Rutgers University

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
The State University of New Jersey
Latin: Universitas Rutgersensis
Civitatis Novae Caesareae[1]
Former names
Queen's College
Rutgers College
Rutgers University
Motto Sol iustitiae et occidentem illustra
Motto in English
Sun of righteousness, shine upon the West also.
Established November 10, 1766
Type Public
Multiple campus
Research university
Academic affiliation
Endowment $1.009 billion (2015)[2]
Budget $3.6 billion (2013–14)[3]
President Robert Barchi
Academic staff
Administrative staff
Students 65,000[5]
Undergraduates 45,000[5]
Postgraduates 20,000[5]
Location New Brunswick/Piscataway, Camden and Newark, New Jersey, United States
Campus Urban and Suburban
2,688 acres (1,088 ha) (New Brunswick)
40 acres (16 ha) (Camden)
38 acres (15 ha) (Newark)
Alma Mater On the Banks of the Old Raritan
Colors      Scarlet[6]
Athletics NCAA Division I, FBS
Big Ten Conference
Sports 27 varsity teams
Nickname Scarlet Knights
Rutgers University with the state university logo.svg

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey (/ˈrʌtɡərz/), commonly referred to as Rutgers University, Rutgers, or RU, is an American public research university and the largest institution for higher education in New Jersey.

Originally chartered as Queen's College on November 10, 1766, Rutgers is the eighth-oldest college in the United States and one of the nine "Colonial Colleges" chartered before the American Revolution.[7][8] The college was renamed Rutgers College in 1825[9] in honor of Colonel Henry Rutgers (1745–1830), a New York City landowner, philanthropist and former military officer, whose $5000 [10] bond donation to the school allowed it to reopen after years of financial difficulty. For most of its existence, Rutgers was a private liberal arts college affiliated with the Dutch Reformed Church and admitted only male students. The college expanded its role in research and instruction in agriculture, engineering, and science when it was named as the state's sole land-grant college in 1864 under the Morrill Act of 1862.[11] It gained university status in 1924 with the introduction of graduate education and further expansion.[11] However, Rutgers evolved into a coeducational public research university after being designated "The State University of New Jersey" by the New Jersey Legislature in laws enacted in 1945 and 1956.[12] It is one of only two colonial colleges that later became public universities.[lower-alpha 1] Rutgers, however, remains something of a public-private hybrid, in particular retaining certain "private rights" against unilateral changes in its governance, name, and structure that the state might otherwise want to impose.[13]

Rutgers has three campuses located throughout New Jersey: The New Brunswick campus in New Brunswick and adjacent Piscataway, the Newark campus and the Camden campus. The university has additional facilities elsewhere in New Jersey.[14] Instruction is offered by 9,000 faculty members in 175 academic departments to over 45,000 undergraduate students and more than 20,000 graduate and professional students.[5]

The University is accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools[15] and is a member of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation,[16] the Association of American Universities[17] and the Universities Research Association[18]


Early 19th-century drawing of Old Queen's (1809), the oldest building on the Rutgers University campus in New Brunswick, New Jersey.

Colonial period

Two decades after the College of New Jersey (now known as Princeton University) was established in 1746 by the New Light Presbyterians, ministers of the Dutch Reformed Church, seeking autonomy in ecclesiastical affairs in the American colonies, sought to establish a college to train those who wanted to become ministers within the church.[19][20] Through several years of effort by Rev. Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen (1691–1747) and Rev. Jacob Rutsen Hardenbergh (1736–1790), later the college's first president, Queen's College received its charter on November 10, 1766 from New Jersey's last Royal Governor, William Franklin (1730–1813), the illegitimate son of Founding Father Benjamin Franklin.[19] The original charter established the college under the corporate name the trustees of Queen's College, in New-Jersey, named in honor of King George III's Queen consort, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1744–1818), and created both the college and the Queen's College Grammar School, intended to be a preparatory school affiliated and governed by the college.[20] The Grammar School, today the private Rutgers Preparatory School, was a part of the college community until 1959.[20][21] The location of New Brunswick was chosen over Hackensack because the New Brunswick Dutch had the support of the Anglican population as well, making the royal charter easier to obtain.

The original purpose of Queen's College was to "educate the youth in language, liberal, the divinity, and useful arts and sciences" and for the training of future ministers for the Dutch Reformed Church[20][21][22] The college admitted its first students in 1771—a single sophomore and a handful of first-year students taught by a lone instructor—and granted its first degree in 1774, to Matthew Leydt.[20][21] Despite the religious nature of the early college, the first classes were held at a tavern called the Sign of the Red Lion.[23] When the Revolutionary War broke out and taverns were suspected by the British as being hotbeds of rebel activity, the college abandoned the tavern and held classes in private homes.[20][21]

Financial troubles and a benefactor

Oil painting of Revolutionary War hero and philanthropist, Colonel Henry Rutgers (1745–1830), early benefactor and namesake of Rutgers University

In its early years, due to a lack of funds, Queen's College was closed for two extended periods. Early trustees considered merging the college with the College of New Jersey, in Princeton (the measure failed by one vote) and later considered relocating to New York City.[20][21] In 1808, after raising $12,000, the college was temporarily reopened and broke ground on a building of its own, affectionately called "Old Queens", designed by architect John McComb, Jr.[24] The college's third president, the Rev. Ira Condict, laid the cornerstone on April 27, 1809. Shortly after, the New Brunswick Theological Seminary, founded in 1784, relocated from Brooklyn, New York, to New Brunswick, and shared facilities with Queen's College (and the Queen's College Grammar School, as all three institutions were then overseen by the Reformed Church in America).[20][21] During those formative years, all three institutions fit into Old Queens. In 1830, the Queen's College Grammar School moved across the street, and in 1856, the Seminary relocated to a seven-acre (28,000 m2) tract less than one-half miles (800 m) away.[20][21]

After several years of closure resulting from an economic depression after the War of 1812, Queen's College reopened in 1825 and was renamed Rutgers College in honor of American Revolutionary War hero Colonel Henry Rutgers (1745–1830). According to the Board of Trustees, Colonel Rutgers was honored because he epitomized Christian values. A year after the school was renamed, it received 2 donations from its namesake: a $200 bell still hanging from the cupola of Old Queen's and a $5,000 bond which placed the college on sound financial footing.

Land-grant college

Rutgers College became the land-grant college of New Jersey in 1864 under the Morrill Act of 1862, resulting in the establishment of the Rutgers Scientific School, featuring departments of agriculture, engineering, and chemistry.[20][21] The Rutgers Scientific School would expand over the years to grow into the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station (1880) and divide into the College of Engineering (1914) and the College of Agriculture (1921).[20][21] Rutgers created the New Jersey College for Women in 1918, and the School of Education in 1924.[20][21] With the development of graduate education, and the continued expansion of the institution, the collection of schools became Rutgers University in 1924.[21] Rutgers College continued as a liberal arts college within the university. Later, University College (1945) was founded to serve part-time, commuting students and Livingston College (1969) was created by the Rutgers Trustees, ensuring that the interests of ethnically diverse New Jersey students were met.[20][21]

State University

Rutgers was designated the State University of New Jersey by acts of the New Jersey Legislature in 1945 and 1956.[25] Shortly after, the University of Newark (1935) was merged with Rutgers in 1946, as were the College of South Jersey and South Jersey Law School, in 1950. These two institutions became Rutgers–Newark and Rutgers–Camden. On September 10, 1970, after much debate, the Board of Governors voted to admit women into Rutgers College.[20][21]

Growth of the University was not without setbacks. In 1967, the Rutgers Physics Department had a Centers of Excellence Grant from the NSF which allowed the Physics Department to hire several faculty each year and become a more prominent institution. These faculty were to be paid by the grant for three years, but after that time any faculty hired with the Associate or Full Professor designation would become tenured. The Governor and the Chancellor forced Rutgers to lose this grant by rejecting these faculty as tenured.

In 1970 the newly formed Rutgers Medical School had achieved a great deal of fame with major faculty members coming from other institutions to be part of this new enterprise. But in 1971 the Governor's Office separated Rutgers Medical School from Rutgers University and made it part of New Jersey College of Medicine and Dentistry, and many faculty left the Medical School, including the dean of the Medical School, Dr. Dewitt Stetten, who later became the Director of the National Institutes of Health. As a result of the separation of the Medical School from Rutgers University, graduate PhD programs that had been started in the medical center were lost, and students had to seek other institutions to finish their degrees.


Place on the western end of Voorhees Mall, a bronze statute of William the Silent commemorates the university's Dutch heritage.[26]

Prior to 1982, separate liberal arts faculties existed in the several "residential colleges", (Rutgers, Douglass, Livingston, University, and Cook colleges) at Rutgers–New Brunswick. In 1982, under president Edward J. Bloustein, the liberal arts faculties were centralized into one college, the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, but the residential colleges persisted for students, along with separate standards for admission, good standing, and graduation. Finally in the fall of 2007, the liberal arts residential colleges (Rutgers, Douglass, Livingston, and University) and Faculty of Arts and Sciences were merged into the new School of Arts and Sciences with one set of admissions criteria, curriculum and graduation requirements. Cook College, the residential science college, changed its name to the School of Environmental and Biological Sciences. The merger ended the 241-year history of Rutgers College as a distinct institution.

