Rudi Dutschke

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Rudi Dutschke
Born Alfred Willi Rudi Dutschke
(1940-03-07)March 7, 1940
Schönefeld, German Reich
Died December 24, 1979(1979-12-24) (aged 39)
Århus, Denmark
Cause of death drowned because of epileptic seizure while in the bathtub
Residence Berlin, Germany
Nationality German
Alma mater Freie Universität Berlin
Known for Spokesperson of the German student movement
Home town Luckenwalde, East Germany
Spouse(s) Gretchen Klotz (1966–79)
Children 3

Alfred Willi Rudi Dutschke (March 7, 1940 – December 24, 1979) was the most prominent spokesperson of the German student movement of the 1960s. He advocated a "long march through the institutions of power" to create radical change from within government and society by becoming an integral part of the machinery.[1] This was an idea he took up from his interpretation of Antonio Gramsci and the Frankfurt school of Critical Theory;[2] accordingly, the quote is often wrongfully attributed to Gramsci.[3] In the 1970s he followed through on this idea by joining the nascent Green movement.

His grave in Berlin-Dahlem

He survived an assassination attempt by Josef Bachmann in 1968, but died 12 years later from health problems caused by his injuries. Radical students blamed an anti-student campaign in the papers of the Axel Springer publishing empire for the assassination attempt. This led to attempts to blockade the distribution of Springer newspapers all over Germany, which in turn led to major street battles in many German cities.[4]

Early life

Dutschke was born in Schönefeld, (Dahme-Spreewald, Brandenburg), in the Third Reich. He attended school in and graduated from the Gymnasium there, but because he refused to join the army of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) and convinced many of his fellow students to refuse as well, he was prevented from attending university in the GDR. He fled to West Berlin in August 1961, just one day before the Berlin Wall was built. He studied sociology at the Freie Universität Berlin under Richard Löwenthal and Klaus Meschkat where he became acquainted with alternative views of Marxism.[citation needed]

Dutschke joined the German SDS Sozialistischer Deutscher Studentenbund (which was not the same as the SDS in the USA, but quite similar in goals) in 1965 and from that time on the SDS became the center of the student movement, growing very rapidly and organizing demonstrations against the war in Vietnam.[citation needed]

He married the American Gretchen Klotz (de) in 1966. They had three children. Dutschke's third child, 1980-born Rudi-Marek Dutschke (often known as just Marek Dutschke) was born after his father's death. He is a politician of the German Green Party[5] as well as Dean's Office staffer of the Hertie School of Governance[6] today. His older siblings are Hosea-Che Dutschke (named after the Old Testament minor prophet Hosea and Che Guevara) and their sister Polly-Nicole, both born in 1968.

Political views

Influenced by critical theory, Rosa Luxemburg, and critical Marxists and informed through his collaboration with fellow students from Africa and Latin America, Dutschke developed a theory and code of practice of social change via the practice of developing democracy in the process of revolutionizing society, collaborating with foreign students.[7]

Dutschke also advocated that the transformation of Western societies should go hand in hand with Third World liberation movements and with democratization in communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe. He was from a pious Lutheran family[8] and his socialism had strongly Christian roots; he called Jesus Christ the "greatest revolutionary", and in Easter 1963, he wrote that "Jesus is risen. The decisive revolution in world history has happened — a revolution of all-conquering love. If people would fully receive this revealed love into their own existence, into the reality of the 'now', then the logic of insanity could no longer continue."[9]

Benno Ohnesorg's death in 1967 at the hands of German police pushed some in the student movement toward increasingly extremist violence and the formation of the Red Army Faction. The violence against Dutschke further radicalised parts of the student movement into committing several bombings and murders. Dutschke rejected this direction and feared that it would harm or cause the dissolution of the student movement. Instead he advocated a 'long march through the institutions' of power to create radical change from within government and society by becoming an integral part of the machinery.[1] The meaning of Dutschke's idea of a 'long march through the institutions' is in fact highly contested: most historians[10] of '68 in West Germany understand it to mean advocating setting up an alternative society and recreating the institutions which were seen by Dutschke as beyond reform in their current state. It is highly unlikely Dutschke would have promoted change from within the parliamentary and judicial system, which were populated by former Nazis and political conservatives. This is made clear in the SDS reaction to the Kiesinger-led CDU-SPD grand coalition and the authoritarian Emergency Laws they passed.

