Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan

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Sault Ste. Marie
City of Sault Ste. Marie
View of Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, from the Canadian side of the river.
View of Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, from the Canadian side of the river.
Flag of Sault Ste. Marie
Official seal of Sault Ste. Marie
Nickname(s): The Soo
Location of Sault Ste. Marie in Chippewa County and Michigan
Location of Sault Ste. Marie in Chippewa County and Michigan
Sault Ste. Marie is located in USA
Sault Ste. Marie
Sault Ste. Marie
Location in the United States
Coordinates: Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Country United States
State Michigan
County Chippewa
Founded 1668
Incorporated 1879 (village)
Incorporated 1887 (city)
 • Type Commission-Manager
 • Mayor Anthony Bosbous
 • City Manager Oliver Turner
 • Total 20.16 sq mi (52.21 km2)
 • Land 14.77 sq mi (38.25 km2)
 • Water 5.39 sq mi (13.96 km2)  26.74%
Population (2010)[2]
 • Total 14,144
 • Estimate (2012[3]) 14,194
 • Density 957.6/sq mi (369.7/km2)
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)

Sault Ste. Marie /ˌs snt məˈr/ is a city in, and the county seat of, Chippewa County in the U.S. state of Michigan.[4] It is situated on the northeastern end of Michigan's Upper Peninsula, on the Canadian border, and separated from its twin city of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, by the St. Marys River. The city is relatively isolated from other communities in Michigan and is 346 miles from Detroit. The population was 14,144 at the 2010 census, making it the second most populous city in the Upper Peninsula. By contrast, the Canadian Sault Ste. Marie is much larger, with more than 75,000 residents, based on more extensive industry developed in the 20th century and an economy with closer connections to other communities.

Sault Ste. Marie had been settled by Native Americans more than 500 years ago and was a crossroads of fishing and trading of tribes around the Great Lakes. It developed as the first European settlement in the region that became the Midwestern United States,[5] when, in 1668, Father Jacques Marquette, a French Jesuit, learned of the Native American village and traveled there to found a Catholic mission. French colonists later established a fur trading post, which attracted trappers and Native Americans on a seasonal basis. Both Métis men and women were active in the trade and among the elite in the community. A fur-trading settlement quickly grew at the crossroads that straddled the banks of the river. It was the center of a trading route of 3,000 miles (4,800 km) that extended from Montreal to the Sault, and from the Sault to the country north of Lake Superior.[6]

The settlement was a single community under French colonial and later British colonial rule until 1817. Following the War of 1812, a US–UK Joint Boundary Commission finally fixed the border between the Michigan Territory of the USA and the British Province of Upper Canada to follow the river in this area. Whereas traders had formerly moved through the whole area, the United States forbade Canadian traders from operating in the United States, which much reduced their trade and broke up the cohesion of the economy in the area. The American and Canadian communities of Sault Ste. Marie were each incorporated as independent municipalities toward the end of the nineteenth century.

Sault Sainte-Marie in French means "the Rapids of Saint Mary". The Saint Mary's River runs from Lake Superior to Lake Huron; what are now the twin border cities are located on either side.

No hyphens are used in the English spelling, which is otherwise identical to the French, but the pronunciations differ. Anglophones say /ˌs snt məˈr/ and Francophones say [so sɛ̃t maʁi]. In both languages, the name is often written Sault Ste. Marie. On both sides of the border, the towns and the general vicinity are called The Sault (usually pronounced /ˈs/) or The Soo.

The two cities are joined by the International Bridge, which connects Interstate 75 (I-75) in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, and Huron Street in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. Shipping traffic in the Great Lakes system bypasses the rapids via the American Soo Locks, the world's busiest canal in terms of tonnage passing through it.[citation needed] Smaller recreational and tour boats use the Canadian Sault Ste. Marie Canal. The city's downtown was developed on an island, with the locks to the north and the Sault Ste. Marie Power Canal to the south.

People come from around the world to view shipping traffic pass through the locks. The largest ships are 1,000 feet (300 m) long by 105 feet (32 m) wide. These are domestic carriers (called lakers). Too large to transit the Welland Canal that bypasses Niagara Falls, they are land-locked. Foreign ships (termed salties) are smaller and can exit the Great Lakes to the St. Lawrence River and the Atlantic Ocean.