In 2013, most of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey was integrated with Rutgers University and, along with several existing Rutgers units, was reformed as Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences.[27][28] This merger attached New Jersey Medical School and Robert Wood Johnson Medical School to Rutgers University.

On June 20, 2012, the outgoing president of Rutgers University, Richard L. McCormick announced that Rutgers will "...integrate five acres along George Street between Seminary Place and Bishop Place into the College Avenue Campus.".[29] Much of this is land currently occupied by the New Brunswick Theological Seminary.

In 2013, Rutgers changed part of its alma mater, "On the Banks of the Old Raritan." Where the lyrics had formerly stated, "My father sent me to old Rutgers, and resolved that I should be a man," now they state, "From far and near we came to Rutgers, and resolved to learn all that we can."[30]

Organization and administration

Winter at Old Queens, the oldest building at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey, built between 1809–1825. Old Queens currently houses much of the Rutgers University administration.

University president

Since 1785, twenty men have served as the institution's president, beginning with the Reverend Jacob Rutsen Hardenbergh, a Dutch Reformed clergyman who was responsible for establishing the college.[31][32] Before 1930, most of the university's presidents were clergymen affiliated with Christian denominations in the Reformed tradition (either Dutch Reformed, Presbyterian, or German Reformed).[32][33] Two presidents were alumni of Rutgers College—the Rev. William H. S. Demarest (Class of 1883) and Philip Milledoler Brett (Class of 1892).[34][35]

The current president is Robert L. Barchi, M.D., Ph.D. (b. 1946), an accomplished neuroscientist and board-certified physician.[36][37][38] Dr. Barchi previously served as president of the Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia and as provost of the University of Pennsylvania[39] before being appointed by the university's two governing boards on April 11, 2012 to succeed outgoing president Richard L. McCormick (b. 1947), the son of popular Rutgers history professor and college dean Richard P. McCormick. Barchi assumed the office on September 1, 2012[40][41] and his tenure has so far involved overseeing the university's acquisition of a medical school and related research and clinical facilities after a merger with the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, a redevelopment of the College Avenue Campus, and a transition of the Scarlet Knights athletic program to the Big Ten Conference (beginning in 2014).

The president serves in an ex officio capacity as a presiding officer within the University's 59-member Board of Trustees and its eleven-member Board of Governors,[42] and is appointed by these boards to oversee day-to-day operations of the University across its campuses. He is charged with implementing "board policies with the help and advice of senior administrators and other members of the university community."[43] The president is responsible only to those two governing boards—there is no oversight by state officials. Frequently, the president also occupies a professorship in his academic discipline and engages in instructing students.

Governing boards

Bishop House on the College Avenue campus in New Brunswick

Governance at Rutgers University rests with a Board of Trustees consisting currently of 59 members and a Board of Governors consisting of 11 members: 6 appointed by the Governor of New Jersey and 5 chosen by the Board of Trustees.[44][45][46] The trustees constitute chiefly an advisory body to the Board of Governors and are the fiduciary overseers of the property and assets of the University that existed before the institution became the State University of New Jersey in 1945. The initial reluctance of the trustees (still acting as a private corporate body) to cede control of certain business affairs to the state government for direction and oversight caused the state to establish the Board of Governors in 1956.[47] Today, the Board of Governors maintains much of the corporate control of the University.

The members of the Board of Trustees are voted upon by different constituencies or appointed. "Two faculty and two students are elected by the University Senate as nonvoting representatives. The 59 voting members are chosen in the following way as mandated by state law: 28 charter members (of whom at least three shall be women), 20 alumni members nominated by the Nominating Committee of the Board of Trustees, and five public members appointed by the governor of the state with confirmation by the New Jersey State Senate. The six members of the Board of Governors appointed by the governor also serve as members of the Board of Trustees. Of the 28 charter seats, three are reserved for students with full voting rights."[48]


Locations and divisions

Rutgers University has three campuses across the state of New Jersey. The New Brunswick Campus located in the city of New Brunswick and adjacent Piscataway is the largest campus of the university. The Newark Campus in Newark, and the Camden Campus in Camden are located in the northern and southern parts of the state, respectively.[49] Combined, these campuses comprise 33 degree-granting schools and colleges, offering undergraduate, graduate and professional levels of study.[49] The university is centrally administered from New Brunswick, although Chancellors at the Newark and Camden campuses hold significant autonomy for some academic issues.[50]

Rutgers–New Brunswick

The New Brunswick Campus (or Rutgers–New Brunswick) is the oldest and largest campus of Rutgers; it is the site of the original Rutgers College. It is spread across six municipalities in Middlesex County, New Jersey, chiefly in the City of New Brunswick and adjacent Piscataway. And it resides right along Route 18. It is composed of five smaller campuses, and a few buildings in downtown New Brunswick. The original and historic College Avenue Campus is adjacent to downtown New Brunswick, and includes the seat of the University, Old Queens and other nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century buildings that constitute the Queens Campus and Voorhees Mall. On the other side of the city, Douglass Campus and Cook Campus are adjacent and intertwined with each other, and are often referred to collectively as the Cook/Douglass Campus. Cook Campus has extensive farms and woods that reach into North Brunswick and East Brunswick. Separated by the Raritan River are Busch Campus, in Piscataway, and Livingston Campus, also mainly in Piscataway but including remote sections of land extending into Edison and the Borough of Highland Park. The Rutgers Campus Buses transports students between the various campuses.[51]

As of Fall 2010, the New Brunswick-Piscataway campuses include 19 undergraduate, graduate and professional schools, including the School of Arts and Sciences, the School of Communication and Information, the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, the School of Engineering, the School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, the Graduate School, the Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology, the Graduate School of Education, the School of Management and Labor Relations, Mason Gross School of the Arts, the College of Nursing, the Rutgers Business School and the School of Social Work. As of 2012, 31,593 undergraduates and 8,841 graduate students (total 40,434) are enrolled at the New Brunswick-Piscataway campus.[4] The New Brunswick-Piscataway campus includes a new state-of-the-art Business School building on the Livingston Campus that accommodates the rising number of students pursuing a business degree.


The Newark Campus (or Rutgers–Newark), consists of 8 undergraduate, graduate and professional schools, including: Newark College of Arts and Sciences, University College, School of Criminal Justice, Graduate School, College of Nursing, School of Public Affairs and Administration, Rutgers Business School and Rutgers School of Law - Newark. As of 2012, 7,666 undergraduates and 4,345 graduate students (total 12,011) are enrolled at the Newark campus.[4]


Rutgers-Camden School of Law entrance.

The Camden Campus (or Rutgers–Camden) consists of five undergraduate, graduate and professional schools, including: Camden College of Arts and Sciences, University College, Graduate School, Rutgers School of Business – Camden and Rutgers School of Law - Camden. As of 2012, 4,708 undergraduates and 1,635 graduate students (total 6,343) are enrolled at the Camden campus.[4]

Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences

The Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences (RBHS) is a division of the university that serves as an umbrella organization for schools, centers, and institutes from Rutgers University and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. The organization was incorporated into the university following the 2013 merger of Rutgers and the UMDNJ.[52] While its various facilities are spread across several locations statewide, Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences is considered a "campus" for certain organizational purposes, such as the appointment of a separate Chancellor.[53][54][55][56]

RHBS comprises nine schools and other research centers and institutes including; Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Institute for Health, Health Care Policy and Aging Research, New Jersey Medical School, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, College of Nursing, School of Nursing, School of Dental Medicine, School of Health Related Professions, the School of Public Health, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Environmental and the Occupational Health Sciences Institute. The programs are offered at different location sites across New Jersey in New Brunswick, Newark, Camden, Stratford, and Scotch Plains.


As of Fall 2015, Rutgers offers a total of 11 fully online degree programs at the undergraduate and graduate levels.[57] An integral part of the institution's academic fabric, and a priority in the university's strategic development initiatives, these programs constitute, collectively, "Rutgers Online." Online degree programs at Rutgers must meet the same academic expectations, in terms of both teaching and learning outcomes, as traditional on-campus programs.


Rutgers offers classes at several off-campus sites in affiliation with community colleges and other state colleges throughout New Jersey.[58] These partnerships are designed to enable students to achieve a seamless transfer to Rutgers, and to take all of their Rutgers classes in a select number of the most popular majors at the community college campus. The collaborative effort provides access to Rutgers faculty teaching Rutgers courses, at a convenient location, but it is also one of the few programs that cater exclusively to the non-traditional student population. Rutgers' current partners include Atlantic Cape, Brookdale, Mercer, Morris, and Raritan Valley community colleges.[59]


File:Rutgers University's NJ Hall.png
New Jersey Hall on the New Brunswick College Avenue Campus was the home of the Agricultural Experiment Station, Biology and Chemistry faculty. It now houses the university's Department of Economics.