File:Gedenkplatte für Rudi Dutschke in Berlin-Wilmersdorf.JPG
Memorial plate for Rudi Dutschke at Kurfürstendamm and Joachim-Friedrich Straße in Berlin, Germany

Shooting and later life

On April 11, 1968, Dutschke was shot in the head by a young anti-communist, Josef Bachmann.[11] Dutschke survived the assassination attempt, and he and his family went to the United Kingdom in the hope that he could recuperate there. Dutschke and Bachmann would share correspondence over the next year, until Bachmann's suicide in 1970.[12] Dutschke was accepted at Clare Hall, a graduate college at the University of Cambridge, to finish his degree in 1969, but in 1971 the Conservative government under Edward Heath expelled him and his family as an "undesirable alien" who had engaged in "subversive activity", causing a political storm in London. They then moved to Århus, Denmark, after professor Johannes Sløk had offered him a job at the University of Aarhus which made it possible for Dutschke to gain a Danish residence permit.

Dutschke reentered the German political scene after protests against the building of nuclear power plants activated a new movement in the mid-1970s. He also began working with dissidents opposing the Communist governments in East Germany, Poland, Yugoslavia, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia, including Robert Havemann, Wolf Biermann, Mihailo Petkovic, Milan Horáček, Adam Michnik, Ota Šik and more.

Because of brain damage sustained in the assassination attempt, Dutschke continued to suffer health problems. He died on 24 December 1979 in Århus, Denmark. He had an epileptic seizure while in the bathtub and drowned.[11][13]

References in literature and music

The song "Rot" by Markus Henrik features a mention of Dutschke, who can also be seen in the music video of the same. The song uses Dutschke as a reminder of political activism in Germany in the 60s and 70s.

There's also a Finnish song[14] about Rudi Dutschke, by Eero Ojanen. It is based on the lyrics of the song Drei Kugeln auf Rudi Dutschke by Wolf Biermann.

Dutschke appears as Prussian nobleman-turned anarchist Count Rudolf von Dutschke in the novel Warlord of the Air, the first part of Michael Moorcock's alternate history/steampunk trilogy A Nomad of the Time Streams. Revolutionary socialist Count von Dutschke is close friends with a very aged Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (whom he fondly relates to as "Uncle Vladimir") in Moorcock's alternate 1973 where World War I and the October Revolution never took place. In Harry Mulisch's novel The Discovery of Heaven Dutschke makes a cameo appearance at a "political and musical happening" in a chapter titled "The Demons."

Dutschke was portrayed by Sebastian Blomberg in the 2008 film Der Baader Meinhof Komplex.


  • Dutschke, Rudi (1980), Mein langer Marsch: Reden, Schriften und Tagebücher aus zwanzig Jahren (in German), Hamburg, DE: RowohltCS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  • Dutschke, Rudi (2003), Dutschke, Gretchen (ed.), Jeder hat sein Leben ganz zu leben (diaries) (in German), Köln, DE: Kiepenheuer & Witsch, ISBN 3-462-03224-0CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> (1963–1979).
  • Dutschke, Rudi (Summer 1982), "It Is Not Easy to Walk Upright", TELOS, New York: Telos Press (52)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.


  • Dutschke, Gretchen (1996), Wir hatten ein barbarisches, schönes Leben (biography) (in German), Köln, DE: Kiepenheuer & Witsch, ISBN 3-462-02573-2CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.

See also

The German Rudi Dutschke Wikipedia Article*Rudi Dutschke German Wikipedia


  1. 1.0 1.1 Huffmann, Richard (March 2004), "The Limits of Violence", Satya, Baader Meinhof<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  2. Schwanitz, Dietrich (29 June 1998), "Frankfurter Schule und Studentenbewegung", Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German), MarcuseCS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  3. Wikiquote:Antonio Gramsci
  4. Hockenos, Paul (19 May 2008), "Taz Year Thirty", The Nation<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  5. "Rudi Marek Dutschke", Kandidatenwatch, DE<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  6. Hertie-school<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  7. Slobodian, Quinn, "2", Foreign Front: Third World Politics in Sixties West Germany, Duke University Press<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  8. [1]
  9. Frank, Helmut (16–20 April 2003), "Ich liebte diesen naiven Christen", Sonntagsblatt (in German), Bayern, DECS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  10. Davis, Belinda; Mausbach, Wilfried; Klimke, Martin (eds.), Changing the World, Changing Oneself: Political Protest and Collective Identities in West Germany and the U.S. in the 1960s and 1970s<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Burleigh, Michael (2011). Blood and Rage: History of Terrorism. HarperCollins. p. 230. ISBN 9780062047175.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. "Lieber Josef Bachmann". Bild Politik. Der Bild. Retrieved 2015-05-29.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Wendland, Johannes (2009). "Erinnerungen: Hosea Dutschke über den Tod seines Vaters vor 30 Jahren". Spiegel Online (in German). Der Spiegel. Retrieved 27 February 2013. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help); Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Kolme luotia Rudi Dutschkeen (in Finnish), FI: AanitearkistoCS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.

External links