Persona (series)

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
(Redirected from Shin Megami Tensei: Persona)
Jump to: navigation, search
Persona PSP logo.svg
The logo of Shin Megami Tensei: Persona, the remake of the first game in the series. Each game uses its own font and styling.
Genres Role-playing, Social simulation
Developers Atlus, Arc System Works (Arena)
    Creators Kouji Okada, Kazuma Kaneko
    Platforms Arcade, Microsoft Windows, Nintendo 3DS, PlayStation, PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, PlayStation Portable, PlayStation Vita, Xbox 360
    Platform of origin PlayStation
    First release Revelations: Persona
      Latest release Persona 4: Dancing All Night

        Persona (Japanese: ペルソナ Hepburn: Perusona?), also known as Shin Megami Tensei: Persona, is a series of role-playing video games developed and primarily published by Atlus.[lower-alpha 1] The series is a spin-off from Atlus' Megami Tensei franchise, and was originally based on the high school setting of Shin Megami Tensei If.... The first entry in the series, Revelations: Persona,[lower-alpha 2] was released in 1996. There have since been eight further console titles (four main entries and four spin-off titles), with another (Persona 5) in development. The series takes its title from the beings used by characters in battle, manifested from a character's personality.

        Persona began as a spin-off based on the positively-received setting of If.... Its trademark features include a high school setting, a group of students as the protagonists, a silent protagonist similar to the mainline Megami Tensei franchise, and combat using Personas. Since the release of Persona 3 in 2006, the main series has used a social simulation function called Social Links, which is directly linked to how Personas evolve. Central character designs are by series co-creator Kazuma Kaneko (Persona and the Persona 2 games) and Shigenori Soejima (Persona 3 onwards). Its overall theme is exploration of the human psyche and how the characters find their true selves. The series' recurring concepts and design elements draw on Jungian psychology and archetypes, along with multiple world mythologies and popular literature.

        Persona was the first role-playing Megami Tensei title to be released in the West. Beginning with Persona 2: Eternal Punishment, the localizations have remained faithful to the Japanese versions at the insistence of Atlus. The series is highly popular internationally, becoming the best-known Megami Tensei spin-off and establishing Atlus and the Megami Tensei franchise in North America. Following the release of Persona 3 and 4, the series also established a strong following in Europe. Since the release of the first Persona game, the series has sold six million units worldwide, forming a substantial part of the Megami Tensei franchise's total sales. There have been numerous adaptations, including anime television and theatrical series, novelizations, manga, and stage plays.


        Main series

        Timeline of release years
        1996 Revelations: Persona
        1999 Persona 2: Innocent Sin
        2000 Persona 2: Eternal Punishment
        2006 Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 3
        2008 Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 4
        2016 Persona 5
        • Revelations: Persona is the first entry in the series, was released in 1996 in Japan and North America for the PlayStation.[1][2] A port to Microsoft Windows was released in Japan in 1999.[3] The game was later ported to the PlayStation Portable (PSP): it was published in 2009 in Japan and North America as physical and digital releases, and 2010 in Europe as a digital release.[4][5][6] Set in the town of Mikage-cho, it follows a group of high school students from St. Hermelin High, who are forced to confront an outbreak of demons in their hometown.[7]
        • Persona 2: Innocent Sin is the second entry in the series, released in Japan in 1999 for the PlayStation.[1] After the success of Persona's PSP port, a port of Innocent Sin was greenlit. For this version, adjustments were made so that it played more like its sequel, along with added features and a new scenario.[8][9][10] The port was released in 2011 in all regions.[11][12][13] Set in the coastal city of Sumaru, the story follows Tatsuya Suou, a student of Seven Sisters High, as he confronts phenomena generated by reality-altering rumors.[14]
        • Persona 2: Eternal Punishment is the third entry in the main series, released in 2000 in Japan and North America for the PlayStation.[15][16] Like Innocent Sin, it was remade for PSP, and included a new scenario by the game's original writer.[17] The remake released in Japan in 2012, but did not reach the West. The original version was re-released worldwide on PlayStation Network (PSN) in 2013 in response to this.[17][18] Set shortly after the ending of Innocent Sin, the story follows Maya Amano, a supporting character from the previous game, as she confronts a similar rumor-created threat along with Tatsuya.[19]
        • Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 3 is the fourth entry in the main series. Developed for PlayStation 2 (PS2), it released in 2006 in Japan, 2007 in North America, and 2008 in Europe.[1][20][21] Persona 3 FES, a director's cut featuring new content and an epilogue, was released in 2007 in Japan and 2008 in North America and Europe.[22] The main portion of FES was later ported to the PSP as Persona 3 Portable: it featured a few enhancements such as a female playable character and the ability to control all characters in battle, and some content was adjusted or removed so it could fit on a portable platform.[23][24] The story takes place in the town of Iwatodai, following a group of students known as "SEES" who fight monsters that appear during a time known as the Dark Hour.[25]
        • Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 4 is the fifth entry in the main series, released on the PS2 in 2008 in Japan and North America, and 2009 in Europe.[26][27][28] The success of Persona 3 Portable inspired the creation of a portable version of Persona 4. As using the PSP would result in cutting too much content, it was instead developed for PlayStation Vita, which allowed for new features and content. This version was titled Persona 4 Golden.[24] Persona 4 takes place in the rural town of Inaba, where a group of students investigate a series of killings related to a realm known as the Midnight Channel.[29]
        • Persona 5 is the sixth entry in the main series, currently in production for PlayStation 3 and PlayStation 4. It is currently scheduled for a 2016 release in Japan and North America.[1][30] Persona 5 will be set in Tokyo and will follow a group of students as they adopt the guises of thieves to tackle the city's corruption and attain freedom from imposed societal pressures.[31][32]


        Persona 3 received a Japan-exclusive spin-off online game titled Persona 3: The Night Before;[Jp. 1] it follows a similar cycle of daytime activities and night time combat as the original game, with one player being chosen as the party leader each night.[33] After its closure in 2008, a new free-to-play browser game titled Persona Ain Soph[Jp. 2] was released that year; the gameplay focused on players fusing Personas and confronting a threat known as the Qliphoth. Staying exclusive to Japan, it closed down in June 2010.[34][35] A fighting game sequel to Persona 4, Persona 4 Arena, was released in arcades in Japan in 2012.[36] Console versions were released in 2012 in Japan and North America, and 2013 in Europe.[37][38][39] A sequel, Persona 4 Arena Ultimax, was similarly released in Japanese arcades in 2013, then released in 2014 in all regions for consoles.[40][41][42] A standalone spin-off for the Nintendo 3DS, Persona Q: Shadow of the Labyrinth, was released worldwide in 2014;[1] it features the full casts of Persona 3 and 4, and is classed by Atlus as an official entry in the Persona canon.[43] A rhythm game set after the events of Persona 4 Arena Ultimax, Persona 4: Dancing All Night, was released worldwide in 2015.[44][45][46]

        Several Persona mobile games have been made in partnership with other Japanese mobile companies such as Bbmf. Their first partnership was in 2006 with the development and release of Megami Ibunroku Persona: Chapter of the Foreign Tower of Emptiness,[Jp. 3] a 3D dungeon crawler set within the environments of the first Persona game.[47] The companies later collaborated on two mobile titles based on the Persona 2 games: Persona 2: Innocent Sin - Lost Memories[Jp. 4] in 2007, and Persona 2: Eternal Punishment - Infinity Mask[Jp. 5] in 2009. Both titles carried over the basic gameplay functions of the original games tailored for mobile phones.[48][49] Many mobile spin-offs are related to Persona 3: there is an RPG side-story titled Persona 3 Em,[Jp. 6] an action game prequel set ten years prior to Persona 3 titled Aegis: The First Mission,[Jp. 7] and an alternate version of Persona 3 featuring different characters titled Persona 3 Social.[Jp. 8] Multiple Persona 3-themed puzzle games have also been developed.[50][51][52][53][54][55] An online mobile RPG set around the high school featured in Persona 3, titled Persona Mobile Online,[Jp. 9] was released in 2009.[56] Persona 4 likewise received a mobile spin-off, this time a card game titled Persona 4 The Card Battle.[Jp. 10][57]

        Common elements


        Screenshots featuring a battle against Shadows using a Persona (above) and the growth of Social Links (below). These images are taken from Persona 4 Golden. Persona 4 built upon mechanics introduced in Persona 3.

