Symmetric-key algorithm

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Symmetric-key algorithms[1] are algorithms for cryptography that use the same cryptographic keys for both encryption of plaintext and decryption of ciphertext. The keys may be identical or there may be a simple transformation to go between the two keys. The keys, in practice, represent a shared secret between two or more parties that can be used to maintain a private information link.[2] This requirement that both parties have access to the secret key is one of the main drawbacks of symmetric key encryption, in comparison to public-key encryption.[3]

Types of symmetric-key algorithms

Symmetric-key encryption can use either stream ciphers or block ciphers.[4]

  • Stream ciphers encrypt the digits (typically bytes) of a message one at a time.
  • Block ciphers take a number of bits and encrypt them as a single unit, padding the plaintext so that it is a multiple of the block size. Blocks of 64 bits have been commonly used. The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm approved by NIST in December 2001 uses 128-bit blocks.


Examples of popular symmetric algorithms include Twofish, Serpent, AES (Rijndael), Blowfish, CAST5, RC4, 3DES, Skipjack, Safer+/++ (Bluetooth), and IDEA.[citation needed]

Cryptographic primitives based on symmetric ciphers

Symmetric ciphers are commonly used to achieve other cryptographic primitives than just encryption.[citation needed]

Encrypting a message does not guarantee that this message is not changed while encrypted. Hence often a message authentication code is added to a ciphertext to ensure that changes to the ciphertext will be noted by the receiver. Message authentication codes can be constructed from symmetric ciphers (e.g. CBC-MAC).[citation needed]

However, symmetric ciphers cannot be used for non-repudiation purposes except by involving additional parties. See the ISO/IEC 13888-2 standard.[citation needed]

Another application is to build hash functions from block ciphers. See one-way compression function for descriptions of several such methods.[citation needed]

Construction of symmetric ciphers

Many modern block ciphers are based on a construction proposed by Horst Feistel. Feistel's construction makes it possible to build invertible functions from other functions that are themselves not invertible.[citation needed]

Security of symmetric ciphers

Symmetric ciphers have historically been susceptible to known-plaintext attacks, chosen-plaintext attacks, differential cryptanalysis and linear cryptanalysis. Careful construction of the functions for each round can greatly reduce the chances of a successful attack.[citation needed]

Key generation

When used with asymmetric ciphers for key transfer, pseudorandom key generators are nearly always used to generate the symmetric cipher session keys. However, lack of randomness in those generators or in their initialization vectors is disastrous and has led to cryptanalytic breaks in the past. Therefore, it is essential that an implementation uses a source of high entropy for its initialization.[5][6][7]

Reciprocal cipher

A reciprocal cipher is a cipher where, just as one enters the plaintext into the cryptography system to get the ciphertext, one could enter the ciphertext into the same place in the system to get the plaintext. A reciprocal cipher is also sometimes referred as self-reciprocal cipher. Examples of reciprocal ciphers include:


  1. Other terms for symmetric-key encryption are secret-key, single-key, shared-key, one-key, and private-key encryption. Use of the last and first terms can create ambiguity with similar terminology used in public-key cryptography. Symmetric-key cryptography is to be contrasted with asymmetric-key cryptography.
  2. Delfs, Hans & Knebl, Helmut (2007). "Symmetric-key encryption". Introduction to cryptography: principles and applications. Springer. ISBN 9783540492436. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Mullen, Gary & Mummert, Carl (2007). Finite fields and applications. American Mathematical Society. p. 112. ISBN 9780821844182. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Pelzl & Paar (2010). Understanding Cryptography. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. p. 30.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Ian Goldberg and David Wagner. "Randomness and the Netscape Browser". January 1996 Dr. Dobb's Journal. quote: "it is vital that the secret keys be generated from an unpredictable random-number source."
  6. Thomas Ristenpart , Scott Yilek. "When Good Randomness Goes Bad: Virtual Machine Reset Vulnerabilities and Hedging Deployed Cryptography (2010)" CiteSeerX: quote from abstract: "Random number generators (RNGs) are consistently a weak link in the secure use of cryptography."
  7. "Symmetric Cryptography". James. 2006-03-11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>