Sault Ste. Marie is the home of the International 500 Snowmobile Race (commonly called the I-500), which takes place annually and draws participants and spectators from all over the U.S. and Canada. The race, which was inspired by the Indianapolis 500,[7] originated in 1969 and has been growing ever since.


After being replaced, the Old Federal Building was used by the city for the River of History Museum. It is being renovated again for use as the City Hall. The building is on the National Register of Historic Places.

For centuries Ojibwa (Chippewa) Native Americans had lived in the area, which they referred to as Baawitigong ("at the cascading rapids"), after the rapids of St. Marys River. French colonists renamed the region Saulteaux ("rapids" in French).

In 1668, French missionaries Claude Dablon and Jacques Marquette founded a Jesuit mission at this site. Sault Ste. Marie developed as the third-oldest European city in the United States west of the Appalachian Mountains, and the oldest permanent settlement in contemporary Michigan state. On June 4, 1671, Simon-François Daumont de Saint-Lusson, a colonial agent, was dispatched from Quebec to the distant tribes, proposing a congress of Indian nations at the Falls of St. Mary between Lake Huron and Lake Superior. Trader Nicolas Perrot helped attract the principal chiefs, and representatives of 14 indigenous nations were invited for the elaborate ceremony. The French officials proclaimed France's appropriation of the immense territory surrounding [Lake Superior] in the name of King Louis XIV.[8]

In the 18th century, the settlement became an important center of the fur trade, when it was a post for the British-owned North West Company, based in Montreal. The fur trader John Johnston, a Scots-Irish immigrant from Belfast, Ireland, was considered the first European settler in 1790. He married a high-ranking Ojibwa woman named Ozhaguscodaywayquay, the daughter of a prominent chief. She also became known as Susan Johnston. Their marriage was one of numerous alliances in the northern areas between high-ranking European traders and Ojibwa. The family was prominent among Native Americans, First Nations, and Europeans from both Canada and the United States. They had eight children who learned fluent Ojibwe, English and French. The Johnstons entertained a variety of trappers, explorers, traders, and government officials, especially during the years before the War of 1812 between Britain and the United States.[9]

As a result of the fur trade, the settlement attracted Ojibwa and Ottawa, Métis, and ethnic Europeans of various nationalities. It was a two-tiered society, with fur traders (who had capital) and their families and upper-class Ojibwa in the upper echelon.[9] In the aftermath of the War of 1812, however, the community's society changed markedly.[9]

The U.S. built Fort Brady near the settlement, introducing new troops and settlers, mostly Anglo-American. Great Britain and the US settled on a new northern boundary in 1817, dividing the US and Canada along St. Mary's River. The US prohibited British fur traders from operating in the United States. After completion of the Erie Canal in New York State in 1825 (expanded in 1832), the number of settlers migrating to Ohio and Michigan increased dramatically from New York and New England, bringing with them the Yankee culture of the Northern Tier. Their numbers overwhelmed the cosmopolitan culture of the earlier settlers. They practiced more discrimination against Native Americans and Métis.

The falls proved a choke point for shipping between the Great Lakes. Early ships traveling to and from Lake Superior were portaged around the rapids in a lengthy process (much like moving a house) that could take weeks. Later, only the cargoes were unloaded, hauled around the rapids, and then loaded onto other ships waiting below the rapids. The first American lock, the State Lock, was built in 1855; it was instrumental in improving shipping. Over the years, the lock was expanded and improved.

In 1900, Northwestern Leather Company opened a tannery in Sault Ste. Marie.[10] The tannery was founded to process leather for the upper parts of shoes, which was finer than that for soles.[11] After the factory closed in 1958, the property was sold to Filborn Limestone, a subsidiary of Algoma Steel Corporation.[12]

In March 1938 during the Great Depression, Sophia Nolte Pullar bequeathed $70,000 for construction of the Pullar Community Building, which opened in 1939. This building held an indoor ice rink composed of artificial ice, then a revolutionary concept. The ice rink is still owned by the city.[13]

Meaning of the name

The city name was derived from the French term for the nearby rapids, which were called Les Saults de Sainte Marie. Sainte Marie (Saint Mary) was the name of the river and Saults referred to the rapids. (The archaic spelling Sault is a relic of the Middle French Period. Latin salta successively became Old French salte (c. 800 – c. 1340), Middle French sault, and Modern French saut, as in the verb sauter, to jump.)