        The gameplay of the Persona series revolves around combat against various enemy types: Demons, Shadows and Personas.[58][59][60][61] Main combat takes place during dungeon crawling segments within various locations. The way battles initiate varies between random encounters (Persona, Persona 2) or running into models representing enemy groups (Persona 3 onwards). Battles are governed by a turn-based system, where the player party and enemies each attack the opposing side. Actions in battle include standard physical attacks using short-range melee or long-range projectile weapons, magical attacks, using items, guarding, and under certain conditions escaping from battles. During battle, either side can strike an enemy's weakness, which deals more damage than other attacks.[14][29][62][63][64] For Persona 3 and 4, a key element in battle is "One More Turn": should a party member or enemy land a critical hit, they gain an extra turn. If all enemies are knocked down by critical hits, the party can perform an "All Out Attack", with all party members attacking at once and dealing high damage. Each party member is manually controlled by the player in all but one Persona title: in Persona 3, all the party apart from the main character are controlled by an AI-based command system. The general gameplay has remained consistent across all Persona games.[14][29][61][64][65][66]

        Each Persona game also includes elements unique to them. In Persona, battles take place on a grid-based battlefield, with characters' and enemies' movements dictated by their placement on the battlefield.[59] This system was abandoned for the Persona 2 games: the party has free movement across the battlefield, and is assigned a set of moves which can be changed in the menu during and in between battles.[14][67] In Persona and Persona 3, there is a lunar phase tied to gameplay, time progression, and the plot. In Persona 4, this was changed to a weather-based system, where changes in the weather keyed to the story affected enemy behavior.[61][68][69] Persona 5 introduces elements such as platforming and stealth gameplay to dungeon exploration.[58][64]


        A defining aspect of the series is the Personas, manifestations of a person's psyche.[70] Many Personas used up to Persona 3 are inspired by Graeco-Roman mythology. In Persona 4 they are based on Japanese deities; Persona 5 will use characters inspired by popular fictional and historical outlaws..[71][72][73] The summoning ritual for Personas in battle varies throughout the series: in early games, the party gains the ability to summon through a short ritual after playing a parlor game; in Persona 3, they fire a gun-like device called an Evoker at their head; in Persona 4, they summon their Personas using Tarot cards; in Persona 5, they will be summoned through the characters' masks.[70][74]

        Personas are used for types of physical attack and magical attacks, along with actions such as healing and curing or inflicting status ailments.[14][29][59][63][70][75] For all Persona games, all playable characters start out with an initial Persona, which evolves through story-based events and use during battle.[14][66][75] In multiple Persona titles, two or more Personas can be summoned at once to perform a powerful Fusion Spell.[14][66][67] In Persona 3 and 4, only the main character can wield and change between multiple Personas; the other characters use a single Persona.[29][75] During the course of the game, the player acquires more Personas through a system of Skill Cards, represented by Major Arcana Tarot cards. Each skill card represents a different Persona family, which in turn hold their own abilities inherent to that family. Multiple Personas can be fused together to create a new Persona with improved and inherited abilities: these range from fusing two Personas in the Persona 2 duology, to fusing up to twelve in Persona 4.[14][29][59][63][75]

        A system introduced in Persona 3 is Social Links, a form of character interaction tied to the growth of Personas. During their time outside battle, the main character can interact with and grow a particular Social Link, which acts as an independent character growth system tied to a Persona family or Arcanum. As the main character's relationship with the character representing a Social Link grows, its rank is raised and more powerful Personas related to the Social Link's assigned Arcanum can be summoned and fused.[29][62] Attributes related to the main character's social life can also be used to improve their Persona abilities, such as their academic abilities and social aptitude.[29][75] An updated version of Social Links will be featured in Persona 5.[58] In Persona and the Persona 2 duology, there is a Negotiation mechanic carried over from the Megami Tensei series, in which player characters can talk with enemies and provoke certain actions depending on their dialogue choices. Some responses yield Skill Cards for use in creating new Personas.[14][59] Negotiation was removed from later Persona titles, although Atlus staff considered the Social Link system and aspects of Persona Fusion to be a "disguised" version of it.[76]

        Setting and themes

        The Persona series takes place in modern-day Japan, and almost always focuses on a group of high school students. The exception to this is Eternal Punishment, which instead focused on a group of adults.[70][77] The setting has been described as urban fantasy, with extraordinary events happening in otherwise normal locations.[78] The typical setting used is a city, with a noted exception being the rural town setting of Persona 4.[77] Although they are typically stand-alone titles that only share thematic elements, the Persona games share a continuity, with elements from previous titles turning up in later ones.[70][77] Persona and the Persona 2 games shared narrative elements which were concluded with Eternal Punishment, so Persona 3 started out with a fresh setting and characters.[79] The first in the series is Persona, set in the year 1996. This is followed by the events of Innocent Sin and Eternal Punishment in 1999. At the end of Innocent Sin, the main characters rewrote events to avert the destruction of Earth, creating the Eternal Punishment reality, with the original reality becoming an isolated Other Side. Persona 3 and subsequent titles stem from Eternal Punishment.[7][80] Persona 3 is set in 2009 to 2010, and Persona 4 is set two years later in 2011 to 2012. The Persona 4 Arena games and Dancing All Night take place in the months following Persona 4.[7][81][82] Persona Q takes place in a separate enclosed world which the characters of Persona 3 and 4 are drawn into from their respective time periods.[83] The main character of each Persona game is a silent protagonist representing the player, with a manner described by the series' director as "silent and cool".[84] When the writer for new story content in Eternal Punishment's PSP version wished for the main character to have spoken dialogue, this was vetoed as it went against the series tradition.[85]

        A central concept for the series is the Collective Unconscious, a place generated by the hearts of humanity and from which Personas are born.[7][80] According to the official Persona Club P3 book, the Collective Unconscious was generated by the primitive life on Earth as a means of containing the spiritual essence of Nyx, a space-born being whose presence would cause the death of all life on Earth. Her body was damaged by the impact and became the moon, while her psyche was left on the surface and locked away at the heart of the Collective Unconscious. The fragments of Nyx's psyche, known as "Shadows", are both a threat and a crucial part of humanity's existence. To further help defend against hostile Shadows, people generated the deities that exist within the Collective Unconscious, many of which manifest as Personas. Nyx appears in Persona 3 as the antagonist.[86] Two recurring characters generated by the Collective Unconscious are Philemon and Nyarlathotep, the respective representatives of the positive and negative traits of humanity.[7] In Innocent Sin, the two reveal that they are engaged in a proxy contest as to whether humanity can embrace its contradictory feelings and find a higher purpose before destroying itself.[80] Philemon makes appearances in later Persona titles as a blue butterfly.[71] A recurring location is the Velvet Room, a place between reality and unconsciousness that changes form depending on the psyche of its current guest. Its inhabitants, especially an enigmatic old man called Igor, aid the main characters by helping them hone their Persona abilities.[87][88]

        The central theme of the Persona series is exploration of the human psyche and the main characters discovering their true selves.[89] The stories generally focus on the main cast's interpersonal relationships and psychologies.[90] There is also an underlying focus on "the human soul".[91] Many of the concepts and characters within the series (Personas, Shadows, Philemon) use Jungian psychology and archetypes.[88] A recurring motif are the "masks" people wear during everyday life, which ties back to their Personas. This motif will be more overtly expressed in Persona 5 through the main casts' use of masks in their thief guises.[84][92] Each game also includes specific themes and motifs. Persona 2 focuses on the effect of rumors on the fabric of reality (referred to by the developers as "the power of Kotodama"); Persona 3 employs themes involving depression and the darkness within people; Persona 4 focuses on how gossip and the media influences people's views of others; and Persona 5 will show how the main characters pursue personal freedom in a restrictive modern society.[71][78][93] A recurring element in the earlier entries is "The Butterfly Dream", a famous story by the Chinese philosopher Zhuang Zhou. It ties in with the series' themes, and also with Philemon's frequent appearances as a butterfly.[7] Philemon's original appearance was based on Zhuang Zhou.[88] The character Nyarlathotep is based on the character of the same name from H. P. Lovecraft's Cthulhu Mythos, and the Mythos as a whole is frequently referenced in Persona 2.[71][94] The Velvet Room was based on the Black Lodge from Twin Peaks.[88]


        The Persona series was first conceived after the release of Shin Megami Tensei If... for the Super Famicom. As the high school setting of If... had been positively received, Atlus decided to create a dedicated subseries focusing on the inner struggles of young adults.[91] The focus on high school life was also decided upon due to the experiences of the series' creators, Kouji Okada and Kazuma Kaneko: according to them, as nearly everyone experiences being a student at some point in their lives, it was something everyone could relate to, representing a time of both learning and personal freedom. In their view, this approach helped players accept the series' themes and the variety of ideas included in each title. Kaneko in particular tried to recreate his experiences and the impact it had on him during his time with the series.[95] The main concept behind the first game was a Megami Tensei title that was more approachable for new and casual players than the main series. The abundance of casual games on the PlayStation reinforced this decision.[88][96] The game's title, Megami Ibunroku,[Jp. 11] represented the title's status as a direct spin-off from the series.[97] It was later dropped to further define Persona as a standalone series.[94] After the success of Persona, Innocent Sin began development, retaining many of the original staff. During the writing of Innocent Sin, it was decided that the world of Persona 2 needed a different perspective than that of the current protagonist. This decision laid the groundwork for Eternal Punishment.[94][98]

        The conceptual Persona 3 was submitted to Atlus in 2003 by Katsura Hashino, who had worked as a designer for multiple Megami Tensei titles and had been the director for Shin Megami Tensei: Nocturne. Gaining Atlus' approval of the concept, development started in the same year, after the completion of Nocturne and the Digital Devil Saga duology.[99][100][101] Ideas were being passed around about Persona 4, but the title did not begin official development until after the release of Persona 3.[91] Preparations for Persona 5's development began in 2010. The team decided to shift towards more challenging story themes, saying that the shift would be more drastic than that experienced with Persona 3.[102][103] Persona 4 Arena and its sequel were the first non-RPG collaborative project in the series: its success inspired the creation of both Persona Q and Dancing All Night.[104][105] Beginning with Persona 3, a dedicated team originally referred to as "2nd Creative Production Department" has handled development for the series. The team was later dubbed "P-Studio".[106][107][108] Aside from Atlus, other developers have helped develop entries in the Persona series. During the pre-production stage of Persona 4 Arena, Hashino approached Arc System Works after being impressed by their work on the BlazBlue series.[24] For Dancing All Night, development was initially handled by Dingo, who were well known for the Hatsune Miku: Project DIVA series. Citing quality concerns, Atlus took over development.[109]

