Sikorsky SH-60 Seahawk
|SH-60 / HH-60H / MH-60 Seahawk|
|U.S. Navy SH-60B landing on the USS Abraham Lincoln.|
|Role||Multimission maritime helicopter|
|First flight||12 December 1979|
|Primary users||United States Navy
Royal Australian Navy
|Developed from||Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk|
|Variants||Sikorsky HH-60 Jayhawk
The Sikorsky SH-60/MH-60 Seahawk (or Sea Hawk) is a twin turboshaft engine, multi-mission United States Navy helicopter based on the United States Army UH-60 Black Hawk and a member of the Sikorsky S-70 family. The most significant airframe modification is a hinged tail to reduce its footprint aboard ships.
The U.S. Navy uses the H-60 airframe under the model designations SH-60B, SH-60F, HH-60H, MH-60R, and MH-60S. Able to deploy aboard any air-capable frigate, destroyer, cruiser, fast combat support ship, amphibious assault ship, or aircraft carrier, the Seahawk can handle anti-submarine warfare (ASW), anti-surface warfare (ASUW), naval special warfare (NSW) insertion, search and rescue (SAR), combat search and rescue (CSAR), vertical replenishment (VERTREP), and medical evacuation (MEDEVAC). All Navy H-60s carry a rescue hoist for SAR/CSAR missions.
Design and development
During the 1970s, the U.S. Navy began looking for a new helicopter to replace the Kaman SH-2 Seasprite. The SH-2 Seasprite was used by the Navy as its platform for the Light Airborne Multi-Purpose System (LAMPS) Mark I avionics suite for maritime warfare and a secondary search and rescue capability. Advances in sensor and avionic technology lead to the LAMPS Mk II suite, but the SH-2 was not large enough to carry the Navy's required equipment. In the mid-1970s, the Army evaluated the Sikorsky YUH-60 and Boeing-Vertol YUH-61 for its Utility Tactical Transport Aircraft System (UTTAS) competition.
The Navy based its requirements on the Army's UTTAS specification to decrease costs from commonality. Sikorsky and Boeing-Vertol submitted proposals for Navy versions of their Army UTTAS helicopters in April 1977 for review. The Navy also looked at helicopters being produced by Bell, Kaman, Westland and MBB, but these were too small for the mission. In early 1978 the Navy selected Sikorsky's S-70B design, which was designated "SH-60B Seahawk".
The SH-60B maintained 83% commonality with the UH-60A. The main changes were corrosion protection, more powerful T700 engines, single-stage oleo main landing gear, removal of the left side door, adding two weapon pylons, and shifting the tail landing gear 13 feet (3.96 m) forward to reduce the footprint for shipboard landing. Other changes included larger fuel cells, an electric blade folding system, folding horizontal stabilators for storage, and adding a 25-tube pneumatic sonobuoy launcher on left side. An emergency flotation system was originally installed in the stub wing fairings of the main landing gear; however, it was found to be impractical and possibly impede emergency egress, and thus was subsequently removed. Five YSH-60B Seahawk LAMPS III prototypes were ordered. The first YSH-60B flight occurred on 12 December 1979. The first production SH-60B made its first flight on 11 February 1983. The SH-60B entered operational service in 1984 with first operational deployment in 1985.
The SH-60B is deployed primarily aboard frigates, destroyers, and cruisers. The primary missions of the SH-60B are surface warfare and anti-submarine warfare. It carries a complex system of sensors including a towed Magnetic Anomaly Detector (MAD) and air-launched sonobuoys. Other sensors include the APS-124 search radar, ALQ-142 ESM system and optional nose-mounted forward looking infrared (FLIR) turret. Munitions carried include the Mk 46, Mk 50, or Mk 54 torpedo, AGM-114 Hellfire missile, and a single cabin-door-mounted M60D/M240 7.62 mm (0.30 in) machine gun or GAU-16 .50 in (12.7 mm) machine gun.
A standard crew for a SH-60B is one pilot, one ATO/Co-Pilot (Airborne Tactical Officer), and an enlisted aviation warfare systems operator (sensor operator). Operating squadrons are designated Helicopter Anti-Submarine Squadron, Light (HSL).