Whereas the modern saut means simply "(a) jump", sault in the 17th century was also applied to cataracts, waterfalls and rapids. This resulted in such place names as Grand Falls/Grand-Sault, and Sault-au-Récollet on the Island of Montreal in Canada; and Sault-Saint-Remy and Sault-Brénaz in France. In contemporary French, the word for "rapids" is rapides.


The city is the northern terminus of I-75, which connects with the Mackinac Bridge at St. Ignace 52 miles (84 km) to the south, and continues south to Miami, Florida. M-129 also has its northern terminus in the city. M-129 was at one time a part of the Dixie Highway system, which was intended to connect the northern industrial states with the southern agricultural states. Until 1984 the city was the eastern terminus of the western segment of US 2. County Highway H-63 (or Mackinac Trail) also has its northern terminus in the city and extends south to St. Ignace and follows a route very similar to I-75.

Commercial airline service is provided to the city by the Chippewa County International Airport in Kinross, about 20 miles (32 km) south. Smaller general aviation aircraft also use the Sault Ste. Marie Municipal Airport about one 1 mile (1.6 km) southwest.

Sault Ste. Marie was the namesake of the Minneapolis, St. Paul and Sault Ste. Marie Railway, now the Soo Line Railroad, the U.S. arm of the Canadian Pacific Railway. This railroad had a bridge parallel to the International Bridge crossing the St. Marys River. The Soo Line has since, through a series of acquisitions and mergers of portions of the system, been split between Canadian Pacific and Canadian National Railway (CN). CN operates the rail lines and the bridge in the Sault Ste. Marie area that were formerly part of the Soo Line.

The Sugar Island Ferry provides automobile and passenger access between Sault Ste. Marie and Sugar Island, formerly a center of maple sugaring. The short route that the ferry travels crosses the shipping channel. Despite the high volume of freighter traffic through the locks, freighters typically do not dock in the Sault. However, the city hosts tugs, a tourist passenger ferry service, and a Coast Guard station along the shoreline on the lower (east) side of the Soo Locks. The United States Postal Service operates a "Marine Post Office", situated within the locks, to service ships as they pass through.

Geography and climate

The city is located at Latitude: 46.49 N, Longitude: -84.35 W.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 20.16 square miles (52.21 km2), of which 14.77 square miles (38.25 km2) is land and 5.39 square miles (13.96 km2) is water.[1]


Under the Köppen climate classification, Sault Ste. Marie has a humid continental climate (Dfb) with cold, snowy winters and warm summers.[14] Sault Ste. Marie is one of the snowiest places in Michigan, receiving an average of 128 inches (3.3 m) of snow a year, with a record year when 209 inches (5.3 m) fell. 62 inches (1.6 m) of snow fell in one five-day snowstorm, including 28 inches (710 mm) in 24 hours, in December 1995. Sault Ste. Marie receives an average annual 34 inches (860 mm) of precipitation measured as equivalent rainfall. Its immediate region is also the cloudiest in Michigan's Upper Peninsula, having over 200 cloudy days a year.

Temperatures in Sault Ste. Marie have varied between a record low of −36 °F (−38 °C) and a record high of 98 °F (37 °C). Monthly average temperatures range from 13 °F (−11 °C) in January to 64 °F (18 °C) in July.[15] On average, only two out of every five years reaches 90 °F (32 °C), while there are 85.5 days annually where the high remains at or below freezing and 26.5 nights with a low of 0 °F (−18 °C) or colder.