        Art design

        File:Persona 3 AD.jpg
        Advertising artwork for Persona 3 showing the main protagonist, two of the main cast, and a Persona. It was created by Shigenori Soejima, whose work has become strongly linked with the Persona series.[110][111]

        The two character artists for the Persona series are Kazuma Kaneko, a central artist in the main Megami Tensei series who designed characters for the first three Persona games, and Shigenori Soejima, who worked in a secondary capacity alongside Kaneko and took Kaneko's place as the character designer from Persona 3 onwards.[88][112][113][114] While designing the characters for Persona, Kaneko was inspired by multiple notable celebrities and fictional characters of the time, along with members of Atlus staff. In Persona and Innocent Sin, the main characters all wore the same school uniforms, so Kaneko differentiated them using accessories.[88][112] For Eternal Punishment, the main cast were adults, so Kaneko needed to rethink his design procedure. Eventually, he adopted the concept of ordinary adults, and gave them designs that would stand out in-game.[95]

        Soejima's first major work for the series was working on side characters for Persona 2 alongside Kaneko.[115] Kaneko put Soejima in charge of the series' art direction after Persona 2 as Kaneko did not want to imprint his drawing style on the Persona series, and also wanted Soejima to gain experience.[113] Soejima felt a degree of pressure when he was given his new role, as the series had accumulated a substantial following during Kaneko's tenure.[110] In a later interview, Soejima said that although he respected and admired Kaneko, he never consciously imitated the latter's work, and eventually settled into the role of pleasing the fans of the Persona series, approaching character designs with the idea of creating something new rather than referring back to Kaneko's work.[69] For his character designs, Soejima uses real people he has met or seen, looking at what their appearance says about their personality. If his designs come too close to the people he has seen, he does a rough sketch while keeping the personality of the person in mind.[114] For his work on Persona Q, his first time working with a deformed Chibi style due to its links with the Etrian Odyssey series, Soejima took into account what fans felt about the characters. A crucial part of his design technique was looking at what made a character stand out, then adjusting those features so they remained recognizable even with the redesign.[114][116]

        Starting with Persona 3, each Persona game has been defined by a different aesthetic and key color. It is one of the first artistic decisions made by the team: Persona 3 has a dark atmosphere and serious characters, so the primary color was chosen as blue to reflect these and the urban setting. In contrast, Persona 4 has a lighter tone and characters but also sports a murder-mystery plot, so the color yellow was chosen to represent both the lighter tones and to evoke a "warning" signal.[114] According to Soejima, blue was the "color of adolescence", and yellow was the "color of happiness".[69] For Persona 5, the color chosen was red, to convey a harsh feeling in contrast to the previous Persona titles and tie in with the game's story themes. Its art style was described as a natural evolution from where Persona 4 left off.[92][117]


        The music of the Persona series has been handled by multiple composers. The one most associated with the series is Shoji Meguro, who began working on Persona shortly before he officially joined Atlus. His very first composition for the game was "Aria of the Soul", the theme for the velvet room and a recurring tune within the series.[118][119][120] During his initial work on the series, Meguro felt restricted by the limited storage space of the PlayStation's disc system, and so when he began composing for Persona 3, which allowed for sound streaming due to increased hardware capacity, he was able to fully express his musical style. His main worry for his music in Persona 3 and 4 was the singers' pronunciation of the English lyrics.[69] He was unable to work on the Persona 2 titles as he was tied up with other projects, including Maken X.[121] The music for Innocent Sin and Eternal Punishment was handled by Toshiko Tasaki, Kenichi Tsuchiya, and Masaki Kurokawa. Tsuchiya had originally done minor work on Persona, and found composing for the titles a strenuous experience.[122][123][124] Meguro returned to work on the series in Persona 5. For this game, Meguro used its themes for inspiration, and used elements of acid jazz to achieve the right mood.[125] Meguro also wrote the theme song for Persona Q; the rest of the soundtrack was handled by Atsushi Kitajoh and Toshiki Konishi.[126]


        The series consists of ten games (main titles and spin-offs), not counting re-releases and mobile titles.[1] Persona was the first role-playing entry in the Megami Tensei franchise to be released in the West, as previous entries had been considered ineligible due to possibly controversial content. As examples of this content were in a milder form for Persona, the restrictions did not apply.[127][128] According to Atlus, Persona and its sequel were to test player reactions to the Megami Tensei series in the West.[129] The greater majority of Persona titles were either first released on or exclusive to PlayStation platforms. This trend was broken with the release of Persona Q for the 3DS in 2014.[130] All the Persona titles have been published by Atlus in Japan and North America.[129] An exception in Japan was the Windows port of Persona, which was published by ASCII Corporation.[3] After 2016, due to Atlus USA's merger with Sega of America, Sega took over North American publishing duties, although the Atlus brand remained intact.[131]

        Due to the company not having a European branch, Atlus has generally given publishing duties to other third-party publishers with branches in Europe. This frequently results in a gap between North American and European release dates ranging from a few months to a year or more.[42][132][133] For Persona 3, Atlus gave publishing duties to Koei.[21] For Persona 4, European publishing was handled by Square Enix.[28] Persona 4 Arena was originally published in Europe by Zen United after a long delay, but the digital rights were eventually returned to Atlus, resulting in the title being removed from PSN.[132] Atlus ended up re-publishing the digital PlayStation version in Europe.[134] They had previously digitally published the PSP port of Persona in Europe and Australia.[6] Arena Ultimax was published in Europe by Sega, who had recently purchased Atlus' parent company. It was speculated that this could lead to a new trend that would shorten the release gap between North America and Europe.[42] A regular publishing partner was Ghostlight, whose relations with Atlus went back to the European release of Nocturne.[135][136] A more recent partner was NIS America, which published Persona 4 Golden, Persona Q, and Dancing All Night.[46][137][138] Atlus' partnership with NIS America ended in 2016, with NIS America citing difficulties with the company since its acquisition by Sega as reasons for the split. As part of their statement, NIS America said that Atlus had become "very picky" about European partners, selecting those which could offer the highest minimal sales guarantee on their products.[139]


        The localizations for the Persona series are generally handled by translator Yu Namba of Atlus USA, who also handles localization for multiple other Megami Tensei games.[76][140] Another prominent staff member was Nich Maragos, who worked with Namba on multiple Persona games until moving to Nintendo of America prior to 2015.[140][141] The localization of Persona was handled by a small team, which put a lot of pressure on them as they needed to adjust the game for Western audiences: the changes implemented included altering names, changing the appearance of characters, and removing numerous cultural references. An entire alternate main quest was also removed.[127][140][142] After Persona, it was decided that future Persona games should be as faithful as possible to their original releases.[140] Namba's first localization project for the series was Eternal Punishment.[143] For the release of Innocent Sin, there was a debate over whether to release it, as it contained potentially controversial content including allusions to Nazism.[140] In the end, due to staff and resource shortages, Innocent Sin was passed over for localization in favor of its sequel Eternal Punishment.[127] Later, when the company developed the PSP ports, the team released the ports of Persona and Innocent Sin overseas so fans attracted by Persona 3 and 4 would be able to easily catch up with the rest of the series. The localization for Persona was completely redone, reverting and restoring all the previously altered or cut content.[127][142][144] The port of Eternal Punishment was not localized due to "unusual circumstances", so the company released the original version on PSN instead.[18]

        For the localizations of Persona 3 and 4, the team incorporated as much of the original content as possible, such as using Japanese honorifics and keeping the game's currency as yen rather than changing it. As a general rule, they incorporate cultural elements from the original versions unless they would not be understood by the player, such as with certain jokes.[76][76] Nevertheless, some changes had to be made. In one instance, the character Mitsuru Kirijo was originally an English speaker, but her second language for the localized version was changed to French due to her cultured appearance. School tests also needed to be changed due to similar language-based issues.[140] The Social Links were originally called "Community",[Jp. 12] but this was changed as the word "Community" had a very specific meaning in English. The new name was inspired by the way the character Igor made reference to the concept using words such as "society" and "bonds".[145] Some in-game Easter egg references were also changed: in Persona 3 references to Shin Megami Tensei by a character in an in-game MMORPG were changed to reference earlier Persona games, while mentions of a fictional detective in Persona 4 were altered to reference the Kuzunoha family from Eternal Punishment and the Devil Summoner series.[145] Character names have also needed adjustment, such as the stage name of Persona 4 character Rise Kujikawa, and the way characters referred to each other was adjusted to appeal more to a western audience.[145][146] Persona 5 is planned to be localized in this fashion.[143]

        The titles of games have also been altered. The banner title for Persona was changed from Megami Ibunroku to Revelations, principally because the team thought the latter title sounded "cool". The Revelations title was removed for Innocent Sin and Eternal Punishment.[127] After the successful release of Nocturne, the "Shin Megami Tensei" moniker was added to the series title to help with Western marketing.[127] This has not been the case for some titles: Persona 4 Arena's original title, Persona 4: The Ultimate in Mayonaka Arena, was shortened as it sounded awkward, and the "Shin Megami Tensei" moniker was dropped as it would have made the title too long. The same change was made for Persona 4 Golden, with the team also dropping the "The" present in the Japanese title as it would have looked and sounded odd in Western territories.[145]