The SH-60J is a version of the SH-60B for the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force. The SH-60K is a modified version of the SH-60J. The SH-60J and SH-60K are built under license by Mitsubishi in Japan.
After the SH-60B entered service, the Navy began development of the SH-60F to replace the SH-3 Sea King. Development of this variant began with the award of a contract to Sikorsky in March 1985. An early-model SH-60B (Bu. No. 161170) was modified to serve as a SH-60F prototype. The company was contracted to produce seven SH-60Fs in January 1986 and the first example flew on 19 March 1987.
The SH-60F primarily serves as the carrier battle group's primary antisubmarine warfare (ASW) aircraft. The helicopter hunts submarines with its AQS-13F dipping sonar, and carries a 6-tube sonobuoy launcher. The SH-60F is unofficially named "Oceanhawk". The SH-60F can carry Mk 46, Mk 50, or Mk 54 torpedoes for its offensive weapons, and it has a choice of fuselage-mounted machine guns, including the M60D, M240D, and GAU-16 (.50 caliber) for self-defense. The standard aircrew consists of one pilot, one co-pilot, one tactical sensor operator (TSO), and one acoustic sensor operator (ASO).
The HH-60H was developed in conjunction with the US Coast Guard's HH-60J, beginning in September 1986 with a contract for the first five helicopters. The variant's first flight occurred on 17 August 1988. Deliveries of the HH-60H began in 1989. The variant earned initial operating capability in April 1990. The HH-60H's official DoD and Sikorsky name is Seahawk, though it has been called "Rescue Hawk".
Based on the SH-60F, the HH-60H is the primary combat search and rescue (CSAR), naval special warfare (NSW) and anti-surface warfare (ASUW) helicopter. It carries various defensive and offensive sensors, it is one of the most survivable helicopters in the world. Sensors include a FLIR turret with laser designator and the Aircraft Survival Equipment (ASE) package including the ALQ-144 Infrared Jammer, AVR-2 Laser Detectors, APR-39(V)2 Radar Detectors, AAR-47 Missile Launch Detectors and ALE-47 chaff/flare dispensers. Engine exhaust deflectors provide infrared thermal reduction reducing the threat of heat-seeking missiles. The HH-60H can carry up to four AGM-114 Hellfire missiles on an extended wing using the M299 launcher and a variety of mountable guns including M60D, M240, GAU-16 and GAU-17/A machine guns.
The HH-60H's standard crew is pilot, copilot, an enlisted crew chief, and two door gunners. The HH-60H is operated by Helicopter Antisubmarine (HS) squadrons with a standard dispersal of four F-models and three H-models. In Iraq, HH-60Hs were used by the Navy, assisting the Army, for MEDEVAC purposes and special operations missions. As the Navy transitions its Helicopter Antisubmarine (HS) squadrons to the MH-60S, remaining HH-60Hs are being transferred to its East and West coast special operations squadrons (HSC-84 and HSC-85, respectively).
The MH-60R was originally known as "LAMPS Mark III Block II Upgrade" when development began in 1993. Two SH-60Bs were converted by Sikorsky, the first of which made its maiden flight on 22 December 1999. Designated YSH-60R, they were delivered to NAS Patuxent River in 2001 for flight testing. The production variant was redesignated MH-60R to match its multi-mission capability.
The MH-60R is designed to combine the features of the SH-60B and SH-60F. Its sensors include the ASE package, MTS-FLIR, the AN/APS-147 multi-mode radar/IFF interrogator, an advanced airborne fleet data link, and a more advanced airborne active sonar. It does not carry the MAD suite. Pilot instrumentation is based on the MH-60S's glass cockpit, using several digital monitors instead of the complex array of dials and gauges in Bravo and Foxtrot aircraft. Offensive capabilities are improved by the addition of new Mk-54 air-launched torpedoes and Hellfire missiles. All Helicopter Anti-Submarine Light (HSL) squadrons that receive the Romeo are redesignated Helicopter Maritime Strike (HSM) squadrons. During a mid-life technology insertion project, the MH-60R fleet shall be fitted with the AN/APS-153 Multi-Mode Radar with Automatic Radar Periscope Detection and Discrimination (ARPDD) capability.