Average monthly precipitation is lowest in February, and highest in September and October. This autumn maximum in precipitation, unusual for humid continental climates, owes to this area's Great Lakes location. From May through July (usually the year's wettest months in most of the upper Midwestern United States, away from large bodies of water), the lake waters surrounding Sault Ste. Marie are cooler than nearby land areas. This tends to stabilize the atmosphere, suppressing precipitation (especially showers and thunderstorms) somewhat, in May, June and July. In autumn, the lakes are releasing their stored heat from the summer, making them warmer than the surrounding land, and increasingly frequent and strong polar and Arctic air outbreaks pick up warmth and moisture during their over-water passage, resulting in clouds and instability showers. In Sault Ste. Marie, this phenomenon peaks in September and October, making these the wettest months of the year. Also noteworthy is that in Sault Ste. Marie, the year's third wettest month, on average, is November, and not any summer month.

Climate data for Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1888–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 54
Average high °F (°C) 23.0
Average low °F (°C) 7.6
Record low °F (°C) −36
Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.19
Average snowfall inches (cm) 31.4
trace 1.6
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 18.4 13.0 12.3 10.9 11.2 11.1 11.2 10.9 12.9 15.5 16.7 18.8 162.9
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 19.6 14.2 10.1 4.6 0.4 0 0 0 0.1 2.2 10.0 18.0 79.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 104.9 142.5 206.4 227.5 280.3 281.2 303.6 248.9 172.9 122.6 70.4 77.4 2,238.6
Source: NOAA (sun 1961–1990)[16][17]


Historical population
Census Pop.
1860 596
1880 1,947
1890 5,760 195.8%
1900 10,538 83.0%
1910 12,615 19.7%
1920 12,096 −4.1%
1930 13,755 13.7%
1940 15,847 15.2%
1950 17,912 13.0%
1960 18,722 4.5%
1970 15,136 −19.2%
1980 14,448 −4.5%
1990 14,689 1.7%
2000 14,324 −2.5%
2010 14,144 −1.3%
Est. 2014 13,959 [18] −1.3%

2010 census

As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 14,144 people, 5,995 households, and 3,265 families residing in the city. The population density was 957.6 inhabitants per square mile (369.7/km2). There were 6,534 housing units at an average density of 442.4 per square mile (170.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 74.8% White, 0.7% African American, 17.7% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.3% from other races, and 5.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.5% of the population.

There were 5,995 households of which 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.0% were married couples living together, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.0% had a male householder with no wife present, and 45.5% were non-families. 35.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.88.

The median age in the city was 33.8 years. 21.3% of residents were under the age of 18; 17.1% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 23.8% were from 25 to 44; 23.8% were from 45 to 64; and 13.9% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.5% male and 51.5% female.

2000 census

Note: After going through the Census 2000 Count Question Resolution Program, the population of the city in 2000 was revised to 14,324 because of the misallocation of some of a neighboring municipality's population to the city of Sault Ste. Marie.[20]

As of the census[21] of 2000, there were 16,542 people, 5,742 households, and 3,301 families living in the city. The population density was 1,116.3 people per square mile (431.0/km²). There were 6,237 housing units at an average density of 420.9 per square mile (162.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 73.99% White, 6.51% African American, 13.72% Native American, 0.65% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.47% from other races, and 4.61% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.86% of the population.

There were 5,742 households out of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.9% were married couples living together, 13.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 42.5% were non-families. 33.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.92.

In the city the population was spread out with 19.4% under the age of 18, 18.1% from 18 to 24, 31.9% from 25 to 44, 18.2% from 45 to 64, and 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 122.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 128.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $29,652, and for a family was $40,333. Males had a median income of $29,656 versus $21,889 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,460. About 12.7% of families and 17.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.6% of those under age 18 and 12.5% of those age 65 or over.


Tourism is a major industry in the area. The Soo Locks and nearby Kewadin Casino, owned by the Sault Tribe of Chippewa Indians, are the major draws, as well as the forests, inland lakes, and Lake Superior shoreline. Sault Ste. Marie is also a gateway to Lake Superior's scenic north shore through its twin city Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. The two cities are connected by the large Sault Ste. Marie International Bridge, a steel truss arch bridge with suspended deck passing over the St. Marys River.


LSSU's campus was originally Fort Brady.


Sault Ste. Marie is home to Lake Superior State University (LSSU), founded in 1946 as an extension campus of Michigan College of Mining and Technology (now Michigan Technological University); the campus was originally Fort Brady. LSSU is home to the LSSU Lakers (D1 Hockey (WCHA), D2 all other sports (GLIAC). LSSU has around 2500 students, making it Michigan's smallest public university.