        Aggregate review scores
        Game Metacritic
        Revelations: Persona 78/100 (PS)[147]
        78/100 (PSP)[148]
        Persona 2: Innocent Sin 75/100 (PSP)[149]
        Persona 2: Eternal Punishment 83/100 (PS)[150]
        Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 3 86/100 (P3)[151]
        89/100 (FES)[152]
        89/100 (Portable)[153]
        Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 4 90/100 (P4)[154]
        93/100 (Golden)[155]
        Persona 5 N/A

        Since the release of Persona in 1996, the series has sold 6.2 million units worldwide by the end of the 2014/2015 fiscal year, forming a large part of the total sales of the Megami Tensei franchise.[156] The first Persona was referred to at the time as a sleeper hit, and the success of it and Eternal Punishment helped establish both Atlus and Megami Tensei in North America. In Europe, the series did not become established prior to the release of Persona 3 and 4, both of which were highly successful in the region.[127][130][157] According to Atlus CEO Naoto Hiraoka, the main turning point for the franchise was the release of Persona 3, which was a commercial success and brought the series to the attention of the mainstream gaming community. Persona 4 received an even better reception. The Persona series' success has allowed Atlus to build a strong player base in the West, contributing to the success of other titles such as Catherine.[130][lower-alpha 3]

        The Persona series has been referred to as the most popular spin-off from the Megami Tensei franchise, gaining notoriety and success in its own right.[70][78][158] According to io9's James Whitbrook, the series has become notable due to its balance of normal life and fantastic elements, commenting that "that's much less common [in the West], and the way the series portrays urban fantasy through that lens is what makes it so different, especially from what you would normally expect from Japanese RPGs".[78] Nintendo Power, in an article concerning the Megami Tensei series, cited the Persona series' "modern-day horror stories" and "teams of Japanese high-school kids" as the perfect example of the franchise.[159] Persona was mentioned in 1999 by GameSpot's Andrew Vestal as a game that deserved attention despite not aging well, saying "Examining Persona reveals three of the traits that make the series so popular - and unique - amongst RPG fans: demonology, negotiation, and psychology".[160] The game has been named as a cult classic.[127] Persona 3 was named by RPGamer as the greatest RPG of the past decade in 2009, and RPGFan listed Persona 3 and 4 in second and fourth place respectively in their similar 2011 list.[161][162] Persona 3 was listed by Gamasutra as one of the 20 essential RPGs for players of the genre.[163] Persona 4 was also listed by Famitsu as one of the greatest games of all time in a 2010 list.[164]

        As well as gaining critical acclaim, the series has been the subject of controversy over its content. This controversy began with the localized banner title of the original Persona, which raised concerns due to its religious implications.[127] Kurt Katala, writing for in 2006 about the controversial content of the Megami Tensei franchise as a whole, mentioned Innocent Sin's references to homosexuality, schoolyard violence, and Nazism, considering them possible reasons why the title was not originally released in the West.[165] In's 2007 game awards, which ran in the March 2008 issue of Electronic Gaming Monthly, Persona 3 was given the "Most controversial game that created no controversy" award: the writers said "Rockstar's Hot Coffee sex scandal and Bully's boy-on-boy kissing's got nothing on this PS2 role-player's suicide-initiated battles or subplot involving student-teacher dating".[166] Persona 4 has in turn been examined by multiple sites over its portrayal of character sexuality and gender identity.[167][168][169]

        Related media

        The first anime adaptation of the Persona series, a television series titled Persona: Trinity Soul, aired in 2008. It was animated by A-1 Pictures, directed by Jun Matsumoto, written by a team that included Yasuyuki Muto, Shogo Yasukawa, and Shinsuke Onishi, and composed for by Taku Iwasaki. Its characters were designed by Soejima and Yuriko Ishii, while Persona designs were done by Nobuhiko Genma.[170][171] It was distributed internationally by NIS America.[172] Trinity Soul takes place in an alternate setting ten years after Persona 3, making it a non-canon entry in the franchise.[171][173] An anime adaptation of the original Persona 4, Persona 4: The Animation, was aired in 2011. The 25-episode series was produced by AIC ASTA and directed by Seiji Kishi.[174][175] In 2014, a series based on Persona 4 Golden, titled Persona 4: The Golden Animation, was produced by A-1 Pictures. This series, which retains the cast of the original adaptation, dramatizes the new material included in Persona 4 Golden, focusing on the protagonist's encounters with new character Marie.[176][177] A standalone prequel anime created by A-1 Pictures, Persona 5 The Animation: The Day Breakers, is set for release in September 2016 prior to the game's release.[178]

        The original Persona 4 anime series was made into a condensed film adaptation titled Persona 4: The Animation - The Factor of Hope; it was released in Japanese cinemas in 2012.[179] Persona 3 has also been adapted into a series of anime films produced by AIC ASTA and featuring staff from Persona 4: The Animation, released in cinemas in Japan and licensed for release overseas by Aniplex.[180][181] The four films are titled #1 Spring of Birth, #2 Midsummer Knight's Dream, #3 Falling Down, and #4 Winter of Rebirth. They were released from 2013 through to 2016.[182][183][184][185] For both Persona 4: The Animation and the Persona 3 film series, one of the main concerns was the portrayal of the lead characters, which were originally dictated by player actions.[186][187]

        Persona was adapted into an eight-issue manga series titled Megami Ibunroku Persona, originally serialized in 1996 and later reissued in 2009.[188] A second spin-off manga, Persona: Tsumi to Batsu,[Jp. 13] was released to tie in with the release of the Persona 2 games. Set within the same setting of the Persona 2 games, it follows a separate story. In its 2011 reissue, new material was added that connected the manga to the events of Innocent Sin.[189] Persona 3 and Persona 4 have both received manga adaptations, serialized in Dengeki Maoh.[190][191][192] Another manga based on Persona Q was also serialized: two separate manga storylines, based on the two storylines featured in the game, were written and dubbed Side:P3 and Side:P4.[192][193] Multiple novels based on Persona 3 and 4 have also been released.[170][194][195]

        Three stage plays based on Persona 3 have been produced under the banner Persona 3 the Weird Masquerade. They received limited runs and featured separate performances for the male and female versions of the game's protagonists. The three plays are titled Ao no Kakusei, Gunjō no Meikyū, and Sōen Kesshō.[196] Persona 4 was also adapted into two stage plays, both produced by Marvelous AQL and receiving limited runs in 2012: Visualive and Visualive the Evolution.[197][198] A stage play based on Persona 4 Arena was likewise given a limited run in December 2014,[199] and one based on Persona 4 Arena Ultimax is planned to run in July 2016.[200]

        Atlus has created or hosted media dedicated to the Persona series. A dedicated magazine originally ran for ten issues between 2011 and 2012, and has been irregularly revived since then.[201][202] An official talk show released on the official Persona website and Niconico, Persona Stalkers Club, began in February 2014. Hosted by freelance writer Mafia Kajita and actress Tomomi Isomura, it was designed to deepen the connection between Atlus and the Persona fanbase.[203] Concerts featuring music from the Persona series have also been performed, and some have received commercial releases on home media in Japan.[204][205] Action figures and merchandise such as clothing related to Persona 3 and 4 have also been produced.[206][207][208]