The Navy decided to replace its venerable CH-46 Sea Knight helicopters in 1997. After sea demonstrations by a converted UH-60, the Navy awarded production contract for the CH-60S in 1998. The variant first flew in 27 January 2000 and it began flight testing later that year. The CH-60S was redesignated MH-60S in February 2001 to reflect its planned multi-mission use. The MH-60S is based on the UH-60L and has many naval SH-60 features. Unlike all other Navy H-60s, the MH-60S is not based on the original S-70B/SH-60B platform with its forward-mounted twin tail-gear and single starboard sliding cabin door. Instead, the S-model is a hybrid, featuring the main fuselage of the S-70A/UH-60, with large sliding doors on both sides of the cabin and a single aft-mounted tail wheel; and the engines, drivetrain and rotors of the S-70B/SH-60.
It is deployed aboard aircraft carriers, amphibious assault ships, Maritime Sealift Command ships, and fast combat support ships. Its missions include vertical replenishment, medical evacuation, combat search and rescue, anti-surface warfare, maritime interdiction, close air support, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, and special warfare support. The MH-60S is to deploy with the AQS-20A Mine Detection System and an Airborne Laser Mine Detection System (ALMDS) for identifying submerged objects in coastal waters. It is the first US Navy helicopter to field a glass cockpit, relaying flight information via four digital monitors. The primary means of defense is with the M60D, M240 or GAU-17/A machine guns. A "batwing" Armed Helo Kit based on the Army's UH-60L was developed to accommodate Hellfire missiles, Hydra 70 2.75 inch rockets, or larger guns. The MH-60S can be equipped with a nose mounted forward looking infrared (FLIR) turret to be used in conjunction with Hellfire missiles; it also carries the ALQ-144 Infrared Jammer.
The MH-60S is unofficially known as the "Knighthawk", referring to the preceding Sea Knight, though "Seahawk" is its official DoD name. A standard crew for the MH-60S is one pilot, one copilot and two others depending on mission. With the retirement of the Sea Knight, the squadron designation of Helicopter Combat Support Squadron (HC) was also retired from the Navy. Operating MH-60S squadrons were re-designated Helicopter Sea Combat Squadron (HSC). The MH-60S was to be used for mine clearing from Littoral-combat ships, but testing found it lacks the power to safely tow the detection equipment.
On 6 August 2014, the U.S. Navy forward deployed the Airborne Laser Mine Detection System (ALMDS) to the U.S. 5th Fleet. The ALMDS is a sensor system designed to detect, classify, and localize floating and near-surface moored mines in littoral zones, straits, and choke points. The system is operated from an MH-60S, which gives it a countermine role traditionally handled by the MH-53E Sea Dragon, allowing smaller ships the MH-53E can't operate from to be used in the role. The ALMDS beams a laser into the water to pick up reflections from things it bounces off of, then uses that data to produce a video image for technicians on the ground to determine if the object is a mine.
|This section requires expansion with: fill in operational use and combat action. (April 2010)|
The SH-60F entered operational service on 22 June 1989 with Helicopter Antisubmarine Squadron 10 (HS-10) at NAS North Island. SH-60F squadrons planned to shift from the SH-60F to the MH-60S from 2005 to 2011 and were be redesignated Helicopter Sea Combat (HSC).
As one of the two squadrons in the US Navy dedicated to Naval Special Warfare support and combat search and rescue, the HCS-5 Firehawks squadron deployed to Iraq for Operation Iraqi Freedom in March 2003. The squadron completed 900 combat air missions and over 1,700 combat flight hours. The majority of their flights in the Iraqi theater supported special operations ground forces missions.