Established in 1766, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey is one of the nine colonial chartered colleges established before the American Revolution. In 1864, the New Jersey Legislature selected Rutgers as New Jersey's sole land-grant college which expanded the school's offerings in the fields of practical agriculture, science, military science and engineering. The state legislature designated Rutgers to be New Jersey's state university by acts passed in 1945 and 1956. It is the only university in the United States able to boast all three designations.[60] The university offers more than 100 distinct bachelor, 100 master, and 80 doctoral and professional degree programs across 175 academic departments, 29 degree-granting schools and colleges, 16 of which offer graduate programs of study.

Rutgers is accredited by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools (1921), and in 1989, became a member of the Association of American Universities, an organization of the 62 leading research universities in North America.[61] Rutgers–New Brunswick is classified by the Carnegie Foundation as "RU/VH", which stands for Research Intensive University, Very High research activity.[62] Rutgers–Newark is classified by the same organization as "RU/H", meaning Research Intensive University, High research activity and Rutgers–Camden is given the classification of "Master's M", signifying the university's inclusion in the Master's Colleges and Universities category as a medium-sized institution.[63]


The Archibald S. Alexander Library is the main library at Rutgers University
An art library on the College Avenue campus

The Rutgers University Libraries (RUL) system consists of twenty six libraries, centers and reading rooms located on the University's four campuses. Housing a collection that includes 4,383,848 volumes (print and electronic), 4,605,896 microforms, as well as a wide array of electronic indexes and abstracts, full-text electronic journals, and research guides, Rutgers University Libraries ranks among the nation's top research libraries.[64] The American Library Association ranks the Rutgers University Library system as the 44th largest library in the United States in terms of volumes held.[65]

The Archibald S. Alexander Library in New Brunswick is the oldest and the largest library of the University, and houses an extensive humanities and social science collection.[64][66] It also supports the work of faculty and staff at four professional schools: the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, the Graduate School of Education, the Graduate School of Social Work, and the School of Communication and Information. Alexander Library is also a Federal Depository Library, maintaining a large collection of government documents, which contains United States, New Jersey, foreign, and international government publications.[66] The Library of Science and Medicine (LSM) on the Busch Campus in Piscataway houses the University's collection in behavioral, biological, earth, and pharmaceutical sciences and engineering. LSM also serves as a designated depository library for government publication regarding science, and owns a U.S. patent collection and patent search facility.[67] It was officially established as the Library of Science and Medicine in July 1964 although the beginning of the development of a library for science started in 1962. The current character of LSM is a university science library also serving a medical school.[68] On the New Brunswick-Piscataway campus, in addition to Alexander Library, many individual disciplines have their own libraries, including Alcohol Studies, Art History, Chemistry, Mathematics, Music, and Physics. Special Collections and University Archives houses the Sinclair New Jersey Collection, manuscript collection, and rare book collection, as well as the University Archives. Although located in the Alexander Library building, Special Collections and University Archives actually comprises a distinct unit unto itself. Also located within the Alexander Library is the East Asian Library which holds a sizable collection of Chinese, Japanese and Korean monographs and periodicals. In Newark, the John Cotton Dana Library, which includes the Institute of Jazz Studies, and the Paul Robeson Library in Camden, serve their respective campuses with a broad collection of volumes. Individual items and collections within the Libraries can be identified using the Rutgers University Library Catalog.

Museums and collections

The Jane Voorhees Zimmerli Art Museum on Hamilton Street in New Brunswick

Rutgers oversees several museums and collections that are open to the public.

Rutgers' facilities across the four campuses include a golf course, botanical gardens, working agricultural, horse, dairy, and sustainable farms, a creamery, an ecological preserve with multiple use trails, television and radio studios, theaters, museums, athletic facilities, helipads, a makerspace, and more.

Admissions and financial aid

U.S. News & World Report considers the New Brunswick campus of Rutgers University to be a "more selective" school in terms of the rigor of its admissions processes.[73] For the Class of 2017 (enrolling fall 2013), the New Brunswick campus received 30,631 applications and accepted 18,230 (59.5%).[74] The number enrolling was 6,402; the yield rate (the percentage of accepted students who enroll) was 35.1%.[74] The middle 50% range of SAT scores was 520-640 for critical reading, 570-690 for math, and 540-650 for writing.[74]

As a state university, Rutgers charges two separate rates for tuition and fees depending on whether an enrolled student is a resident of the State of New Jersey (in-state) or not (out-of-state). The Office of Institutional Research and Academic Planning estimates that costs in-state student of attending Rutgers would amount to $25,566 for an undergraduate living on-campus and $30,069 for a graduate student. For an out-of-state student, the costs rise to $38,228 and $39,069 respectively.[4] As of the 2012-2013 academic school year, the cost of attendance for in-state students is $13,073, $26,393 for out-of-state students and $11,412 for Room and Board.[75]

In the 2010-2011 academic year, undergraduate students at Rutgers, through a combination of federal (53.5%), state (23.6%), university (18.1%), and private (4.8%) scholarship, loans, and grants, received $492,260,845 of financial aid. 81.4% of all undergraduates, or 34,473 students, received some form of financial aid. During the same period, graduate students, through a combination of federal (61.9%), state (1.8%), university (34.5%), and private (1.9%) scholarship, loans, and grants received $182,384,256 of financial aid. 81.5% of all graduate students, or 11,852 students received some form of financial aid.[4]

In 2007, the university's office for Enrollment Management launched the Rutgers Future Scholars Program as an initiative to help 7th graders from low-income families achieve academic success and be the first in their families to go to college. The program targets students from the school systems of Rutgers's hometowns, New Brunswick/Piscataway, Newark, and Camden. Once admitted, the students receive mentoring and college prep courses each summer leading up to the year of their college applications. If admitted to the university, they are given a full tuition scholarship for four years of undergraduate study. The program has been very successful and currently admits as many as 200 new 7th graders each year with the most of the original 200 now attending the University as undergraduates.[76]


University rankings
ARWU[77] 39
Forbes[78] 146
U.S. News & World Report[79] 72
Washington Monthly[80] 81
ARWU[81] 64
QS[82] 269
Times[83] 123

The university was ranked 39th in the United States and 64th worldwide in the 2015 Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), while ranking 24th nationwide and 33rd in the world in the 2014 Center for World University Rankings.[84]

In the 2016 U.S. News & World Report ranking of American national universities (public and private), Rutgers is tied for 72nd and among public universities, ranked 28th.[85] The same ranking placed Rutgers in the top 25 among all U.S. universities for the following graduate school programs: Library Science (6th), English (17th), History (20th) (with the subspecialties of Women's History ranked 1st and African-American History ranked 8th), and Mathematics (23rd).[85]

In 2003, the Wall Street Journal conducted a study of the undergraduate institutions that most frequently feed students placements at elite professional and graduate programs, such as Columbia, Yale and Harvard; Rutgers was ranked 20th in the rankings they compiled for state universities.[86] On a side note, Forbes ranked Rutgers as being the 20th best public university in the United States for "getting rich", as judged by its students' median salaries upon graduation.[87]

Eleven of Rutgers' graduate departments are ranked by the National Research Council in the top 25 among all universities: Philosophy (2nd), Geology Ranked 9th Nationally based on NSF funding 9th, Geography (13th), Statistics (17th), English (17th), Mathematics (19th), Art History (20th), Physics (20th), History (20th) Comparative Literature (22nd), French (22nd), and Materials Science Engineering (25th).[88][89][90][91][92]

The Rutgers Business School is ranked 39th in the Wall Street Journal's Ranking of Top Business Schools.[93] The full-time Master of Business Administration (M.B.A.) program is ranked 48th in United States according to U.S. News and World Report,[94] with speciality at Pharma,Biotech and Healthcare industries. The Master of Quantitative Finance (M.Q.F.) program at Rutgers Business School and Master of Mathematical Finance (M.S.M.F) program at the department of Mathematics, is ranked 7th in the United States, behind Princeton University and ahead of Stanford University.[95]

The Philosophy Department ranked first in 2002–04 tied with New York University and Princeton University, and second in 2004–06 (NYU was first, Princeton 3rd, Oxford 4th) in the Philosophical Gourmet's biennial report on Philosophy programs in the English-speaking world.[96][97]

The Rutgers Quad Clock on College Avenue.

The Division of Global Affairs (DGA)[2] Ph.D. program at Rutgers University-Newark was ranked fifth in the nation in the Benchmarking Academic Excellence survey of Top Universities in Social and Behavioral Sciences Disciplines in the combined category of International Affairs and Development for 2006-07.[98]

On September 13, 2010, the Wall Street Journal ranked Rutgers University #21 in schools whose graduates are top-rated by recruiters.[99]

On June 28, 2012 the New Jersey state legislature passed the New Jersey Medical and Health Sciences Education Restructuring Act that will dissolve the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey and merge most of its schools, including Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Jersey Medical School and New Jersey Dental School, with Rutgers University forming a new Rutgers School of Biomedical and Health Sciences by July 1, 2013. Members of the Rutgers Board of Governors estimated that the takeover of UMDNJ could "elevate Rutgers’ status to among the top 25 most elite research universities in America."[100]


Prof. Selman A. Waksman (B.Sc. 1915), who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for developing 22 antibiotics—most notably Streptomycin—in his laboratory at Rutgers University

Rutgers is home to the Rutgers University Center for Cognitive Science, also known as RUCCS. Researchers in psychology, linguistics, computer science, philosophy, electrical engineering, and anthropology combine resources to advance the study of the mind at this state of the art institution.