        See also

        Notes and references

        1. Other third-party companies such as Ghostlight and NIS America have published titles in Europe. Sega handled North American publishing duties as of 2016.
        2. This game is generally referred to as "Persona" rather than by its full title.
        3. While primarily referring to and focusing on the European market, Hiraoka is speaking of the Persona series in general in the cited instances.
        1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Romano, Sal (2015-05-11). "Persona series sales top six million". Gematsu. Archived from the original on 2015-05-14. Retrieved 2015-05-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        2. 女神異聞録 ペルソナ (PS) (in Japanese). Famitsu. Archived from the original on 2015-01-02. Retrieved 2015-05-14. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        3. 3.0 3.1 【お知らせ】アスキー、『女神異聞録ペルソナ』をWindowsに移植! しかも、おまけつき! (in Japanese). ASCII Corporation. 1999-02-05. Archived from the original on 2015-05-14. Retrieved 2015-05-14. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        4. Gantayat, Anoop (2009-02-06). "Persona remake set for PSP". Archived from the original on 2012-12-24. Retrieved 2015-05-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        5. Yip, Spencer (2009-06-12). "The E3 2009 Shin Megami Tensei Interview Part 1". Siliconera. Archived from the original on 2014-10-14. Retrieved 2015-05-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        6. 6.0 6.1 Lada, Jenni (2010-08-12). "Atlus releases Shin Megami Tensei: Persona in Europe and Australia". Technology Tell. Archived from the original on 2015-06-06. Retrieved 2015-06-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 ペルソナ倶楽部P3 (in Japanese). Enterbrain. 2006-11-30. pp. 4–11. ISBN 978-4-7577-3095-3. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        8. Gantayat, Anoop (2010-11-02). "Atlus Putting More Money Into Persona 2 Remake". Archived from the original on 2012-12-25. Retrieved 2015-05-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        9. Gantayat, Anoop (2010-10-29). "First Look: Persona 2 Innocent Sin". Archived from the original on 2012-12-25. Retrieved 2015-05-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        10. Gantayat, Anoop (2011-03-24). "One More Persona 2 Innocent Sin Quest Example". Archived from the original on 2012-12-25. Retrieved 2015-05-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        11. Gantayat, Anoop (2011-04-13). "Persona 2 PSP Hits Tomorrow!". Archived from the original on 2012-12-25. Retrieved 2015-06-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        12. Yip, Spencer (2011-09-02). "The Rumors Are True, Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 2: Innocent Sin Coming Sept. 20". Siliconera. Archived from the original on 2013-08-27. Retrieved 2015-06-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        13. Sahdev, Ishaan (2011-09-30). "Persona 2 And Trails In The Sky, Together At Last. Wait, What?". Siliconera. Archived from the original on 2014-09-16. Retrieved 2015-06-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 "Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 2: Innocent Sin North American instruction manual" (PDF). Atlus. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-03-03. Retrieved 2015-05-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        15. Feena (2000-04-04). "Tokyo Game Show Report (Part 1)". RPGFan. Archived from the original on 2014-08-12. Retrieved 2015-05-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        16. Zdyrko, Dave (2000-05-11). "E3: Atlus' Secret U.S. RPG". IGN. Archived from the original on 2015-06-18. Retrieved 2015-05-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        17. 17.0 17.1 Romano, Sal (2012-02-28). "Persona 2: Eternal Punishment announced for PSP". Gematsu. Archived from the original on 2013-10-14. Retrieved 2015-05-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        18. 18.0 18.1 Maragos, Nich (2013-02-25). "Persona 2: Eternal Punishment Hits PSN Tomorrow". PlayStation Blog. Archived from the original on 2015-05-02. Retrieved 2013-11-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        19. "ペルソナ2 罰". Persona 2: Eternal Punishment Japanese Website. Archived from the original on 2001-11-18. Retrieved 2015-09-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        20. "Sony PS2 Japanese Ranking" (in Japanese). Japan-GameCharts. 2008-11-02. Archived from the original on 2008-12-30. Retrieved 2012-02-10. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        21. 21.0 21.1 Purchese, Robert (2008-01-29). "Koei to bring Persona 3 to Europe". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on 2011-08-29. Retrieved 2015-05-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        22. Moriarty, Colin (2012-04-06). "Persona 3 Fes coming to PlayStation Network". IGN. Archived from the original on 2013-06-29. Retrieved 2015-06-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        23. Gifford, Kevin (2009-08-18). "All About Persona 3's PSP Port". Archived from the original on 2012-08-01. Retrieved 2009-08-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 McNeice, Kiera (2011-09-01). "Persona Mania: Developer Reveals New Details". IGN. Archived from the original on 2015-06-18. Retrieved 2011-12-04.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        25. Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 3 FES North American instruction manual. Atlus U.S.A, Inc. 2008. pp. 04–05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        26. ペルソナ4 (PS2) (in Japanese). Famitsu. Archived from the original on 2014-06-27. Retrieved 2015-05-06. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        27. Fitch, Andrew (2008-07-05). "Anime Expo: Persona 4 Release Date Announced". Archived from the original on 2013-09-05. Retrieved 2015-05-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        28. 28.0 28.1 Purchese, Robert (2009-01-13). "Persona 4 dated for early March". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on 2013-03-13. Retrieved 2015-05-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 29.5 29.6 29.7 Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 4 North American instruction manual. Atlus U.S.A, Inc. 2008. pp. 5–28 (5–7, 10–11, 14–15, 19, 23, 25, 28). SLUS-21782B.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        30. Sato (2015-09-17). "Persona 5 Director Shares A Message About The Game's Development And Delay". Siliconera. Archived from the original on 2015-09-17. Retrieved 2015-09-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        31. James, Thomas (2015-02-05). "Persona 5 director discusses characters, themes, and development". Gematsu. Archived from the original on 2015-09-06. Retrieved 2015-02-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        32. Sato (2015-09-20). "Persona 5's Fifth Party Member Introduced As Yusuke Kitagawa". Siliconera. Archived from the original on 2015-09-20. Retrieved 2015-09-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        33. 「ペルソナ3」の無料ミニオンラインゲーム「ザ・ナイト・ビフォア」がバージョンアップ (in Japanese). ITmedia. 2006-06-15. Archived from the original on 2015-06-01. Retrieved 2015-06-08. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        34. アトラス,ブラウザベースの無料オンラインRPG「ペルソナ アインソフ」公開. 2008-02-27. Archived from the original on 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-11-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        35. [アトラスネット] アトラスネットリニューアル/「ペルソナアインソフ」サービス終了のお知らせ. Atlus. 2010-06-09. Archived from the original on 2012-12-29. Retrieved 2015-11-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        36. Yip, Spencer (2012-01-27). "Persona 4: The Ultimate In Mayonaka Arena Arrives In Arcades This March". Siliconera. Archived from the original on 2013-10-20. Retrieved 2012-01-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        37. Gantayat, Anoop (2012-04-17). "Persona 4 Arena Home Release Date Set". Archived from the original on 2015-01-11. Retrieved 2012-04-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        38. "Summon the fighter within: Persona 4 Arena (360, PS3) coming to N.America this summer". Atlus. 2012-02-21. Archived from the original on 2013-11-11. Retrieved 2012-02-22.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        39. MacGregor, Kyle (2014-05-22). "Sony removes Persona 4 Arena from European PSN". Destructoid. Archived from the original on 2015-01-02. Retrieved 2014-07-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        40. MacGregor, Kyle (2013-11-29). "Persona 4 Arena sequel strikes Japanese arcades". Destructoid. Archived from the original on 2014-06-15. Retrieved 2015-06-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        41. Sahdev, Ishaan (2014-04-23). "Persona 4 Arena Ultimax Will Hit Japan On August 28th". Siliconera. Archived from the original on 2015-01-02. Retrieved 2015-06-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        42. 42.0 42.1 42.2 MacGregor, Kyle (2014-09-19). "Sega to publish Persona 4 Ultimax in Europe". Destructoid. Archived from the original on 2014-11-27. Retrieved 2015-06-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        43. Yip, Spencer (2014-06-20). "Persona Q: Shadow Of The Labyrinth's Story Is Canon". Siliconera. Archived from the original on 2014-12-05. Retrieved 2015-01-09.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        44. Romano, Sal (2013-12-02). "Persona 4: Dancing All Night story, characters detailed". Gematsu. Archived from the original on 2015-01-09. Retrieved 2014-02-25.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        45. Romano, Sal (2014-09-20). "Persona 4: Dancing All Night delayed to 2015". Gematsu. Archived from the original on 2015-04-12. Retrieved 2014-09-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        46. 46.0 46.1 Romano, Sal (2015-06-29). "Persona 4: Dancing All Night coming to Europe this fall". Gematsu. Archived from the original on 2015-06-29. Retrieved 2015-06-29.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        47. 「女神異聞録ペルソナ 異空の塔編」のご案内 (PDF) (in Japanese). Bbmf. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2015-06-02. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        48. EZweb用アプリ『ペルソナ2罪ロストメモリーズ』明日より配信開始 (in Japanese). Dengeki Online. 2007-12-26. Archived from the original on 2015-05-26. Retrieved 2015-05-26. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        49. EZアプリ版ペルソナ2第二弾,「ペルソナ2 罰 INFINITY MASK」登場 (in Japanese). 2009-02-10. Archived from the original on 2010-03-13. Retrieved 2015-05-26. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        50. 『ペルソナ3/フェス』の新作パズルゲーム2本が配信開始 (in Japanese). 2007-05-14. Archived from the original on 2013-06-08. Retrieved 2015-06-08. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        51. 新たな迷宮「オネイロス」出現!『ペルソナ3エム』新登場 (in Japanese). 2007-12-10. Archived from the original on 2013-06-07. Retrieved 2015-06-08. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        52. 『ペルソナ3ソーシャル』のスマートフォン版が配信開始 (in Japanese). Famitsu. 2011-06-29. Archived from the original on 2013-06-27. Retrieved 2015-06-08. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        53. 物語序盤は無料!EZweb『アイギス THE FIRST MISSION』登場 (in Japanese). 2008-05-29. Archived from the original on 2013-06-07. Retrieved 2015-06-08. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        54. S!アプリ『イラストパズル ペルソナ3』配信開始 (in Japanese). Inside Games. 2008-03-03. Archived from the original on 2010-01-06. Retrieved 2015-06-08. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        55. PS2『ペルソナ3』を題材にしたブロック崩しのiアプリが登場 (in Japanese). Dengeki Online. 2008-04-30. Archived from the original on 2015-03-17. Retrieved 2015-06-08. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        56. Bbmf、iモード用サイト「メガテンオンライン」を開設第1弾アプリは「ペルソナ モバイル オンライン」 (in Japanese). Game Impress Watch. 2009-03-13. Archived from the original on 2009-03-17. Retrieved 2015-06-08. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        57. Gantayat, Anoop (2012-08-31). "Persona 4 Social Game Announced For GREE". Archived from the original on 2014-04-09. Retrieved 2015-06-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        58. 58.0 58.1 58.2 James, Thomas (2015-02-09). "Persona 5 protagonist, first Persona, and more detailed in Famitsu". Gematsu. Archived from the original on 2015-04-06. Retrieved 2015-02-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        59. 59.0 59.1 59.2 59.3 59.4 Glenn, Wilson (2009). "Shin Megami Tensei: Persona - Staff Review". RPGamer. Archived from the original on 2013-03-27. Retrieved 2009-11-25.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        60. Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 3 FES North American instruction manual. Atlus U.S.A, Inc. 2008. pp. 20–21.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        61. 61.0 61.1 61.2 Den Ouden, Adriaan. "Persona 4 - Staff Review". RPGamer. Archived from the original on 2014-11-16. Retrieved 2015-05-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        62. 62.0 62.1 VanOrd, Kevin (2007-07-24). "Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 3 Review". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2014-12-01. Retrieved 2007-12-16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        63. 63.0 63.1 63.2 "Shin Megami Tensei: Persona North American instruction manual" (PDF). Atlus. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2014-11-07. Retrieved 2015-06-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        64. 64.0 64.1 64.2 Ascraft, Brian; Nakamura, Toshi (2015-02-05). "Analyzing the Persona 5 Trailer". Kotaku. Archived from the original on 2015-04-27. Retrieved 2015-02-06. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        65. Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 3 FES North American instruction manual. Atlus U.S.A, Inc. 2008. pp. 31–32.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        66. 66.0 66.1 66.2 Kemps, Heidi (2012-11-21). "Persona 4 Golden Review". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2014-11-29. Retrieved 2015-06-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        67. 67.0 67.1 Gerstmann, Jeff. "Persona 2: Eternal Punishment Review". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2014-03-01. Retrieved 2015-05-25.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        68. Revelations: Persona North American instruction manual. Atlus U.S.A., Inc. 1996. p. 15.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        69. 69.0 69.1 69.2 69.3 Patterson, Eric L.; Kohama, Dai (2008). "The horrors of reality TV ... Persona 4". Play. Fusion Publishing (December 2008). <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Scans
        70. 70.0 70.1 70.2 70.3 70.4 70.5 Hilliard, Kyle (2012-08-04). "What Is Shin Megami Tensei: Persona?". Game Informer. Archived from the original on 2015-05-05. Retrieved 2015-05-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        71. 71.0 71.1 71.2 71.3 Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 4 The Official Strategy Guide. DoubleJump Publishing. 2008-12-01. pp. 302–303. ISBN 978-0-9798848-6-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        72. Hou, Laura (2010-09-22). "Behind The Design Of Persona 4". Siliconera. Archived from the original on 2014-09-19. Retrieved 2015-06-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        73. Romano, Sal (2016-05-10). "Persona 5 introduces three new party members [Update]". Gematsu. Archived from the original on 2016-05-11. Retrieved 2016-05-21.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        74. Perez, Daniel (2015-09-17). "Persona 5 release date pushed back to summer 2016". Shacknews. Archived from the original on 2015-09-28. Retrieved 2015-09-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        75. 75.0 75.1 75.2 75.3 75.4 Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 3 FES North American instruction manual. Atlus U.S.A, Inc. 2008. pp. 26–27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        76. 76.0 76.1 76.2 76.3 Fitch, Andrew (2008-07-08). "Anime Expo: Atlus Talks Persona 4, Trauma Center's Future". Archived from the original on 2013-09-05. Retrieved 2009-08-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        77. 77.0 77.1 77.2 Fitch, Andrew. "Persona 4 Afterthoughts". Archived from the original on 2015-05-20. Retrieved 2015-05-22.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        78. 78.0 78.1 78.2 78.3 Whitbrook, James (2015-02-19). "What You Need To Know About The Great Urban Fantasy Series Persona". io9. Archived from the original on 2015-05-12. Retrieved 2015-06-03.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        79. Lumb, Jonathan (2006-03-08). "Atlus Announces Persona 3". Archived from the original on 2015-05-22. Retrieved 2015-05-22.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        80. 80.0 80.1 80.2 ペルソナワールドガイダンス (in Japanese). SoftBank Creative. 2001-04-06. ISBN 978-4-7973-1498-4. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        81. Yip, Spencer (2011-11-23). "Ah, That's Why Mitsuru And Akihiko Are In Persona 4: The Ultimate In Mayonaka Arena". Siliconera. Archived from the original on 2013-12-31. Retrieved 2015-06-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        82. Romano, Sal (2013-12-02). "Persona 4: Dancing All Night story, characters detailed". Gematsu. Archived from the original on 2015-01-09. Retrieved 2015-06-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        83. 『ペルソナQ』をストーリー中心にレビュー。初めて遊ぶ人も大事にした、丁寧なキャラ描写を高評価 (in Japanese). Dengeki Online. 2014-05-01. Archived from the original on 2015-03-17. Retrieved 2015-06-27. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        84. 84.0 84.1 Wallace, Kimberley (2015-12-09). "New Persona 5 Details You Won't Find Anywhere Else". Game Informer. Archived from the original on 2015-12-13. Retrieved 2015-12-15.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        85. Satomi, Tadashi (2012-05-11). 里見さんからコメントが到着! (in Japanese). Persona 2 Atlus Blog. Archived from the original on 2014-06-03. Retrieved 2015-05-28. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        86. ペルソナ倶楽部P3 (in Japanese). Enterbrain. 2006-11-30. pp. 174–179. ISBN 978-4-7577-3095-3. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        87. Soejima, Shigenori (2009-10-23). 『ペルソナ3ポータブル』クリエーター's BLOG 【第7回】副島 成記氏 (in Japanese). Famitsu. Archived from the original on 2013-06-29. Retrieved 2015-06-03. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        88. 88.0 88.1 88.2 88.3 88.4 88.5 88.6 Megami Ibunroku Persona Digital Collection: Persona World (in Japanese). ASCII Media Works. 1993. pp. 6–11. ISBN 978-4-7572-0014-2. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        89. "Atlus Express 4" (in Japanese). Atlus. 2007. Archived from the original on 2014-04-07. Retrieved 2015-05-14. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        90. Loe, Cassy (February 2010). "The Demon Whisperer". Nintendo Power. Future US (251): 70–72.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        91. 91.0 91.1 91.2 Patterson, Eric (2009-03-05). "Interview - Katsura Hashino". Play Magazine. Archived from the original on 2012-03-28. Retrieved 2009-08-22.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        92. 92.0 92.1 James, Thomas (2015-03-06). "Japanese Persona Magazine interviews Atlus staff on Persona 5, Dancing All Night [Update]". Gematsu. Archived from the original on 2015-03-17. Retrieved 2015-03-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        93. Prahl, Kyle (2014-02-04). "Persona 5 details: If you've played P3 and P4, you 'should feel right at home'". PlayStation Universe. Archived from the original on 2015-05-04. Retrieved 2014-09-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        94. 94.0 94.1 94.2 ペルソナ2罪 公式ガイドブック 完全版 (in Japanese). Atlus. 1999. ISBN 978-4-7577-0081-9. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        95. 95.0 95.1 "Interview with Cozy Okada and Kazuma Kaneko" Persona 2: Eternal Punishment (CD-Rom). Atlus. 2000-12-22.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        96. 女神転生10年史: DDS 10th Anniversary (in Japanese) (2 ed.). Atlus. 2000-06-28. p. 72. ISBN 4-7577-0120-9. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        97. 首都崩壊するまで7日新たな女神異聞録がここから紡ぎ出される. Famitsu Weekly (in Japanese). Enterbrain (1040): 23. 2008-11-07. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        98. ペルソナ2罰 公式ガイドブック完全版 (in Japanese). Enterbrain. 2000. ISBN 978-4-7577-0219-6. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        99. Hashino, Katsura. 橋野 桂 [プロデューサー&ゲームディレクター] / スタッフ Voice (in Japanese). Atlus. Archived from the original on 2015-05-30. Retrieved 2015-05-30. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        100. ヒューマンアカデミーのイベントで『ペルソナ3』開発者がスタッフにキレられないコツを伝授!? (in Japanese). Famitsu. 2006-07-30. Archived from the original on 2008-09-30. Retrieved 2015-05-30. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        101. Romano, Sal (2013-08-13). "A message from Persona Team's Katsura Hashino". Gematsu. Archived from the original on 2015-04-21. Retrieved 2015-05-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        102. Ashcraft, Brian (2010-03-24). "Persona Developers Making New ... Persona". Kotaku. Archived from the original on 2014-11-28. Retrieved 2014-09-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        103. Romano, Sal (2011-08-31). "Persona 5 uses new internal engine". Gematsu. Archived from the original on 2015-04-21. Retrieved 2014-09-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        104. 『ペルソナQ』がいっそう味わい深くなる開発者インタビュー【週刊ファミ通より全文掲載】. Famitsu. 2014-06-21. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-03-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        105. Webster, Andrew (2015-09-29). "How one of the PlayStation 2's best RPGs turned into a dancing game". The Verge. Archived from the original on 2016-01-31. Retrieved 2016-03-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        106. Hashino, Katsura (2012-07-05). Persona 3: Official Design Works. Udon Entertainment. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-926778-43-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        107. 開発スタッフ募集 / ペルソナチーム. Atlus. Archived from the original on 2015-06-09. Retrieved 2015-11-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        108. 『P5』&『P4D』情報満載の『ペルソナマガジン』最新号が本日発売! 付録は『P4D』特製クリアファイル!!. Dengeki Online. 2015-02-25. Archived from the original on 2015-04-30. Retrieved 2015-11-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        109. Martin, Michael (2014-09-21). "TGS 2014: Atlus Takes Over Lead Development On Persona 4: Dancing All Night". IGN. Archived from the original on 2015-04-11. Retrieved 2015-02-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        110. 110.0 110.1 "Shigenori Soejima Interview". Shigenori Soejima Art Works 2004–2010. Udon Entertainment. 2010-07-01. pp. 145–153. ISBN 978-1-926778-32-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        111. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