A west coast Fleet Replacement Squadron (FRS), Helicopter Maritime Strike Squadron (HSM) 41, received the MH-60R aircraft in December 2005 and began training the first set of pilots. In 2007, the R-model successfully underwent final testing for incorporation into the fleet. In August 2008, the first 11 combat-ready Romeos arrived at HSM-71, a squadron assigned to the carrier John C. Stennis. The primary missions of the MH-60R are anti-surface and anti-submarine warfare. According to Lockheed Martin, "secondary missions include search and rescue, vertical replenishment, naval surface fire support, logistics support, personnel transport, medical evacuation and communications and data relay."
HSL squadrons in the US have been incrementally transitioning to the MH-60R and have nearly completed the transition. The first MH-60Rs in Japan arrived in October 2012. The recipient was HSM-51, the Navy's forward deployed LAMPS squadron, homebased in Atsugi, Japan. The Warlords transitioned from the SH-60B throughout 2013, and shifted each detachment to the new aircraft as they returned from deployments. HSM-51 will have all MH-60R aircraft at the end of 2013. The Warlords are joined by the Sabrehawks of HSM-77, who will also fly the MH-60R in Japan.
On 23 July 2013, Sikorsky delivered the 400th MH-60, an MH-60R Seahawk, to the U.S. Navy. The Navy operates 166 MH-60R versions and 234 MH-60S versions. The MH-60S is in production until 2015 and will total a fleet of 275 aircraft, and the MH-60R is in production until 2017 and will total a fleet of 291 aircraft. The two models have flown 660,000 flight hours. Seahawk helicopters are to remain in Navy service into the 2030s.
The SH-60B Seahawk completed its last active-duty deployment for the U.S. Navy in late April 2015 after a seven-month deployment aboard the USS Gary (FFG-51). After 32 years and over 3.6 million hours of service, the SH-60B was formally retired from US Navy service during a ceremony on 11 May 2015 at Naval Air Station North Island. In late November 2015 the USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) returned from its deployment, ending the last active-duty operational deployment of both the SH-60F and HH-60H. The models are to be transferred to other squadrons or placed in storage.
Other and potential users
Australia requested approval to buy 24 MH-60Rs through a Foreign Military Sale in July 2010. The MH-60R and the NHIndustries NH90 were evaluated by the Royal Australian Navy. On 16 June 2011, it was announced that Australia would purchase 24 of the MH-60R variant, to come into service between 2014 to 2020. The helicopter selected is to replace older Seahawks currently in service.
The Royal Danish Navy (RDN) put the MH-60R on a short list for a requirement of around 12 new naval helicopters, together with the NH90/NFH, H-92, AW159 and AW101. The Request For Proposal was issued on 30 September 2010. In November 2010, Denmark requested approval for a possible purchase of 12 MH-60Rs through a Foreign Military Sale. In November 2012, Denmark selected 9 MH-60Rs to replace its 7 aging Lynx helicopters.
In July 2009, the Republic of Korea requested eight MH-60S helicopters, 16 GE T700-401C engines, and related sensor systems to be sold in a Foreign Military Sale. However, South Korea instead chose the AW159 in January 2013. In July 2010 Tunisia requested 12 refurbished SH-60Fs through a Foreign Military Sale. But the change in government there in January 2011 may interfere with an order.
In February 2011, India selected the S-70B over the NHIndustries NH90 for an acquisition of 16 multirole helicopters for the Indian Navy to replace its aging Westland Sea King fleet; the order include an option for 8 additional aircraft. India selected the Seahawk and confirmed procurement in November 2014.
In 2011, Qatar requested a potential Foreign Military Sale of up to 6 MH-60R helicopters, engines and other associated equipment. In late June 2012, Qatar requested another 22 Seahawks, 12 fitted with the armed helicopter modification kit and T700-401C engines with an option to purchase an additional six Seahawks and more engines.
In 2011, Singapore bought six S-70Bs and then in 2013 ordered an additional two.
- YSH-60B Seahawk: Developmental version, led to SH-60B; five built.
- SH-60B Seahawk: Anti-submarine warfare helicopter, equipped with an APS-124 search radar and an ALQ-142 ESM system under the nose, also fitted with a 25-tube sonobuoy launcher on the left side and modified landing gear; 181 built for the US Navy.