It was at Rutgers that Selman Waksman (1888–1973) discovered several antibiotics, including actinomycin, clavacin, streptothricin, grisein, neomycin, fradicin, candicidin, candidin, and others. Waksman, along with graduate student Albert Schatz (1920–2005), discovered streptomycin—a versatile antibiotic that was to be the first applied to cure tuberculosis. For this discovery, Waksman received the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1952.

Rutgers developed water-soluble sustained release polymers, tetraploids, robotic hands, artificial bovine insemination, and the ceramic tiles for the heat shield on the Space Shuttle. In health related field, Rutgers has the Environmental & Occupational Health Science Institute (EOHSI).

Rutgers is also home to the RCSB Protein Data bank,[101] 'an information portal to Biological Macromolecular Structures' cohosted with the San Diego Supercomputer Center. This database is the authoritative research tool for bioinformaticists using protein primary, secondary and tertiary structures worldwide.'

The Rutgers Tomato growing at a New Jersey greenhouse

Rutgers is home to the Rutgers Cooperative Research & Extension office, which is run by the Agricultural and Experiment Station with the support of local government. The institution provides research & education to the local farming and agro industrial community in 19 of the 21 counties of the state and educational outreach programs offered through the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station Office of Continuing Professional Education.

Rutgers University Cell and DNA Repository (RUCDR) is the largest university based repository in the world and has received awards worth more than $57.8 million from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). One will fund genetic studies of mental disorders and the other will support investigations into the causes of digestive, liver and kidney diseases, and diabetes.[102] RUCDR activities will enable gene discovery leading to diagnoses, treatments and, eventually, cures for these diseases. RUCDR assists researchers throughout the world by providing the highest quality biomaterials, technical consultation, and logistical support.

Rutgers–Camden is home to the nation's PhD granting Department of Childhood Studies. This department, in conjunction with the Center for Children and Childhood Studies, also on the Camden campus, conducts interdisciplinary research which combines methodologies and research practices of sociology, psychology, literature, anthropology and other disciplines into the study of childhoods internationally.

Rutgers is home to several National Science Foundation IGERT fellowships that support interdisciplinary scientific research at the graduate-level. Highly selective fellowships are available in the following areas: Perceptual Science, Stem Cell Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology for Clean Energy, Renewable and Sustainable Fuels Solutions, and Nanopharmaceutical Engineering.

Rutgers also maintains the Office of Research Alliances[103] that focuses on working with companies to increase engagement with the university's faculty members, staff and extensive resources on the four campuses.

Student life

Residential life

The Voorhees Chapel is a notable landmark on the Douglass campus at Rutgers. Douglass was originally founded as an all-women's college in 1918, but now houses co-ed dormitories

Rutgers University offers a variety of housing options. On the New Brunswick-Piscataway campus, students are given the option of on-campus housing in both traditional dorms or apartments. Freshman students, however, are allowed only a dorm, while upperclassmen have a wider array of on-campus housing choices, like apartments, but must apply for on-campus housing through the Rutgers online lottery process. Despite some overcrowding, most students seeking on-campus housing will be accommodated with a space, yet in 2008/2009 students were placed in a nearby hotel. Currently Rutgers University is undergoing a series of constructions to expand residence life. Many Rutgers students opt to rent apartments or houses off-campus within the city of New Brunswick. Similar setups are to be found in Rutgers–Newark and Rutgers–Camden, however a substantial portion of the students on those campuses commute and/or are enrolled on a part-time basis.

Demarest Hall dormitory

Rutgers University's four campuses are in the culturally-diverse, redeveloping urban areas (Newark, Camden, and New Brunswick) with convenient access to New York City and Philadelphia by either automobile, Amtrak or New Jersey Transit. US News & World Report ranked Rutgers–Newark the most diverse university campus in the United States.[104] Because the area of Rutgers' New Brunswick-Piscataway campus—which is composed of several constituent colleges and professional schools—is sprawled across six municipalities, the individual campuses are connected by an inter-campus bus system. The Rutgers bus system is the second largest bus service in New Jersey, and one of the largest in the country.[105]

Security and emergency services

Services provided by the university include Rutgers Police, Emergency Medical Services, an emergency management office, bus and shuttle service, inter- and intra-campus mail, and occupational and environmental health and safety.

Student organizations and activities

Shrubbery at the College Avenue campus

Rutgers University has a student government which controls funding to student groups. The student government is made up of campus councils and professional school councils. Those councils then send representatives to the student assembly as well as the university senate. An example of these campus councils is the University College Council, which represents adult, part-time, and military veteran students.

Rutgers hosts over 700 student organizations; among the first student groups was the first college newspaper in the United States of America. The Political Intelligencer and New Jersey Adviser began publication at Queen's College in 1783, and ceased operation in 1785.[21] Continuing this tradition is the university's current college newspaper, The Daily Targum, established in 1869, which is the second-oldest college newspaper currently published in the United States, after The Dartmouth (1843). Both poet Joyce Kilmer and economist Milton Friedman served as editors. Also included are The Medium, Rutgers Entertainment Weekly, Rutgers Centurion, a conservative newspaper, the Rutgers University Glee Club, a male choral singing group established in 1872 (among the oldest in the country). More recently there has been increased national exposure among Rutgers a cappella groups as they have routinely placed well in the International Championship of Collegiate A Cappella, including 2010 when The OrphanSporks placed second in the semifinals.[106] Governed by the Rutgers University Student Assembly and funded by student fees, students can organize groups for practically any political ideology or issue, ethnic or religious affiliation, academic subject, activity, or hobby.

Rutgers University is home to chapters of many Greek organizations, and a significant percentage of the undergraduate student body is active in Greek life. Several fraternities and sororities maintain houses for their chapters in the area of Union Street (known familiarly as "Frat Row") in New Brunswick, within blocks of Rutgers' College Avenue Campus. Chapters of Zeta Psi and Delta Phi organized at Rutgers as early as 1845. The Alpha Rho chapter of Chi Psi Fraternity, founded at Rutgers College in 1879, was the first fraternity at Rutgers to own a fraternity house, or "Lodge", purchased in 1887. The fraternity today still owns and occupies the same property at 114 College Avenue. Today, there are over 50 fraternities and sororities on the New Brunswick-Piscataway campus, ranging from traditional to historically African-American, Hispanic, Multicultural, and Asian interest organizations.[107] The New Brunswick campus of Rutgers University has a chapter of the only active co-ed Pre-medical Fraternity, Phi Delta Epsilon, as of 2008.[108] Greek organizations are governed by the Office of Fraternity and Sorority Affairs. Twelve organizations maintain chapters in New Brunswick without sanction by the University's administration.[109] Students involved in Greek Life must meet academic eligibility requirements including maintaining a cumulative 2.5 GPA, completion of 12 credits, and be a currently enrolled full-time student. Some individual organizations hold a higher GPA requirement.

Many Greek Organizations hold fundraising events specific to their philanthropy. However, it's Rutgers tradition that our students participate in one of the largest student-run philanthropic events in New Jersey. All proceeds go to the non-profit organization, Embrace Kids Foundation. This foundation advocates for children with cancer and blood disorders. Dance Marathon includes over 400 dancers pledging to stay away and stand for 32 hours with the support and help of 500 volunteers. Dance Marathon 2015 collected a record breaking $692,046.67.[110][111]

Several of the campuses are relatively new; the Busch campus (shown) was built within the last few decades and the Livingston campus is being expanded with new dormitories and facilities.

In the late 19th century, the University banned fraternities because of their unusual hazing practices. This caused them to go underground as secret societies. It also sparked the interest of some students to create their own societies. Cap and Skull was founded at Rutgers before the turn of the 20th century.

Today, Rutgers is well known for four of its vocal ensembles: Voorhees Choir (the university's women's ensemble), Kirkpatrick Choir (the university's most selective coed ensemble), Glee Club (the university's most esteemed male ensemble), and University Choir (a larger mixed choir).

In 2011, The Iota Psi chapter of Sigma Chi raised a national Greek record of $167,000 for the Children’s Miracle Network with the help of seven sororities: Alpha Chi Omega, Delta Gamma, Gamma Phi Beta, Phi Sigma Sigma, Sigma Delta Tau, Sigma Kappa, and Zeta Tau Alpha.[112]


Students waiting in line at the Grease Trucks

The Grease Trucks are a group of truck-based food vendors located on the College Avenue Campus. They serve traditional grill fare, Middle-Eastern specialties, and are especially well known for serving "Fat Sandwiches," a sub roll containing various ingredients such as cheesesteak, burgers, pork roll, chicken fingers, French fries, mozzarella sticks, eggs, bacon, gyro meat, marinara sauce, etc. The Rutgers Grease Trucks were located in a designated lot for nearly two decades until August 2013. Truck owners were forced to relocate due to the construction of a $84 million student apartment complex. Three trucks remain on the College Avenue Campus, while the remaining two were moved to the Cook/Douglass Campus.