        112. 112.0 112.1 Maragos, Nich (2004-09-20). "In Character: Kazuma Kaneko". Archived from the original on 2015-04-15. Retrieved 2015-04-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        113. 113.0 113.1 Kemps, Heidi (August 2008). "Game King: An Interview with Kazuma Kaneko". Otaku USA. Sovereign Media (Vol. 2, Issue 1): 120–123.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        114. 114.0 114.1 114.2 114.3 Wallace, Kimberley (2014-07-18). "A Glimpse Into The Mind of Persona's Art Director". Game Informer. Archived from the original on 2014-11-10. Retrieved 2015-06-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        115. World/インタビュー 副島成記さん (in Japanese). PlayStation Japan. 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-07-24. Retrieved 2015-06-06. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        116. Parish, Jeremy (2014-10-17). "How You Helped Design Persona Q". USGamer. Archived from the original on 2015-04-16. Retrieved 2015-06-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        117. Romano, Sal (2011-02-05). "Persona 5 is a game about attaining freedom". Gematsu. Archived from the original on 2015-03-19. Retrieved 2014-09-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        118. "Shoji Meguro interview". RocketBaby. Archived from the original on 2002-08-26. Retrieved December 21, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        119. Meguro, Shoji. "Persona 3 Original Soundtrack liner notes." (in Japanese) Aniplex. 2007-07-19 SVWC-7380~1 Scans Retrieved on 2015-05-17.
        120. Jeriaska (2009-05-11). "Sound Current: 'Reaching Out to the Truth - Vocal Tracks in Persona 4'". GameSetWatch. Archived from the original on 2014-08-20. Retrieved 2009-05-12.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        121. ペルソナ公式パーフェクトガイド (in Japanese). Enterbrain. 2009-05-13. p. 355. ISBN 978-4-7577-4915-3. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        122. 【ほぼ毎日特集#60】アトラス最新作の情報も!? 『真・女神転生』『ペルソナ』シリーズを大解剖「教えて!土屋憲一先生」(前編・ミゲル) (in Japanese). Dengeki Online. 2013-11-14. Archived from the original on 2015-03-17. Retrieved 2015-05-14. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        123. "Persona 2 Innocent Sin Original Soundtrack". Square Enix Music Online. Archived from the original on 2012-04-10. Retrieved 2015-05-25.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        124. "Persona 2 Eternal Punishment Original Soundtrack". Square Enix Music Online. Archived from the original on 2011-09-15. Retrieved 2015-05-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        125. Sato (2015-02-09). "Persona 5's Soundtrack Comes From Some Acid Jazz Influences". Siliconera. Archived from the original on 2015-02-10. Retrieved 2015-02-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        126. Greening, Chris (2014-05-22). "Music and soundtrack details for Persona Q". Video Game Music Online. Archived from the original on 2014-05-29. Retrieved 2014-05-29.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        127. 127.0 127.1 127.2 127.3 127.4 127.5 127.6 127.7 127.8 Wallace, Kimberley (2013-09-17). "Perfecting Persona: How Atlus USA Bloomed". Game Informer. Archived from the original on 2015-05-05. Retrieved 2015-05-03.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        128. 東京大学"五月祭"で岡田耕始氏が『女神転生』誕生秘話を語った (in Japanese). Famitsu. 2008-05-25. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-05-04. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        129. 129.0 129.1 "Atlus Corporate". Atlus. Archived from the original on 2015-03-15. Retrieved 2015-05-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        130. 130.0 130.1 130.2 Jarvis, Matthew (2014-11-14). "Persona of interest: Atlus CEO Naoto Hiraoka's first European interview". Market for Home Computing and Video Games. Archived from the original on 2015-05-07. Retrieved 2015-06-04.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        131. Futter, Mike (2016-03-31). "Sega Is Now Publishing Atlus U.S.A. Games, But Don't Worry". Game Informer. Archived from the original on 2016-04-13. Retrieved 2016-04-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        132. 132.0 132.1 Kubba, Sinan (2014-06-03). "Persona 4 Arena digital rights in Europe back with Atlus". Engadget. Archived from the original on 2015-06-06. Retrieved 2015-06-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        133. Hussain, Tamoor (2015-07-01). "Persona 4 Dancing All Night Coming to Europe Without Delay". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2015-08-28. Retrieved 2016-03-16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        134. "Persona 4 Arena". PlayStation. Archived from the original on 2015-06-05. Retrieved 2015-06-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        135. Yip, Spencer (2011-01-11). "Ghostlight Bringing Persona 3 Portable Plus A Collector's Edition To Europe". Siliconera. Archived from the original on 2014-12-29. Retrieved 2015-06-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        136. Yin-Poole, Wesley (2011-08-09). "Persona 2: Innocent Sin confirmed for EU". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on 2011-08-10. Retrieved 2015-05-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        137. North, Dale (2012-09-21). "TGS: NIS to bring Persona 4 Golden to Europe early 2013". Destructoid. Archived from the original on 2014-05-02. Retrieved 2015-06-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        138. Seedhouse, Alex (2014-09-29). "Persona Q: Shadow of the Labyrinth launches in Europe on November 28th". Nintendo Insider. Archived from the original on 2014-11-29. Retrieved 2015-06-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        139. Romano, Sal (2016-04-25). "NIS America will no longer publish Atlus games in Europe". Gematsu. Archived from the original on 2016-04-25. Retrieved 2016-04-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        140. 140.0 140.1 140.2 140.3 140.4 140.5 North, Dale (2008-07-07). "Anime Expo '08: Atlus' Shin Megami Tensei panel". Destructoid. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-05-25.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        141. Klepek, Patrick (2016-03-04). "The Ugly New Front In The Neverending Video Game Culture War". Kotaku. Archived from the original on 2016-03-09. Retrieved 2016-03-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        142. 142.0 142.1 Jeriaska (2009-08-13). "Interview: Atlus Talks Translating Shin Megami Tensei: Persona for PSP". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on 2013-11-14. Retrieved 2015-05-09.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        143. 143.0 143.1 Ward, Robert (2015-07-20). "Localizing Persona: An Interview With Atlus's Yu Namba". Siliconera. Archived from the original on 2015-07-20. Retrieved 2015-07-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        144. Mafia, Kajita (2009-05-14). 杉田智和さんと目黒将司氏がPSP「ペルソナ」を熱く語った? 地上デジタルラジオ番組「杉田智和のアニゲラ!ディドゥーーン」ペルソナ特集の収録模様をレポート (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2014-12-08. Retrieved 2015-05-12. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        145. 145.0 145.1 145.2 145.3 『ペルソナ4 ザ・ゴールデン』が北米でも大人気の理由・前編【翻訳担当者インタビュー】 (in Japanese). Famitsu. 2013-02-02. Archived from the original on 2014-10-24. Retrieved 2015-05-06. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        146. 『ペルソナ4 ザ・ゴールデン』が北米でも大人気の理由・後編【翻訳担当者インタビュー (in Japanese). Famitsu. 2013-02-09. Archived from the original on 2014-10-24. Retrieved 2015-06-02. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        147. "Revelations: Persona for PlayStation". Metacritic. Archived from the original on 2015-05-16. Retrieved 2015-05-16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        148. "Shin Megami Tensei: Persona for PSP". Metacritic. Archived from the original on 2015-05-16. Retrieved 2015-05-16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        149. "Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 2 - Innocent Sin for PlayStation Portable". Metacritic. Archived from the original on 2014-08-02. Retrieved 2015-05-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        150. "Persona 2: Eternal Punishment for PlayStation". Metacritic. Archived from the original on 2014-10-29. Retrieved 2015-05-25.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        151. "Metacritic: Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 3". Metacritic. Archived from the original on 2015-02-04. Retrieved 2014-05-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        152. "Metacritic: Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 3 FES". Metacritic. Archived from the original on 2015-06-04. Retrieved 2014-05-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        153. "Metacritic: Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 3 Portable". Metacritic. Archived from the original on 2015-04-25. Retrieved 2014-05-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        154. "Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 4". Metacritic. Archived from the original on 2010-02-20. Retrieved 2009-02-22.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        155. "Persona 4 Golden". Metacritic. Archived from the original on 2015-04-04. Retrieved 2014-05-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        156. Sega Sammy Holdings. "Annual Report 2014" (PDF). Sega Sammy Holdings. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2014-12-25. Retrieved 2015-05-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        157. Gerstmann, Jeff (1997-02-27). "Persona Review". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2013-11-06. Retrieved 2015-05-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        158. Lada, Jenny (2009-11-13). "Important Importables: Shin Megami Tensei". Technology Tell. Archived from the original on 2015-09-13. Retrieved 2015-09-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        159. "Preview: Shin Megami Tensei: Strange Journey". Nintendo Power. Future US (252): 30. March 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        160. Vestal, Andrew (1999). "The History of Console RPGs - Persona". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2003-10-22. Retrieved 2015-05-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        161. "Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 3". RPGamer. 2009. Archived from the original on 2014-11-10. Retrieved 2011-02-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        162. "Top 20 RPGs of the Past Decade". RPGFan. pp. 2–4. Archived from the original on 2014-10-07. Retrieved 2011-02-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        163. Kalata, Kurt (2008-03-19). "A Japanese RPG Primer: The Essential 20". Gamasutra. p. 7. Archived from the original on 2014-11-11. Retrieved 2014-03-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        164. Romano, Sal (2010-10-05). "Famitsu's 'Greatest Games of All-Time' list". Gematsu. Archived from the original on 2012-07-15. Retrieved 2015-06-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        165. Kalata, Kurt (2006-04-10). "Devil in the Details: MegaTen's Controversial History". Archived from the original on 2015-05-04. Retrieved 2015-05-04.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        166. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