- NSH-60B Seahawk: Permanently configured for flight testing.
- CH-60E: Proposed troop transport version for the U.S. Marine Corps. Not built.
- SH-60F "Oceanhawk": Carrier-borne anti-submarine warfare helicopter, equipped with dipping sonar; 76 built for the U.S. Navy.
- NSH-60F Seahawk: Modified SH-60F to support the VH-60N Cockpit Upgrade Program.
- HH-60H "Rescue Hawk": Search-and-rescue helicopter for the U.S. Navy; 42 built.
- XSH-60J: Two U.S.-built pattern aircraft for Japan.
- SH-60J: Anti-submarine warfare helicopter for the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force.
- YSH-60R Seahawk:
- MH-60R Seahawk:
- YCH-60S "Knighthawk":
- MH-60S "Knighthawk":
- HH-60/MH-60 Jayhawk: U.S. Coast Guard version, developed from HH-60H.
- S-70B Seahawk: Sikorsky's designation for Seahawk. Designation is often used for exports.
- S-70B-1 Seahawk: Anti-submarine version for the Spanish Navy. The Seahawk is configured with the LAMPS (Light Airborne Multipurpose System)
- S-70B-2 Seahawk: Anti-submarine version for the Royal Australian Navy, similar to the SH-60B Seahawk in U.S. Navy operation.
- S-70B-3 Seahawk: Anti-submarine version for the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force. Also known as the SH-60J. The JMSDF ordered 101 units, with deliveries starting in 1991.
- S-70-4 Seahawk: Sikorsky's designation for the SH-60F Oceanhawk.
- S-70-5: Sikorsky's designation for the HH-60H Rescue Hawk and HH-60J Jayhawk.
- S-70B-6 Aegean Hawk: the Greek military variant which is a blend of the SH-60B and F models, based on Taiwan's S-70C(M)1/2.
- S-70B-7 Seahawk: Export version for the Royal Thai Navy.
- S-70B-28 Seahawk: Export version for Turkey.
- S-70C: Designation for civil variants of the H-60.
- S-70C(M)-1/2 Thunderhawk: Export version for the Republic of China (Taiwan) Navy, equipped with an undernose radar and a dipping sonar.
- S-70C-2: 24 radar-equipped UH-60 Black Hawks for China, the delivery of the helicopters was halted by an embargo.
- S-70C-6 Super Blue Hawk: Search-and-rescue helicopter for Taiwan, equipped with undernose radar, plus provision for four external fuel tanks on two sub wings.
- S-70C-14: VIP transport version for Brunei; two built.
- S-70A (N) Naval Hawk: Maritime variant that blends the S-70A Black Hawk and S-70B Seahawk designs.
- S-70L: Sikorsky's original designation for the SH-60B Seahawk.
- See SH-60J/K
- Crew: 3–4
- Capacity: 5 passengers in cabin, slung load of 6,000 lb (2,700 kg) or internal load of 4,100 lb (1,900 kg) for B, F and H models; and 11 passengers or slung load of 9,000 lb (4,100 kg) for S-model
- Length: 64 ft 8 in (19.75 m)
- Rotor diameter: 53 ft 8 in (16.35 m)
- Height: 17 ft 2 in (5.2 m)
- Disc area: 2,262 ft² (210 m²)
- Empty weight: 15,200 lb (6,895 kg)
- Loaded weight: 17,758 lb (8,055 kg) ; for ASW mission
- Useful load: 6,684 lb (3,031 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 21,884 lb (9,927 kg)
- Powerplant: 2 × General Electric T700-GE-401C turboshaft, 1,890 shp (1,410 kW) take-off power each
- Never exceed speed: 180 kn (333 km/h; 207 mph)
- Maximum speed: 146 kn (270 km/h; 168 mph)
- Range: 450 nmi (518 mi or 834 km) at cruise speed
- Service ceiling: 12,000 ft (3,580 m)
- Rate of climb: 1,650 ft/min (8.38 m/s)
- Up to three Mark 46 torpedos or Mk-54s,
- AGM-114 Hellfire missile, 4 Hellfire missiles for SH-60B and HH-60H and MH-60R, 8 Hellfire missiles for MH-60S Block III.