The Dance Marathon is a student-run organization that consists of a year-long series of fundraisers and culminates with the annual Marathon on April 5–6 in the College Avenue Gym. At the Marathon over 400 dancers pledge to raise funds and remain standing for 32 hours without sleeping. The 'Dancers', along with over 500 volunteers and countless visitors, are entertained by live bands, comedians, prize giveaways, games, sports, a mechanical bull, computer and internet access, various theme hours and much more. Rutgers has held this tradition since 1999 and to date has raised in excess of $1.3 million for the Embrace Kids Foundation. In the seventies the Dance Marathon raised funds for the American Cancer Society. In the Eighties it was the Rutger Cancer Research Association.

RutgersFest was a day-long cultural event staged variously on either Livingston Campus or Busch Campus. It was designed to promote college spirit through student organization participation with activities and entertainment throughout the day, culminating with a free concert and fireworks at night. The event was free to all students and guests and was funded as part of an elected programming fee paid by all students as part tuition. Past musical guests have included: Kanye West, Everclear, Sugar Ray, Guster, Goldfinger, Ludacris, Reel Big Fish, Method Man and Redman, Fuel, Third Eye Blind, Hawthorne Heights, NAS, SR-71, Ok Go, N.E.R.D and Pitbull. The event would feature carnival attractions such as bungee bull, bouncy boxing, moon walk, electronic basketball, a recording studio and more. Attendance for the annual event was about 40,000-50,000, topping out at an estimated 65,000 in 2004 at the event which featured Kanye West and Sugar Ray[113] The event was staged by the Rutgers University Programming Association (RUPA), formerly known as the Rutgers College Programming Committee (RCPC), as a year-end celebration before the start of the final examination period.

During its final year in 2011, the festival was held on Busch Campus. Invited musical guests included Yelawolf, Pitbull, and 3OH!3. Several violent incidents that year lead to the indefinite cancelation of the event. President Richard McCormick, in a letter to the Rutgers community, commented: "The problems that occur following Rutgersfest have grown beyond our capacity to manage them, and the only responsible course of action is to cancel the event."[114]

Colors, mottos and mascots

Rutgers University's only school color is scarlet. Initially, students sought to make orange the school color, citing Rutgers' Dutch heritage and in reference to the Prince of Orange. The Rutgers student publication "Targum" (which would go on to become the Daily Targum) first proposed that scarlet be adopted in May 1869, claiming that it was a striking color and because scarlet ribbon was easily obtained. During the first intercollegiate football game with Princeton on 6 November 1869, the players from Rutgers wore scarlet-colored turbans and handkerchiefs to distinguish them as a team from the Princeton players.[115] The Board of Trustees officially made scarlet the school color in 1900.[115]

In its early days, Rutgers athletes were known informally as "The Scarlet" in reference to the school color, or as "Queensmen" in reference to the institution's first name, Queen's College.[115] In 1925, the mascot was changed to Chanticleer, a fighting rooster from the medieval fable Reynard the Fox (Le Roman de Renart) which was used by Geoffrey Chaucer's in the Canterbury Tales.[115] At the time, the student humour magazine at Rutgers was called Chanticleer, and one of its early arts editors, Ozzie Nelson (later of The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet fame) was quarterback of the Rutgers team from 1924 to 1926.[116] The Chanticleer mascot was unveiled at a football game against Lafayette College, in which Lafayette was also introducing a new mascot, a leopard.[116] However, the choice of Chanticleer as a mascot was often the subject of ridicule because of its association with "being chicken."[117] In 1955, the mascot was changed to the Scarlet Knight after a campus-wide election, beating out other contenders such as "Queensmen", the "Scarlet", the "Red Lions", the "Redmen" and the "Flying Dutchmen."[115][118] Earlier proposed nicknames included "Pioneers" and "Cannoneers". When Harvey Harman, then coach of the football team, was asked why he supported changing the Rutgers mascot, he was quoted as saying, "You can call it the Chanticleer, you can call it a fighting cock, you can call it any damn thing you want, but everybody knows it's a chicken."[119] Harman later is said to have bought the first "Scarlet Knight" mascot costume for the 1955 season, which was to be his final season as football coach at Rutgers.[120]


(Note: The Rutgers–Camden athletic teams are called the Scarlet Raptors. The Rutgers–Newark athletic teams are called the Scarlet Raiders. The Scarlet Raiders and the Scarlet Raptors both compete within NCAA Division III.)

Rutgers was among the first American institutions to engage in intercollegiate athletics, and participated in a small circle of schools that included Yale University, Columbia University and long-time rival, Princeton University (then called The College of New Jersey). The four schools met at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in Manhattan on October 19, 1873 to establish a set of rules governing their intercollegiate competition, and particularly to codify the new game of football. Though invited, Harvard chose not to attend.[121] In the early years of intercollegiate athletics, the circle of schools that participated in these athletic events were located solely in the American Northeast. However, by the turn of the 20th century, colleges and universities across the United States began to participate.

The Rutgers College football team in 1882

Rutgers University is referred to as The Birthplace of College Football as the first intercollegiate football game was held on College Field between Rutgers and Princeton on November 6, 1869 in New Brunswick, New Jersey on a plot of ground behind where the present-day College Avenue Gymnasium now stands. Rutgers won the game, with a score of 6 runs to Princeton's 4.[21][115][122] According to Parke H. Davis, the 1869 Rutgers football team shared the national title with Princeton.[123] (This game is believed to have been closer to soccer than to modern American football.)[124]

The Rutgers Men's Varsity Eight rowing on the Raritain River.

In 1864, rowing became the first organized sport at Rutgers. Six mile races were held on the Raritan River among six-oared boats. In 1870, Rutgers held its first intercollegiate competition, against the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard, the then top-ranked amateur crew of the time. Since the start in 1864, Rutgers has built a strong crew program consisting of heavyweight and lightweight men. Women's crew was added to the program in 1974. Financial support of the Men's crew program was discontinued by the university in 2006, though the Crew continues to compete (funded entirely by Alumni and private support) at a high level in the prestigious Eastern Association of Rowing Colleges conference.

The first intercollegiate athletic event at Rutgers was a baseball game on May 2, 1866 against Princeton in which they suffered a 40-2 loss.[21]

Since 1866, Rutgers remained unaffiliated with any formal athletic conference and was classified as "independent". From 1946 to 1951, the university was a member of the Middle Three Conference, and from 1958 to 1961, was a member of the Middle Atlantic Conference.[125] In 1978, the Rutgers Scarlet Knights became a member of the Atlantic 10 conference. In 1991, it joined the Big East Conference for football. All sports programs at Rutgers New Brunswick subsequently became affiliated with the Big East in 1995.[126]

The first intercollegiate competition in Ultimate Frisbee (now called simply "Ultimate") was held between students from Rutgers and Princeton on November 6, 1972 to mark the one hundred third anniversary of the first intercollegiate football game. Rutgers won 29–27.[127] The Rutgers Scarlet Knights men's Basketball Team was among the "Final Four" and ended the 1976 season ranked fourth in the United States, after an 86–70 loss against the University of Michigan in the semifinals, and a 106–92 loss against UCLA in the consolation round of the 1976 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament.[128]

High Point Solutions Stadium is home to Scarlet Knights football

The Rutgers Scarlet Knights are members of the Big Ten Conference, a collegiate athletic conference consisting of 14 colleges and universities from the Midwestern and East Coast regions of the United States. The Big Ten Conference is a member of the Bowl Championship Series. Rutgers currently fields 27 intercollegiate sports programs and is a Division I school as sanctioned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Rutgers fields thirty teams in NCAA Division I sanctioned sports, including Football, Baseball, Basketball, Crew, Cross Country, Fencing, Field Hockey, Golf, Gymnastics, Lacrosse, Soccer, Softball, Tennis, Track and Field, Swimming and Diving, Wrestling, Volleyball.[129]

The Scarlet Knights have won five Big East Conference tournament titles: men's soccer (1997), men's track & field (2005), baseball (2000, 2007), women's basketball (2007). Several other teams have won regular season titles but failed to win the conference's championship tournament.[130]

Most recently, the Rutgers Scarlet Knights' football team has achieved success on the gridiron after several years of losing seasons, being invited to the Insight Bowl on December 27, 2005 in which they lost 45 to 40 against Arizona State University.[131] This was Rutgers' first bowl appearance since the December 16, 1978 loss against Arizona State, 34–18, at the Garden State Bowl. The 2006 football season also saw Rutgers being ranked within the Top 25 teams in major college football polls. After the November 9, 2006 victory over the #3 ranked, undefeated Louisville Cardinals, Rutgers jumped up to seventh in the AP Poll, eighth in the USA Today/Coaches poll, seventh in the Harris Interactive Poll, and sixth in the Bowl Championship Series rankings. These were Rutgers' highest rankings in the football polls since they were ranked fifteenth in 1961. Rutgers ended the season 11–2 after winning the inaugural Texas Bowl on December 28, 2006, defeating the Wildcats of Kansas State University by a score of 37–10 and finishing the season ranked twelfth in the final Associated Press poll of sportswriters, the team's highest season-ending ranking.[132]

Under Head Coach C. Vivian Stringer, the Women's Basketball program is among the elite programs in the country as they remain consistently ranked in the Top 25, consistently making the NCAA Women's Championship Tournament, and sometimes winning the Big East regular season championship. In 2006-2007, the Scarlet Knights won their first ever Big East Conference Tournament Championship. The program has been highly competitive since its inception, winning the 1982 AIAW National Championship, reaching the 2000 Final Four, and reaching the Final Four and national championship game in 2007.