High schools

The Sault's primary public high school is Sault Area High School. "Sault High" is one of the few high schools in the state with attached career center. The school's mascot is the Blue Devil. "Sault High" houses a variety of successful varsity sports teams, such as baseball and basketball. All together, the school provides 24 competitive sports teams for both boys and girls at all levels. [22]

The school district also operates Malcolm High School, as an alternative school.

Middle schools

Sault Ste. Marie has two middle schools, one in the Sault Ste. Marie School System known as Sault Area Middle School. Before the 6th grade annex was added in the late 1980s, the school was referred to as Sault Area Junior High School. The Second Middle School is a part of Joseph K. Lumsden Bahweting School, a Native American-affiliated Public School Academy.

St. Mary's Catholic School serves students in grades K-8.

Elementary School

There are several elementary schools in Sault Ste. Marie and the surrounding area, including Lincoln Elementary, Washington Elementary, Soo Township Elementary, in the Sault Ste. Marie School System, There is also a Public School Academy, Joseph K. Lumsden Bahweting School, and the St. Mary's Catholic School. In the last decade Jefferson Elementary, McKinley Elementary and Bruce Township Elementary have closed because of declining enrollment.

Private School

There are no private schools in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan.



Chippewa County Courthouse.

All stations listed here are rebroadcasters of television stations based in Traverse City and Cadillac.

  • Channel 8: WGTQ, ABC (rebroadcasts WGTU); NBC on digital subchannel 8.2 (rebroadcasts WPBN-TV)
  • Channel 10: WWUP, CBS (rebroadcasts WWTV); Fox on digital subchannel 10.2 (rebroadcasts WFQX-TV)
  • Channel 28: W28DY-D, 3ABN (all programming via satellite)

NBC is also served by WTOM channel 4 from Cheboygan, which repeats WPBN-TV.

The area has no local PBS service over-the-air; on Charter's cable system, WNMU-TV from Marquette offers PBS programming.

None of these stations are seen on cable in the Canadian Soo, as Shaw cable airs Detroit and Rochester channels instead.


Other stations serving the Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, market:


The city's main daily and newspaper of record is the Sault Ste. Marie Evening News, more commonly referred to as the Evening News.

Notable people

Notable landmarks

  • Pullar Stadium was constructed starting in 1937 and opened in 1939. It is currently being used as an ice arena where the Soo Eagles and the Sault High Blue Devils play.[13]
  • The Ramada Plaza Hotel Ojiway opened on December 31, 1927. The first owners were Beatrice and Leon Daglman. The building is 85 years old. The 27th Governor of Michigan Chase S. Osborn donated the site and $50,000 dollars. It was his dream to build a nice elegant hotel. Overall, it cost $250,000 dollars to build it. On the day of its opening it had 91 rooms, 33 of which included bath tubs, 13 with showers, 34 with toilet and washbowls, and 11 just had a washbowl. This hotel was made for all the tourist who came to the town. Governor Chase S. Osborn and his family lived on the sixth floor for a while and so did Beatrice and Leon Daglman. The hotel contains 100 guestrooms, dining room, checkroom, barbershop and beauty parlor. Its decorated as an Art Deco architectural design, décor, detailed amenities and exceptional service gained national interest and attracted many famous guests including Jack Dempsey, Joe Louis and more recently President George H.W. Bush in 1992(Ramada Hotel)[24]
  • The Soo Theatre has been a part of Sault Ste. Marie for over 80 years and has provided entertainment of live plays, movies, and musicals. The Theatre opened in March 1930 and for 40 years was used for films and live performances. In May 1974 the theater was divided into red and blue cinemas, where a cement wall divided the once open auditorium. The building was then closed in 1998 and was put up for sale. In March 2003 the Soo Theatre Project Inc. purchased it for $85,000. After that the theater began restoration so that plays and other types of entertainment could be put on once again.[25]
  • Holy Name of Mary Pro-Cathedral (Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan) was begun by Jesuits in 1668. There are only two other parishes, one located on St. Augustine, Florida and the other in Santa Fe, New Mexico, that are older in the United States.[3] On January 9, 1857 Pope Pius IX established the Diocese of Sault Ste. Marie[4] and St. Mary’s was named the cathedral church for the new diocese. The present church, the fifth for the parish, was built in 1881. It was designed by Canadian architect Joseph Connolly in the Gothic Revival style. The church was extensively remodeled in three phases from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s. In 1968 the parish built the Tower of History as a shrine to the Catholic missionaries who served the community.[5] It was designed to be a part of a larger complex that was to include a community center and a new church. Parish priorities changed and the structure was sold to Sault Historic Sites in 1980, who continues to operate it. Proceeds from the Tower of History still benefit the church.
  • The Soo Locks are a set of parallel locks which enable ships to travel between Lake Superior and the lower Great Lakes. They are located on the St. Marys River between Lake Superior and Lake Huron, between the Upper Peninsula of the US state of Michigan and the Canadian province of Ontario. They bypass the rapids of the river, where the water falls 21 feet (7 m). The locks pass an average of 10,000 ships per year,[4] despite being closed during the winter from January through March, when ice shuts down shipping on the Great Lakes. The winter closure period is used to inspect and maintain the locks. The locks share a name (usually shortened and anglicized as Soo) with the two cities named Sault Ste. Marie, in Ontario and in Michigan, located on either side of the St. Marys River. The Sault Ste. Marie International Bridge between the United States and Canada permits vehicular traffic to pass over the locks. A railroad bridge crosses the St. Marys River just upstream of the highway bridge.

