Shoe-banging incident

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Khrushchev at a meeting of the UN General Assembly on 22 September, three weeks before the incident

Nikita Khrushchev's shoe-banging incident occurred during the 902nd Plenary Meeting of the United Nations General Assembly held in New York in 1960.

Some sources say Khrushchev pounded his shoe on his delegate-desk in protest at a speech by Philippine delegate Lorenzo Sumulong on 12 October.[1][2][3] Others say Khrushchev was responding to the British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan on 23[4] or 29 September.[5][6]

In 2003, American scholar William Taubman reported that he had interviewed some eyewitnesses who said that Khrushchev had brandished, but not banged, his shoe. He also reported that no photographic or video records of the shoe-banging had been found.[7] However, he stated elsewhere that he accepted that the shoe-banging had occurred.[8]There is at least one fake photograph, where a shoe was added into an existing photograph.[9]

Description of incident with Sumulong

File:Khruschev shoe fake.jpg
The often used fake image of Khrushchev waving a shoe (above), and the original photo made at the United Nations General Assembly, September 23, 1960, AP archives (below)[10][11][12][13][14]

On 12 October, head of the Filipino delegation Lorenzo Sumulong referred to "the peoples of Eastern Europe and elsewhere which have been deprived of the free exercise of their civil and political rights and which have been swallowed up, so to speak, by the Soviet Union".[15] Upon hearing this, Khrushchev quickly came to the rostrum, being recognized on a Point of Order. There he demonstratively, in a theatrical manner, brushed Sumulong aside, with an upward motion of his right arm — without physically touching him — and began a lengthy denunciation of Sumulong, branding him (among other things) as "a jerk, a stooge, and a lackey", and a "toady of American imperialism"[16] and demanded Assembly President Frederick Boland (Ireland) call Sumulong to order. Boland did caution Sumulong to "avoid wandering out into an argument which is certain to provoke further interventions", but permitted him to continue speaking and sent Khrushchev back to his seat.

Khrushchev pounded his fists on his desk in protest as Sumulong continued to speak, and, as some sources claim, at one point picked up his shoe and banged the desk with it.[17] Some other sources report a different order of events: Khrushchev first banged the shoe then went to the rostrum to protest.[18] Sumulong's speech was again interrupted. Another Point of Order was raised by the highly agitated Romanian Foreign Vice-minister Eduard Mezincescu, a member of the Eastern Bloc. Mezincescu gave his own angry denunciation of Sumulong and then turned his anger on Boland, managing to provoke, insult and ignore the Assembly President to such an extent that his microphone was eventually shut off, prompting a chorus of shouts and jeers from the Eastern Bloc delegations. The chaotic scene finally ended when Boland, crimson-faced with frustration, abruptly declared the meeting adjourned and slammed his gavel down so hard he broke it, sending the head flying.

This incident was reported at the time by a number of newspapers, including the The New York Times,[19] The Washington Post, [20] The Guardian, [21] The Times,[22] and Le Monde.[23] The New York Times featured a photo that pictured Khrushchev and Andrei Gromyko, with a shoe on Khrushchev's desk.[24]

Subsequent commentary

While Khrushchev was reported to be delighted with his performance, other members of Communist delegations to the UN were embarrassed or displeased.[25] When Khrushchev was removed as leader in 1964, he was criticized for the incident: "a shameful episode that he still presents as an act of valor".[26]

In 1961, the revolutionary philosopher Frantz Fanon commented: "And when Mr. Khrushchev brandishes his shoe at the United Nations and hammers the table with it, no colonized individual, no representative of the underdeveloped countries laughs. For what Mr. Khrushchev is showing the colonized countries who are watching, is that he, the missile-wielding muzhik is treating these wretched capitalists the way they deserve."[27]

Nikita Khrushchev mentioned the shoe-banging in his memoirs. Khrushchev wrote that he was speaking against the Franco regime in strong expressions. A representative of Spain took the floor to reply, and after his speech the delegates from Socialist countries made a lot of noise in protest. Khrushchev wrote: "Remembering reports I have read about the sessions of the State Duma in Russia, I decided to add a little more heat. I took off my shoe and pounded it on desk so that our protest would be louder."[28] The footnote to this text says that Khrushchev's recollections are mistaken. The Times reported Khrushchev launched an "angry tirade" against Franco on 1 October.[29]

Khrushchev's granddaughter Nina L. Khrushcheva writes that after years of embarrassed silence her family explained their recollection of the event. According to Nina, Khrushchev was wearing new and tight shoes, so he took them off while sitting. When he started pounding the table with his fist during his angry response his watch fell off. When he was picking it up his discarded shoes caught his eye and he took the opportunity to pick one up and pound the desk with it. She also mentions that many versions of the incident have been in circulation, with various dates and occasions.[30]

Nina's account is very similar to that of Khrushchev's long-time interpreter, Viktor Sukhodrev, who sat with Khrushchev during the event and reported his boss pounded on his delegate-desk so hard his watch stopped, which only infuriated him further and prompted the switch to the shoe.[7]

Sergei Khrushchev (Nikita's son) stated that he could not find any photo or video evidence of the incident. Both NBC and CBC ran a search in their archives but were unable to find a tape of the event.[7] However, the Italian public broadcaster RAI has footage of the incident on their website.[31]

In Sergei's opinion it would be very unlikely that Nikita Khrushchev intentionally removed his shoe. There was little space under the desk, and the Soviet leader, being somewhat overweight, couldn't reach his feet.[32]