The Scarlet Knights maintain athletic rivalries with other collegiate institutions. The university has historic rivalries with Princeton University, Columbia University (formerly King's College), Lafayette College, Lehigh University and New York University originating from the early days of college football. While they maintain this rivalry in other sports, neither of them have met in football since 1980. Rutgers has a basketball rivalry with Seton Hall University.[133] Penn State and the University of Maryland are the two schools that Rutgers is developing rivalries with in the Big Ten.

In the fall of 2007, six Rutgers New Brunswick/Piscataway's NCAA Division I sports were discontinued by the University, including men's swimming and diving, men's heavyweight and lightweight crew, men's tennis, and men's and women's fencing. Some continued as club teams, while some were disbanded completely. The University claims this change was due to budget cuts, while others claim it was a politically motivated move designed to protest state's funding changes.

In November 2012, the Rutgers Scarlet Knights, along with Louisville, Connecticut, and Cincinnati left the Big East to form the American Athletic Conference. Syracuse and Pittsburgh have decided to enter the Atlantic Coast Conference, while West Virginia entered the Big 12 conference, taking effect as of the 2012-2013 season. Rutgers decided to leave the American for the Big Ten Conference, effective July 1, 2014. Rutgers surpassed Penn State as the Big Ten's easternmost school.

Notable people


Nobel laureate economist Milton Friedman '32 received his A.B. from Rutgers

At Queen's College's first commencement in 1774, one graduate, Matthew Leydt, received his baccalaureate degree in a brief ceremony.[134]:p.66 In May 2013, over 14,000 students received degrees. In Rutgers' 247 years, over 450,000 alumni from all 50 U.S. states and more than 120 foreign countries have attended and received degrees from the university.[135] Approximately two-thirds of the university's alumni live in New Jersey,[5] and many alumni remain active in the university community through alumni associations including the Rutgers Alumni Association (founded in 1831), annual reunions, homecomings, and other events.

Rutgers alumni have been influential in academia arts, letters, entertainment, business, and public service. In the 1950s and 1960s, loveable cartoon character Quincy Magoo was said to be a member of the class of 1903 (other times, 1928) and among the proudest of Rutgers' "Loyal Sons."[136] Among the first students enrolled at Rutgers (when it was Queen's College), Simeon DeWitt (A.B. 1776) became the Surveyor-General for the Continental Army (1776–1783) during the American Revolution[134]:p.67 and classmate James Schureman (A.B. 1775), served in the Continental Congress and as a United States Senator.[134]:p.66 Two alumni have been awarded Nobel prizes—Milton Friedman (A.B. 1932) in economics, and Selman A. Waksman (B.Sc. 1915, M.Sc.1916) in Medicine.[134]:p.300,422 Poet Robert Pinsky (B.A. 1962) was appointed the nation's poet laureate and novelist Junot Díaz (B.A. 1992) awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 2008.

Seven alumni have served as New Jersey governor;[lower-alpha 2] two as president of Rutgers;[lower-alpha 3] Garret A. Hobart (A.B. 1863) as Vice President of the United States;[134]:p.137 Louis Freeh (B.A. 1971) as director of the FBI; Frederick T. Frelinghuysen (A.B. 1836) a U.S. Senator, as U.S. Secretary of State.[134]:p.88 Alumnus Joseph P. Bradley (A.B. 1836) served for two decades as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States[134]:p.87 and cast the tie-breaking vote on the bipartisan commission that decided the contested American presidential election in 1876.

Several Rutgers alumni have become recognized for achievements in their field. In business, alumni include: Bernard Marcus (B.S. 1951), founder of hardware retail store Home Depot; Ernest Mario (B.S. 1961), former chief executive officer of pharmaceutical giant GlaxoSmithKline; and Duncan MacMillan (B.S. 1966), co-founder of financial data and media company Bloomberg L.P.. In science and technology, alumni include: Peter C. Schultz (B.S. 1967), co-inventor of fiber optics; geneticist Stanley N. Cohen (B.Sc. 1956) who pioneered in the field of gene splicing; Louis Gluck (B.S. 1930) the "father of neonatology"; and computer pioneer Nathan M. Newmark (B.S. 1948). Other alumni prominent in entertainment and sports include Avery Brooks (B.A. 1973), James Gandolfini (B.A. 1983), Oswald "Ozzie" Nelson (B.A. 1927), restaurateur and television personality Mario Batali (B.A. 1982); Major League Baseball manager Jeff Torborg (B.A. 1963); former New York Jets owner Sonny Werblin (A.B. 1932); and David Stern (B.A. 1963), former commissioner of the National Basketball Association.


Jerry Alan Fodor, a philosopher and cognitive scientist, received a Guggenheim Fellowship and the Jean Nicod Prize among many other honors

65,000 undergraduate and graduate students currently study at Rutgers, instructed by more than 9,000 full-time and part-time faculty and supported by more than 15,000 full-time and part-time staff members.[5] Former Law professor Ruth Bader Ginsburg currently serves as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. During his 20-year tenure at Rutgers, David Levering Lewis, a former history professor, was twice awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography (1994 and 2001) for both volumes of his biography of W. E. B. Du Bois (1868–1963) and was also the winner of the Bancroft Prize and the Francis Parkman Prize. Michael R. Douglas, a prominent string theorist and the director of the New High Energy Theory Center and winner of the Sackler Prize in theoretical physics in 2000. Jerry Fodor, Zenon Pylyshyn and Stephen Stich were awarded the Jean Nicod Prize in philosophy and cognitive science.

Many other members of the faculty have received the highest awards in their fields, including Guggenheim and MacArthur "Genius Award" fellowships, Pulitzer Prize winners, National Medal of Science and National Medal of Technology recipients, a National Endowment for the Arts "Jazz Master," amongst others.[5] As of 2013, 37 science, engineering and medical faculty are members of the four "National Academies"—the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council.[5][137]

Overseas study

Rutgers has study abroad programs that visit prestigious Chinese universities such as Renmin University, Tsinghua, and Peking.[138] It also has working relationships with the professors at those Universities as well.[139] With these universities, Rutgers professors and students are actively engaged in social science and policy research. One of the results of this research is an anthology called China: Nonprofit Sector.[140] The editors are professors from Rutgers, Tsinghua, and Beijing Normal University.

Rutgers offers study abroad programs through Rutgers International service learning, exchange programs, and 2+2 programs. Rutgers and the Beijing University of Chemical Technology signed a 2+2 program, where Rutgers students can study for two years at Rutgers and 2 years at BUCT or BUCT students can study for two years at BUCT and two years at Rutgers.[141] Rutgers has study abroad programs to over 100 different countries. These study abroad programs range from short term summer programs to long term semester programs. Students from all majors and fields study abroad.

See also



  1. Of the nine colonial colleges, seven (Harvard, Yale, Pennsylvania, Princeton, Columbia, Brown and Dartmouth) remained private. Of the two remaining: The College of William and Mary was taken over by the Commonwealth of Virginia and reincorporated as a public institution in 1888, and Rutgers transitioned into the State University of New Jersey after laws passed in 1945 and 1956.[12]
  2. These seven include Charles C. Stratton (A.B. 1814), William A. Newell (A.B. 1836; A.M. 1839), George C. Ludlow (A.B. 1850, A.M. 1850), Foster M. Voorhees (A.B. 1876, A.M. 1879), A. Harry Moore (J.D. 1922), Richard Hughes (J.D. 1931), and James J. Florio (J.D. 1967).[134]:pp.73,110,164,169
  3. These two are William Henry Steele Demarest (A.B. 1883),[134] who served as president 1906–24;:pp.32,189 and Philip Milledoler Brett (A.B. 1892),[134]:p.210 who served as acting president 1930–31. See List of Rutgers University presidents.