Sister Cities

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-25.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-25.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-06-03.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Charter Revision Handbook. Michigan Municipal League.
  6. "Sault Ste. Marie – history", The North View, accessed 20 Dec 2008
  7. "I-500 Snowmobile Race, Sault Sainte Marie, MI - International 500 Snowmobile Race".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. DCB/DBC Staff, John Beadle Graphic Designer. "Biography – DAUMONT DE SAINT-LUSSON, SIMON-FRANÇOIS – Volume I (1000-1700) – Dictionary of Canadian Biography".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Robert E. Bieder, "Sault Ste. Marie and the War of 1812: A World Turned Upside Down in the Old Northwest", Indiana Magazine of History, XCV (Mar 1999), accessed 13 Dec 2008
  10. Arbic 2003, p. 190.
  11. Arbic 2003, p. 191.
  12. Arbic 2003, p. 197.
  13. 13.0 13.1 "Pullar Community Building". City of Sault Ste. Marie. Retrieved October 24, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen−Geiger climate classification" (PDF). Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. "Sault Ste. Marie Climate". Retrieved August 17, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. "NOWData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 10, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. "Sault STE. MARIE, MI Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 10, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Retrieved June 4, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. "Census of Population and Housing". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-01-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. "Census 2000 Count Question Resolution Program – Michigan Revision Update" (PDF). Michigan Information Center. Retrieved 21 October 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. "Sault Area High School Official Page". Sault Area High School and Career Center. Retrieved 1 November 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. Margaret Noori, "Bicultural Before There Was a Word For It", Women's Review of Books, 2008, Wellesley Centers for Women, accessed 12 Dec 2008
  24. Nebel, Angela (28 Dec 2007). Remembering the Ojibway. Evening News. p. n. pag. Print.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. "Soo Theatre History". January 10, 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. City of Sault Ste. Marie (Ontario)
  • Arbic, Bernie (2003). "City of the Rapids: Sault Ste. Marie’s Heritage, 189–197.

Further reading

External links

  • Sault Ste. Marie Visitors Bureau
  • City of Sault Ste. Marie
  • Tocqueville in Sault Ste. Marie – Segment from C-SPAN's Alexis de Tocqueville Tour
  •  Reynolds, Francis J., ed. (1921). [ "Sault Sainte Marie, a city of Michigan" ] Check |ws link in chapter= value (help). Collier's New Encyclopedia. New York: P.F. Collier & Son Company.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Wikisource-logo.svg [ "Sault Ste. Marie, Mich." ] Check |ws link in chapter= value (help). [ The New Students Reference Work ] Check |ws link in title= value (help). 1914.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>