This specific issue was addressed in 2002 by a former UN staffer, who confirmed that Khrushchev could not have spontaneously removed his shoe at his desk, but claimed he had previously lost it after a journalist stepped on it. The UN staffer then retrieved the shoe, wrapped it in a napkin and passed it back to Khrushchev, who was unable to put it back on and had to leave it on the floor next to his desk; the same staffer also confirmed she saw him later bang the shoe on the desk, thus functionally confirming the reports by Nina Khrushcheva and Viktor Sukhodrev.[7][32]

According to the German journalist Walter Heinkels, a shoe producer in Pirmasens claimed to have seen a picture of the shoe in a newspaper. He recognized the shoe as being from his production. The Federal Ministry of Economics explained that the Federal Republic had sent 30,000 pairs of shoes to the Soviet Union. Among them were 2000 pairs of good low shoes, one of them might have found its way to Khrushchev.[33]

See also


  1. Peter Carlson (2010). K Blows Top: A Cold War Comic Interlude Starring Nikita Khrushchev, America's Most Unlikely Tourist. Read How You Want. pp. 408–412.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Michele Ingrassia (December 6, 1988). "Krushchev brought chaos to UN in 1960". The Milwaukee Journal. Newsday. p. 87.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Taubman, William (2003), Khrushchev: The Man and His Era, W.W. Norton & Co., pp. 475–476, 657, ISBN 978-0-393-32484-6<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. William J. Tompson (1997). Khrushchev: A Political Life. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0312163600.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. David Phillips (2007). On This Day: Volume One. iUniverse. p. 172. ISBN 978-0595462889.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. E. Bruce Geelhoed; Anthony O. Edmonds (2003). Eisenhower, Macmillan and Allied Unity 1957-61. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0333642276.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 William Taubman (2003-07-26). "Did he bang it?: Nikita Khrushchev and the shoe". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-09-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Taubman, William (2003), Khrushchev: The Man and His Era, W.W. Norton & Co., p. 657, ISBN 978-0-393-32484-6<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Fred Bals (July 15, 2009). "K Blows Top!". Dreamtime.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Frances Romero (September 23, 2008). "Khrushchev Loses His Cool". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Using the fake photo.
  11. "Khrushchev Addressing United Nations General Assembly". Associated Press.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> The original photo from the AP.
  12. Faisal J. Abbas (December 16, 2008). "Shoe Fetishism...The Arab Way!". The Huffington Post.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Using the fake image.
  13. Хрущев кричал в ООН про кузькину мать, чтобы поглумиться над переводчиками (in Russian). КОМСОМОЛЬСКАЯ ПРАВДА (Komsomolskaya Pravda). March 29, 2004. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Yulia Latynina (October 3, 2008). Трагические последствия победы (in Russian). The Daily Journal. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Russian oppositional site using the original picture.
  15. Official Records, 15th Session of the UN General Assembly
  16. Other translations exist, see Nina Khrushcheva's article
  17. Amy Janello; Brennon Jones, eds. (1995). A Global Affair: An Inside Look at the United Nations. p. 230. ISBN 1-86064-139-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. William Taubman; Sergei Khrushchev; Abbott Gleason; David Gehrenbeck (May 2000). Nikita Khrushchev. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07635-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. Benjamin Welles (1960-10-13). "Khrushchev Bangs His Shoe on Desk". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2012-06-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. "Enraged K Cries "Jerk", Gavel Breaks in Uproar: Enraged K Waves Shoe, Calls Opponent "Jerk"". The Washington Post. 1960-10-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. "UN adjourned in disorder: Mr K bangs desk with his shoe, President breaks his gavel". The Guardian. 1960-10-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. ""If I Go to the Bottom I Shall Drag You Down Too": Mr K's Parting Shot at UN". The Times. 1960-10-14. p. 10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. "M. Khrouchtchev affirme que si ses propositions sont rejetées les peuples colonisés seront contraints de prendre les armes". Le Monde. 1960-10-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. Carl T. Gossett Jr. "Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev with his shoe before him, at the United Nations, 1960". New York Times Store. Archived from the original on 2012-06-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. Taubman, William (2003), Khrushchev: The Man and His Era, W.W. Norton & Co., p. 476, ISBN 978-0-393-32484-6<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. Taubman, William (2003), Khrushchev: The Man and His Era, W.W. Norton & Co., pp. 476, 762, ISBN 978-0-393-32484-6<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. Frantz Fanon (2004). The Wretched of the Earth. Translated by Richard Philcox. Grove Press. p. 37. ISBN 0-8021-4132-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. Sergei Khrushchev (2007). Memoirs of Nikita Khrushchev. Vol. III: Statesman. Penn State Press. p. 269. ISBN 0-271-02935-8.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. "Mr K Rebuked by UN Assembly President: Angry Tirade against General Franco". The Times. 1960-10-03. p. 7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. Nina Khrushcheva (2 October 2000). "The case of Khrushchev's shoe". New Statesman. Archived from the original on November 23, 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. "La Scarpa di Kruscev".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. 32.0 32.1 А был ли ботинок? (in Russian). Izvestia. 2002-08-09. Retrieved 2010-09-28. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. Walter Heinkels, Adenauers gesammelte Bosheiten. Eine anekdotische Nachlese, Exon, Düsseldorf / Vienna, 1983, pp. 55/56.