  1. Doctor Honoris Causa diploma of Linus Pauling.
  2. As of December 9, 2015. "Rutgers University Endowment Finally Breaks $1B Mark". 2015. Retrieved December 9, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, "Budget Facts and Figures", from Board of Governors' Approved University Budget for Fiscal Year 2013–2014 (December 20, 2013). Retrieved March 9, 2014.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 "2012–2013 Factbook". Rutgers University. Retrieved May 10, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. "Numbers, Statistics and Stories to Tell: Facts & Figures. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
  6. "Rutgers History | Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey". Retrieved July 6, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Stoeckel, Althea. "Presidents, professors, and politics: the colonial colleges and the American revolution", Conspectus of History (1976) 1(3):45–56.
  8. Chapter XXIII. Education. § 13. Colonial Colleges in The Cambridge History of English and American Literature. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1907–1921; online edition, 2000).
  9. Institutional Research and Planning, Factbook, Almanac of Historical Facts, Accessed September 7, 2013
  11. 11.0 11.1 Frusciano, Thomas J. (University Archivist). From "Seminary of Learning" to Public Research University: A Historical Sketch of Rutgers University. Rutgers University Libraries. Retrieved August 17, 2006.
  12. 12.0 12.1 State of New Jersey. New Jersey Statutes Annotated 18A:65-1 et seq. enacted by P.L. 1945, ch. 49, p. 115; P.L. 1956, ch. 61.
  13. Dane, Perry; Stein, Allan; Williams, Robert (2014). "Saving Rutgers Camden". Rutgers Law Journal. 44: 337–412.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. Numbers, Statistics & Stories to Tell: Facts & Figures. Retrieved September 7, 2013.
  15. Middle States Commission on Higher Education. Institution Directory: Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey and Statement of Accreditation Status: Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. Retrieved September 7, 2013.
  16. Committee on Institutional Cooperation / The Big Ten Conference. "The CIC Welcomes Maryland and Rutgers to Membership" (news release). December 5, 2012. Retrieved December 5, 2012.
  17. Association of American Universities.Association of American Universities. Retrieved August 6, 2006 Archived August 19, 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  18. Universities Research Association, Inc. Universities (Members). Retrieved August 26, 2013.
  19. 19.0 19.1 And then there was Rutgers...[dead link] in The Daily Targum November 8, 2002. Retrieved August 12, 2006.
  20. 20.00 20.01 20.02 20.03 20.04 20.05 20.06 20.07 20.08 20.09 20.10 20.11 20.12 20.13 A Historical Sketch of Rutgers University by Thomas J. Frusciano, University Archivist. Retrieved August 12, 2006.
  21. 21.00 21.01 21.02 21.03 21.04 21.05 21.06 21.07 21.08 21.09 21.10 21.11 21.12 21.13 21.14 21.15 Rutgers Through the Years Timeline[dead link] at Rutgers University. Retrieved August 12, 2006.
  22. A Charter for Queen's College in New Jersey (1770) in Special Collections and University Archives, Archibald S. Alexander Library, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.
  23. Rutgers College and the American Revolution. Retrieved July 12, 2006
  24. Paths to Historic Rutgers: A Self-Guided Tour, at Rutgers University. Retrieved August 9, 2006.
  25. N.J.S.A. 18A:65-1 et seq. (Public Law 1956, chapter 61) repealing and succeeding P.L. 1945, c.49, p.115. Retrieved August 8, 2006.
  26. Staff. Editorial: "Faculty members signify spirit of William the Silent", The Daily Targum, February 24, 2012. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
  27. Nick DeSantis (November 19, 2012). "Rutgers U. Boards Approve Controversial Restructuring Plan". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved March 11, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. John O'Boyle / The Star-Ledger. ""Rutgers boards approve historic UMDNJ merger" ''Newark Star-Ledger'', November 19, 2012". Retrieved March 11, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. "A Plan for Enhancing the College Avenue Campus | Richard L. McCormick". June 20, 2012. Retrieved July 6, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  30. Kaminer, Ariel (September 24, 2013). "Rutgers Updates Its Anthem to Include Women". The New York Times.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. Rutgers Leaders, Rutgers History: Jacob Rutsen Hardenbergh - Queen’s College President, 1786 to 1790. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
  32. 32.0 32.1 Frusciano, Thomas J. "Leadership on the Banks: Rutgers' Presidents, 1766–2004", in The Journal of the Rutgers University Libraries LIII(1) (June 1991).
  33. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. Rutgers Leaders, Rutgers History: Past Presidents. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
  34. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. Rutgers Leaders, Rutgers History: William Henry Steele Demarest - Rutgers President, 1906 to 1924. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
  35. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. Rutgers Leaders, Rutgers History: Philip M. Brett - Rutgers Acting President, 1930 to 1931. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
  36. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey - Office of Media Relations. "Robert L. Barchi Named 20th President of Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey: Barchi to take helm of Rutgers on Sept. 1, after successful tenures as Thomas Jefferson University president, University of Pennsylvania provost"[dead link] (news release) in Rutgers Today (April 11, 2012). Retrieved August 17, 2013.
  37. McGlone, Peggy. "Robert Barchi is named Rutgers University president" in The Star-Ledger (April 11, 2012). Retrieved August 17, 2013.
  38. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey - Office of the President. About President Barchi - Biography. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
  39. American Men & Women of Science - Google Books. Retrieved on August 9, 2013.
  40. Robert L. Barchi Named 20th President of Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey | Media Relations[dead link]. (April 11, 2012). Retrieved on August 9, 2013.
  41. Robert Barchi is named Rutgers University president. Retrieved on August 9, 2013.
  42. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. Governing Boards: Board of Trustees Membership Listing, 2013–2014 and Governing Boards: Board of Governors Membership Listing, 2013–2014. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
  43. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. About Rutgers: Vision and Continuity - Leadership and Governance. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
  44. Commission on Health Science, Education and Training: Rutgers Targeted Assessment at the Wayback Machine (archived August 31, 2005)[dead link] accessed June 20, 2010.
  45. Rutgers: Members of the Board of Trustees accessed August 15, 2006. Archived September 1, 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  46. Rutgers:Members of the Board of Governors[dead link] accessed August 15, 2006.
  47. "A View from the Inside"[dead link] (an interview with Dr. Richard P. McCormick) by Thomas J. Frusciano in Rutgers Magazine" (Winter 2006). Retrieved August 16, 2006. Archived April 5, 2014 at the Wayback Machine[dead link]
  48. Rutgers:Governing Boards of the University accessed August 15, 2006.
  49. 49.0 49.1 Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey — Department of University Relations. Rutgers Editorial Style Guide (revised July 1, 2013), page 5 ff.
  50. Rutgers Fact Book at the Wayback Machine (archived December 23, 2007)
  51. "Department of Transportation"
  52. Home | Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences. Retrieved on April 12, 2014.
  53. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, University Senate: Executive Committee Agenda, May 17, 2013 - 1:10 p.m. (2013). Quote: "in light of the UMDNJ integration taking place this July, forming the fourth campus of Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences (RBHS)". Retrieved March 14, 2014.
  54. Nurin, Tara. "Outspoken Rutgers Faculty Objects to School's New Strategic Plan", NJSpotlight, February 18, 2014. Quote: "...with Rutgers’ legislatively mandated takeover of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ), the creation of a fourth (theoretical) RBHS campus". Retrieved March 14, 2014.
  55. Lai, Jonathan, "Pritchett to step down as Rutgers-Camden chancellor", The Philadelphia Inquirer, September 11, 2013. Quote: "The university has a chancellor in each of its regional campuses, in Camden, New Brunswick, and Newark, along with a fourth covering the new Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences division. The chancellors hold direct responsibility for their campus' daily operations". Retrieved March 14, 2014.
  56. University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey; State of New Jersey, Commission on Higher Education. UMDNJ Final Annual Institutional Profile, June 30, 2013 (2013), 187. Quote: "The legacy UMDNJ Schools as well as biomedical schools/units from Rutgers University were designated a fourth "campus" of Rutgers University, the Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences (RBHS) campus." Retrieved March 15, 2014.
  57. "Rutgers Online".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  58. "Rutgers continuing studies". Retrieved November 29, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  59. "Rutgers Off Campus". Retrieved December 21, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  60. Note: Rutgers is the only one of the original nine colonial colleges to satisfy all three categories. Seven of the colonial colleges remained private institutions (Harvard, Yale, Princeton, University of Pennsylvania, Columbia, Brown, and Dartmouth). Of the two that became state institutions, Rutgers and College of William and Mary, only Rutgers was named a land-grant college.
  61. Association of American Universities[dead link], AAU. Retrieved August 6, 2006
  62. [1][dead link] Archived January 9, 2015 at the Wayback Machine[dead link]
  63.[dead link], for RU-Newark information. Retrieved March 15, 2009.[dead link], for RU-Camden. Retrieved March 15, 2009
  64. 64.0 64.1 Library Facts and Figures Accessed September 15, 2014
  65. "The Nation's Largest Libraries: A Listing by Volumes Held (ALA Library Fact Sheet 22)". American Library Association. Retrieved September 15, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  66. 66.0 66.1 Archibald S. Alexander Library Collection Description Accessed January 10, 2007
  67. LSM Collection Description accessed January 10, 2007
  68. LSM History accessed January 10, 2007
  69. Zimmerli Art Museum: Collections accessed August 8, 2006.
  70. Rutgers University Geology Museum[dead link] accessed August 8, 2006. Archived August 7, 2006 at the Wayback Machine[dead link]
