefort was chosen by Jean-Baptiste Colbert as a place of "refuge, defense and supply" for the French Navy. The Arsenal de Rochefort served as a naval base and dockyard until it closed in 1926.

In September 1757, Rochefort was the target of an ambitious British raid during the Seven Years' War.

Another infrastructure of early Rochefort from 1766 was its bagne, a high-security penal colony involving hard labor. Bagnes were then common fixtures in military harbors and naval bases, such as Toulon or Brest, because they provided free labor. During the Jacobin period of the French Revolution (1790–95), over 800 Roman Catholic priests and other clergy who refused to take the anti-Papal oath of the "Civil Constitution of the Clergy" were put aboard a fleet of prison ships in Rochefort harbor, where most died due to inhumane conditions.

Off Rochefort, from the island of Île-d'Aix where he had spent several days hoping to flee to America, Napoleon Bonaparte surrendered to Captain F. L. Maitland aboard HMS Bellerophon, on 17 July 1815, ending the "Hundred Days".

Rochefort is a notable example of 17th-century "ville nouvelle" or new town, which means its design and building resulted from a political decree. The reason for building Rochefort was to a large extent that royal power could hardly depend on rebellious Protestant La Rochelle, which Cardinal Richelieu had to besiege a few decades earlier. Well into the 20th century, Rochefort remained primarily a garrison town. The tourist industry, which had long existed due to the town's spa, gained emphasis in the 1990s.

Population

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1806 14,615 —    
1820 12,389 −15.2%
1876 27,012 +118.0%
1901 36,458 +35.0%
1911 35,019 −3.9%
1921 29,473 −15.8%
1936 29,482 +0.0%
1946 29,472 −0.0%
Year Pop. ±%
1954 30,858 +4.7%
1962 28,648 −7.2%
1968 29,226 +2.0%
1975 28,155 −3.7%
1982 26,167 −7.1%
1990 25,561 −2.3%
1999 25,797 +0.9%
2008 25,676 −0.5%

Sights

The town is home to a unique style of bridge (built in 1900), named Pont transbordeur de Rochefort

Other sights include:

Personalities

Rochefort was the birthplace of:

International relations

Rochefort is twinned with:

See also

References

External links