- AGM-119 Penguin missile (being phased out),
- M60 machine gun or, M240 machine gun or GAU-16/A machine gun or GAU-17/A Minigun
- Rapid Airborne Mine Clearance System (RAMICS) using Mk 44 Mod 0 30 mm Cannon
- Related development
- Sikorsky S-70
- Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk
- Sikorsky HH-60 Pave Hawk
- Sikorsky HH-60 Jayhawk
- Mitsubishi H-60
- Piasecki X-49
- Sikorsky S-92/CH-148 Cyclone
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Boeing-Vertol YUH-61
- Eurocopter AS565 Panther
- Kaman SH-2G Super Seasprite
- Kamov Ka-27
- Harbin Z-9
- NHI NH90
- Westland Lynx
- Related lists
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- Donald 2004, pp. 160-161.
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- U.S. Navy deploys its new Airborne Laser Mine Detection System (ALMDS) for the first time - Navyrecognition.com, 6 August 2014
- Donald 2004, pp. 156–157.
- Tomajczyk 2003, p. 55.
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- Helicopter Sea Combat Wing, Pacific. GlobalSecurity.org
- "MH-60R Helicopter Departs Lockheed Martin To Complete First Operational Navy Squadron". Lockheed Martin, July 30, 2008.
- Sikorsky Delivers 400th MH-60 SEAHAWK Helicopter to U.S. Navy - Marketwatch.com, 23 July 2013
- Alford, Abbie (11 May 2015). "Navy retires the SH-60B Seahawk". San Diego: CBS 8.
- USS Gary Returns From Final Deployment; Also Last for SH-60B Seahawks - News.USNI.org, 20 April 2015
- Carrier Theodore Roosevelt returns from round-the-world deployment - Navytimes.com, 23 November 2015
- Leoni 2007, pp. 303-304.
- "Spain – Refurbishment of SH-60F Multi-Mission Utility Helicopters". US Defense Security Cooperation Agency, 30 September 2010.
- "Spain seeks more Seahawk helicopters". Retrieved 2010-10-07.
- "Australia – MH-60R Multi-Mission Helicopters". US Defense Security Cooperation Agency, 9 July 2010.
-  Australian Broadcasting Corporation Online, 16 June 2011
- "Australia requests US helicopters". Rotothub, 29 April 2010.
- "MH-60R or NH90 NFH - Australia plans to buy 24 naval combat helicopters". Defpro.com, 29 April 2010.
- Danish Request For Proposal. forsvaret.dk
- "Denmark – MH-60R Multi-Mission Helicopters". US Defense Security Cooperation Agency, 30 November 2010.
- Hoyle, Craig. "Denmark requests Seahawk helicopter buy". Flightglobal.com, 13 December 2010. Retrieved: 14 December 2010.
- Hoyle, Craig. "Denmark confirms MH-60R selection to replace Lynx helicopters". Flightglobal.com, 21 November 2012. Retrieved: 21 November 2012.
- "Korea – MH-60S Multi-Mission Helicopters". US Defense Security Cooperation Agency, 22 July 2009.
- "South Korea picks AW159 for maritime helicopter deal". Flight International, 15 January 2013.
- "Tunisia – Refurbishment of Twelve SH-60F Multi-Mission Helicopters". US Defense Security Cooperation Agency, 2 July 2010.
- SH-60F Seahawk Helis for Tunisia
- "India to go for open bidding for Navy deal, rejects US offer". Economic Times, 18 February 2011.
- "Qatar – MH-60R and MH-60S Multi-Mission Helicopters". US Defense Security Cooperation Agency, 28 June 2012.
- Sambridge, Andy (30 June 2012). "Qatar keen on $2.5bn US helicopters deal". ArabianBusiness.com. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- Waldron, Gregg (February 20, 2013). "Singapore orders two additional S-70B helicopters". Flightglobal. Retrieved February 2, 2015.
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|url=value (help) (PDF). Flightglobal Insight. 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
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