  71. New Jersey Museum of Agriculture[dead link] accessed August 14, 2006.
  72. Rutgers Gardens: A Message from the Director accessed September 10, 2006.
  73. America's Best Colleges 2007[dead link] from U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved November 18, 2008.
  74. 74.0 74.1 74.2 "Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey: New Brunswick Campus College Common Data Set 2013-2014". Rutgers University.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  75. "Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey-New Brunswick | Best College | US News". Retrieved March 11, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  76. "Rutgers experiment draws national attention by helping 163 urban kids get to college". Retrieved May 29, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  77. "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2015: USA". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved August 15, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  78. "America's Top Colleges". Forbes. Retrieved August 15, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  79. "Best Colleges". U.S. News & World Report LP. Retrieved September 10, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  80. "2015 National Universities Rankings". Washington Monthly. n.d. Retrieved September 17, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  81. "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2015". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2015. Retrieved August 15, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  82. "QS World University Rankings® 2015/16". Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2015. Retrieved September 15, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  83. "World University Rankings 2015-16". THE Education Ltd. Retrieved October 1, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  84. "CWUR 2014 - Top 1000 Universities". Retrieved May 29, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  85. 85.0 85.1 "U.S. News Best Colleges Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. 2016. Retrieved November 1, 2015. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  86. Want to Go to Harvard Law?. The Wall Street Journal. Accessed on July 20, 2008.
  87. Top Public Colleges for Getting Rich. Forbes. Accessed on August 22, 2008.
  88. National Research Council: 1995 National Research Council ranking of Graduate Research Programs. (most recent edition)
  89. UCSB website[dead link] citing 2001 U.S. News & World Report Data. Retrieved August 15, 2006.
  90. UVA website[dead link] citing April 1, 2005 U.S. News & World Report data and rankings. Retrieved August 15, 2006.
  91. St. Olaf College webpage citing 1998 U.S. News & World Report data and rankings. Retrieved August 15, 2006.
  92. Suny Stony Brook webpage[dead link] citing Nov./December 1998 issue of Science Watch and other data. Retrieved August 15, 2006.
  93. Rutgers Business School News Accessed November 12, 2006.
  94. "Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey--Newark and New Brunswick". Retrieved May 29, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  95. Advanced Trading Accessed December 24, 2012.
  96. The Philosophical Gourmet Report accessed August 15, 2006.
  97. "Philosophy Department rated number one" by Steve Manas, article from November 18, 2002. Retrieved August 15, 2006.
  98. "Simon Reich Takes Reins at Global Affairs Division of Rutgers University in Newark". August 11, 2008. Retrieved March 11, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  99. "The Top 25 Recruiter Picks". Wall Street Journal. September 13, 2010. Retrieved November 29, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  100. Tom Wright-Piersanti/The Star-Ledger. "N.J. lawmakers pass bill for Rutgers-Rowan-UMDNJ merger". Retrieved March 11, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  101. "RCSB Protein Data Bank". Retrieved March 11, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  102. "NIH Awards Rutgers Cell and DNA Repository $57.8 Million". October 27, 2008. Retrieved March 11, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  103. "Rutgers Office of Research Alliances". Retrieved March 11, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  104. from U.S. News & World Report accessed September 9, 2006
  105. "Rutgers Focus - Rutgers maps transportation needs". Retrieved July 6, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  106. "ICCA Results"
  107. Office of Fraternity and Sorority Affairs at Rutgers University. Retrieved September 9, 2006.
  108. Office of Fraternity and Sorority Affairs at Rutgers University. Retrieved October 9, 2008.
  109. Registered Fraternities and Sororities[dead link] Office of Fraternity and Sorority Affairs, Rutgers University. Retrieved September 9, 2006.
  110. Rutgers. "Fraternities and Sororities". Rutgers University. Rutgers University.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  111. Rutgers Dance Marathon. "Rutgers University Dance Marathon". Rutgers Marathon. Rutgers University.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  112. "Rutgers Sigma Chi Shatters National Greek Fundraising Record by Raising $167,000 for Charity | 2012 (4th Annual) CLASSY Awards". November 12, 2011. Retrieved March 11, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  113. April 2011 "Rutgers to permanently cancel annual Rutgersfest concert" Check |url= value (help).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  114. McCormick, Richard L. "In Regard to RutgersFest". Retrieved April 19, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  115. 115.0 115.1 115.2 115.3 115.4 115.5 Tradition[dead link] at Published by Rutgers University Athletic Department (no further authorship information available), accessed 10 September 2006. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "tradition" defined multiple times with different content
  116. 116.0 116.1 Scarlet Letter 1924 (Rutgers University yearbook), Special Collections and University Archives, Rutgers University Libraries.
  117. November 1948 in Fifty Years Ago: Class of 1951 at published by the Princeton Class of 1951, edited by J. Sprigg Duvall (no further authorship information available). Accessed 12 January 2007.
  118. Series of articles in the spring of 1955 issues of the Rutgers Targum (then printed weekly), the Rutgers University campus newspaper. Microfilm records v.94:no.36-v.104:no.58 APR 17,1953-DEC 5,1972, Archibald S. Alexander Library, Current Periodicals and Microforms Department, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey
  119. Quoted in the Rutgers Targum (8 April 1955). Microfilm records v.94:no.36-v.104:no.58 APR 17,1953-DEC 5,1972 (1 roll) Archibald S. Alexander Library, Current Periodicals and Microforms Department, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey
  120. Editorial in the Rutgers Targum (9 September 1955). Microfilm records v.94:no.36-v.104:no.58 APR 17,1953-DEC 5,1972, (1 roll) Archibald S. Alexander Library, Current Periodicals and Microforms Department, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey
  121. A History of American Football until 1889 accessed September 10, 2006.
  122. NFL History at the National Football League website. Retrieved September 10, 2006.
  123. College Football Past National Championships at the National Collegiate Athletic Association website. Retrieved December 29, 2006. Archived August 26, 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  124. "NFL History by Decade". Retrieved March 11, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  125. Rutgers football history database at Retrieved January 3, 2007.
  126. Rutgers at the Wayback Machine (archived August 12, 2007)[dead link] at Official Site of the Big East Conference. Published by the Big East Conference (no further authorship information available). Retrieved January 12, 2007.
  127. "Discography" from Failure Magazine. Retrieved December 31, 2013.
  128. 1976 NCAA Division I Basketball Tournament at the Wayback Machine (archived January 19, 2008)[dead link] at Retrieved December 29, 2006.
  129. Rutgers Athletics. Retrieved September 24, 2006
  130. Big East Championship Records at the Wayback Machine (archived May 20, 2007)[dead link] published by the Big East Athletic Conference. Retrieved August 8, 2006.
  131. Insight Bowl - December 27, 2005. Retrieved September 24, 2006
  132. "Rutgers ends up No. 12 in final AP poll: Ranking is highest finish in program history". Courier-News. January 9, 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  133. "Rivalry Rising: With both teams lagging behind in the Big East, a new coach looks to revitalize Rutgers-Seton Hall"[dead link] by Brian Johnson in The Daily Targum (January 26, 2007). Retrieved January 28, 2007.
  134. 134.0 134.1 134.2 134.3 134.4 134.5 134.6 134.7 134.8 134.9 Raven, John Howard (Rev.) (compiler). Catalogue of the Officers and Alumni of Rutgers College (originally Queen's College) in New Brunswick, N.J., 1766–1916. (Trenton, New Jersey: State Gazette Publishing Company, 1916).
  135. Rutgers University Foundation. Our Supporters. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
  136. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. "Mr. Magoo" in Rutgers Magazine. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
  137. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. "Rutgers Outstanding Thinkers: Members of the National Academies". Retrieved October 29, 2013.
  138. China Study Abroad
  139. "Visting Scholars". Retrieved May 29, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  140. "Transaction Publishers: China's Nonprofit Sector: Progress and Challenges: Chien-Chung Huang". Transaction Publishers. Retrieved May 29, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  141. "BUCT Visit". Retrieved May 29, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>


  • H.M. Berman, J. Westbrook, Z. Feng, G. Gilliland, T.N. Bhat, H. Weissig, I.N. Shindyalov, P.E. Bourne: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Research, 28 pp. 235–242 (2000).
  • Demarest, William Henry Steele. History of Rutgers College: 1776–1924. (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers College, 1924). (No ISBN)
  • History of Rutgers College: or an account of the union of Rutgers College, and the Theological Seminary of the General Synod of the Reformed Dutch Church. Prepared and published at the request of several trustees of the College, by a trustee. (New York: Anderson & Smith, 1833). (No ISBN)
  • Lukac, George J. (ed.), Aloud to Alma Mater. (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1966), 70–73. (No ISBN)
  • McCormick, Richard P. Rutgers: a Bicentennial History. (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1966). ISBN 0-8135-0521-6
  • Schmidt, George P. Princeton and Rutgers: The Two Colonial Colleges of New Jersey. (Princeton, New Jersey: Van Nostrand, 1964). (No ISBN)

External links

Script error: The function "top" does not exist.

Script error: The function "bottom" does not exist.

Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.