        167. Xu, Samantha (2009-01-28). "Opinion: Sexuality And Homophobia In Persona 4". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on 2015-04-22. Retrieved 2014-04-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        168. Mattich, Ryan (2008-09-17). "RPGFan Reviews - Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 4". RPGFan. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2010-02-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        169. Crecente, Brian (2009-01-28). "Persona 4: Reflecting The Self". Kotaku. Archived from the original on 2014-10-24. Retrieved 2015-06-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        170. 170.0 170.1 "Persona 3 Game Adapted as Television Anime for January". Anime News Network. 2007-11-07. Archived from the original on 2015-04-12. Retrieved 2007-11-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        171. 171.0 171.1 『ペルソナ3』から10年後の世界を舞台にしたアニメ『PERSONA-trinity soul-』が制作開始! (in Japanese). Famitsu. 2007-11-07. Archived from the original on 2013-09-14. Retrieved 2007-11-15. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        172. Heath. "NIS America Goes Anime". RPGLand. Archived from the original on 2012-12-09. Retrieved 2010-02-11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        173. ペルソナ3 ポータブル 公式ファンブック (in Japanese). Atlus. 2010-02-26. p. 18. ISBN 978-4-04-726359-8. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        174. "News: Persona 4 RPG Gets TV Anime by AIC ASTA". Anime News Network. 2011-04-11. Archived from the original on 2015-04-09. Retrieved 2011-07-21.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        175. アニメ『ペルソナ4』は2011年10月より放送開始 (in Japanese). Famitsu. 2011-05-18. Archived from the original on 2015-04-10. Retrieved 2011-07-21. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        176. "Persona 4: The Golden Animation's Promo Video, Story Unveiled - News". Anime News Network. 2014-05-02. Archived from the original on 2015-03-22. Retrieved 2014-06-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        177. "Persona 4 Golden Gets TV Anime by A-1 Pictures in July". Anime News Network. 2014-05-02. Archived from the original on 2015-03-23. Retrieved 2014-05-03.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        178. 特番アニメ「PERSONA5 the Animation -THE DAY BREAKERS-」 9月オンエア決定!スタッフからのコメント掲載!. Persona Channel. 2015-05-05. Archived from the original on 2015-05-05. Retrieved 2015-05-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        179. "Persona 4 Anime Compiled Into 90-Minute Film with New Cuts - News". Anime News Network. 2012-05-27. Archived from the original on 2015-04-10. Retrieved 2014-06-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        180. AIC作品紹介 (in Japanese). Anime International Company. Archived from the original on 2014-02-08. Retrieved 2013-12-10. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        181. スタッフ/キャスト | 劇場版「ペルソナ3」 公式サイト (in Japanese). Aniplex. 2013-07-22. Archived from the original on 2015-05-13. Retrieved 2013-07-24. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        182. 第2章キービジュアル&サブタイトルを公開! (in Japanese). Aniplex. 2013-12-05. Archived from the original on December 5, 2013. Retrieved 2013-12-05. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        183. "2nd Persona 3 Film's 1st Trailer, Cast, & Staff Unveiled". Anime News Network. 2014-02-14. Archived from the original on 2015-04-29. Retrieved 2014-02-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        184. "3rd Persona 3 Film Titled 'Falling Down'". Anime News Network. 2014-07-06. Archived from the original on 2015-04-15. Retrieved 2014-07-09.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        185. Sal, Romano (2015-07-01). "Persona 3 the Movie #4 dated for January 23". Gematsu. Archived from the original on 2015-07-01. Retrieved 2015-07-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        186. Sato (2013-11-21). "Persona 3 the Movie Makers On Staying True To The Game". Siliconera. Archived from the original on 2014-11-12. Retrieved 2013-12-11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        187. 原作ゲーム「ペルソナ4」橋野 桂ディレクター、TVアニメ「ペルソナ4」岸 誠二監督 [第2回] (in Japanese). Index Corporation. Archived from the original on 2015-03-25. Retrieved 2013-12-03. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        188. "Megami Ibunroku Persona" (in Japanese). Ichijinsha. Archived from the original on 2015-06-07. Retrieved 2015-06-08. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        189. ウワサのRPG 『ペルソナ2罪』のコラボ・コミックスが登場! 愛蔵版コミックス『ペルソナ~罪と罰~新装版』(集英社)が4月13日(水)に2巻同時発売!! (in Japanese). Shueisha. 2011-04-13. Archived from the original on 2015-06-08. Retrieved 2015-06-08. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        190. "Persona 3 Game-Based 4-Panel Manga Serialized Online". Anime News Network. 2008-01-31. Archived from the original on 2015-05-19. Retrieved 2009-09-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        191. ペルソナ4 アンソロジーコミック (in Japanese). Enterbrain. 2008-10-01. Archived from the original on 2015-02-09. Retrieved 2009-10-01. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        192. 192.0 192.1 "Persona Q: Shadow of the Labyrinth 3DS Game Gets Manga Adaptation". Anime News Network. 2014-07-24. Archived from the original on 2015-05-30. Retrieved 2014-07-25.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        193. "Crunchyroll Adds Persona Q: Shadow of the Labyrinth - Side:P3 Manga". Anime News Network. 2015-02-07. Archived from the original on 2015-04-10. Retrieved 2015-06-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        194. Tolentino, Josh (2012-05-20). "Persona 4 now getting a novel series". Destructoid. Archived from the original on 2013-02-15. Retrieved 2015-06-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        195. ペルソナ4 キリノアムネジア (in Japanese). Enterbrain. Archived from the original on 2009-08-31. Retrieved 2015-06-10. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        196. "Persona 3 Game Gets 3rd Stage Play in June". Anime News Network. 2015-03-01. Archived from the original on 2015-05-20. Retrieved 2015-06-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        197. Luster, Joseph (2011-11-14). ""Persona 4" Becomes "Visualive" Stage Play". Crunchyroll. Archived from the original on 2013-02-14. Retrieved 2015-06-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        198. Yip, Spencer (2012-06-18). "Persona 4 Takes The Stage Again With Visualive Persona 4 The Evolution". Siliconera. Archived from the original on 2013-06-01. Retrieved 2015-06-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        199. 舞台『ペルソナ4 ジ・アルティメット イン マヨナカアリーナ』7月30日にDVDがリリース決定 (in Japanese). Famitsu. 2015-05-27. Archived from the original on 2015-09-12. Retrieved 2015-09-20. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        200. "Persona 4 Arena Ultimax Game Gets Stage Play Adaptation". Anime News Network. 2016-02-22. Archived from the original on 2016-02-22. Retrieved 2016-02-22.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        201. Sato (2014-05-02). "Persona Magazine To Be Published Again In June". Siliconera. Archived from the original on 2014-09-05. Retrieved 2015-09-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        202. Romano, Sal (2013-11-19). "Atlus reviving Persona Magazine next month". Gematsu. Archived from the original on 2015-04-23. Retrieved 2015-09-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        203. Richards, Brian (2014-02-21). "Atlus has a Persona talk show in the pipeline". Nintendo Everything. Archived from the original on 2014-07-15. Retrieved 2015-09-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        204. Romano, Sal (2014-11-20). "Persona Super Live 2015 concert announced". Gematsu. Archived from the original on 2015-09-06. Retrieved 2015-09-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        205. Spencer, Yip (2014-08-04). "Listen To Last Year's Persona Music Concert At Home". Siliconera. Archived from the original on 2014-09-25. Retrieved 2015-09-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        206. Plunkett, Luke (2011-05-19). "Another Day, Another Action Figure of Persona's Aegis". Kotaku. Archived from the original on 2015-06-14. Retrieved 2015-06-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        207. Ashcraft, Brian (2009-05-12). "Hey, Who Wants Another Persona 4 Figure?". Kotaku. Archived from the original on 2015-02-09. Retrieved 2009-10-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        208. Yip, Spencer (2008-08-26). "Cospa jumps on the Persona 4 licensing train". Siliconera. Archived from the original on 2015-02-09. Retrieved 2009-10-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
        1. ペルソナ3 ザ・ナイト・ビフォア Perusona Surī: Za Naito Bifoa
        2. ペルソナ アインソフ Perusona Ain Sofu
        3. 女神異聞録ペルソナ 異空の塔編 Megami Ibunroku Persona: Ikuu no Tou Hen
        4. ペルソナ2 罪 ロストメモリーズ Perusona Tsū: Tsumi Rosuto Memorīzu
        5. ペルソナ2 罰 インフィニティマスク Perusona Tsū: Batsu Infiniti Masuku
        6. ペルソナ3エム Perusona Surī Emu
        7. アイギス THE FIRST MISSION
        8. ペルソナ3ソーシャル Perusona Surī Sōsharu
        9. ペルソナ モバイル オンライン Perusona Mobairu Onrain
        10. ペルソナ4 ザ・カードバトル Perusona Fō Za Kādo Batoru
        11. 女神異聞録, lit. "Goddess' Odyssey"
        12. コミュニティ Komyuniti
        13. ペルソナ 罪と罰, lit. Persona: Sin and Punishment

        External links