Skepticism or scepticism (see spelling differences) is generally any questioning attitude towards unempirical knowledge or opinions/beliefs stated as facts, or doubt regarding claims that are taken for granted elsewhere.
Philosophical skepticism is a systematic approach that questions the notion that absolutely certain knowledge is possible. Classical philosophical skepticism derives from the 'Skeptikoi', a school who "asserted nothing". Adherents of Pyrrhonism (and more recently, partially synonymous with Fallibilism), for instance, suspend judgment in investigations. Skeptics may even doubt the reliability of their own senses. Religious skepticism, on the other hand, is "doubt concerning basic religious principles (such as immortality, providence, and revelation)". Scientific skepticism is about testing beliefs for reliability, by subjecting them to systematic investigation using the scientific method, to discover empirical evidence for them.
- an attitude of doubt or a disposition to incredulity either in general or toward a particular object;
- the doctrine that true knowledge or some particular knowledge is uncertain; or
- the method of suspended judgment, systematic doubt, or criticism that is characteristic of skeptics (Merriam–Webster).
In philosophy, skepticism refers more specifically to any one of several propositions. These include propositions about:
- an inquiry,
- a method of obtaining knowledge through systematic doubt and continual testing,
- the arbitrariness, relativity, or subjectivity of moral values,
- the limitations of knowledge,
- a method of intellectual caution and suspended judgment.
In philosophical skepticism, pyrrhonism is a position that refrains from making truth claims. A philosophical skeptic does not claim that truth is impossible (which itself would be a truth claim), instead it recommends "suspending belief". The term is commonly used to describe philosophies which are similar to philosophical skepticism, such as academic skepticism, an ancient variant of Platonism that claimed knowledge of truth was impossible. Empiricism is a closely related, but not identical, philosophy to philosophical skepticism. Empiricists claim empiricism is a pragmatic compromise between philosophical skepticism and nomothetic science; philosophical skepticism is in turn sometimes referred to as "radical empiricism."
Pyrrho of Elis (365–275 BC) is usually credited with founding the "school" of skepticism. He traveled to India and studied with the "gymnosophists" (naked lovers of wisdom), which could have been any number of Indian sects. From there, he brought back the idea that nothing can be known for certain. The senses are easily fooled, and reason follows too easily our desires. Pyrrhonism was a school of skepticism founded by his follower Aenesidemus in the first century BC and recorded by Sextus Empiricus in the late 2nd century or early 3rd century AD. Subsequently, in the "New Academy" Arcesilaus (c. 315–241 BC) and Carneades (c. 213–129 BC) developed more theoretical perspectives by which conceptions of absolute truth and falsity were refuted as uncertain. Carneades criticized the claims of the Dogmatists, especially supporters of Stoicism, asserting that absolute certainty of knowledge is impossible. Sextus Empiricus (c. AD 200), the main authority for Greek skepticism, developed the philosophy further, incorporating aspects of empiricism into the basis for asserting knowledge.
Greek skeptics criticized the Stoics, accusing them of dogmatism. For the skeptics, the logical mode of argument was untenable, as it relied on propositions which could not be said to be either true or false without relying on further propositions. This was the regress argument, whereby every proposition must rely on other propositions in order to maintain its validity (see the five tropes of Agrippa the Sceptic). In addition, the skeptics argued that two propositions could not rely on each other, as this would create a circular argument (as p implies q and q implies p). For the skeptics, such logic was thus an inadequate measure of truth and could create as many problems as it claimed to have solved. Truth was not, however, necessarily unobtainable, but rather an idea which did not yet exist in a pure form. Although skepticism was accused of denying the possibility of truth, in fact it appears to have mainly been a critical school which merely claimed that logicians had not discovered truth.
In Islamic philosophy, skepticism was established by Al-Ghazali (1058–1111), known in the West as "Algazel", as part of the Ash'ari school of Islamic theology, whose method of skepticism shares many similarities with Descartes' method.
In an effort to avoid skepticism, René Descartes begins his Meditations on First Philosophy attempting to find indubitable truth on which to base his knowledge. He later recognizes this truth as "I think, therefore I am," but before he finds this truth, he briefly entertains the skeptical arguments from dreaming and radical deception.
David Hume has also been described as a skeptic.
Pierre Le Morvan (2011) has distinguished between three philosophical approaches to skepticism. The first he terms the "Foil Approach." According to this approach, skepticism is treated as a problem to be solved, or challenge to be met, or threat to be parried; skepticism's value according to this method, insofar as it is deemed to have one, accrues from its role as a foil contrastively illuminating what is required for knowledge and justified belief. The second he calls the "Bypass Approach" according to which skepticism is bypassed as a major concern of epistemology. Le Morvan advocates a third approach—he dubs it the "Health Approach"—that explores when skepticism is healthy and when it is not, or when it is virtuous and when it is vicious.
A scientific (or empirical) skeptic is one who questions beliefs on the basis of scientific understanding. Most scientists, being scientific skeptics, test the reliability of certain kinds of claims by subjecting them to a systematic investigation using some form of the scientific method. As a result, a number of claims are considered "pseudoscience" if they are found to improperly apply or ignore the fundamental aspects of the scientific method. Scientific skepticism may discard beliefs pertaining to things outside perceivable observation and thus outside the realm of systematic, empirical falsifiability/testability.
Religious skepticism generally refers to doubting given religious beliefs or claims. Historically, religious skepticism can be traced back to Socrates, who doubted many religious claims of the time. Modern religious skepticism typically emphasizes scientific and historical methods or evidence, with Michael Shermer writing that it is a process for discovering the truth rather than general non-acceptance. For this reason a religious skeptic might believe that Jesus existed while questioning claims that he was the messiah or performed miracles (see historicity of Jesus). Religious skepticism is not the same as atheism or agnosticism, though these often do involve skeptical attitudes toward religion and philosophical theology (for example, towards divine omnipotence). Religious people are generally skeptical about claims of other religions, at least when the two denominations conflict concerning some stated belief. Additionally, they may also be skeptical of the claims made by atheists. The historian Will Durant writes that Plato was "as skeptical of atheism as of any other dogma."
- Ambrose Bierce: The Devil's Dictionary
- Ignacy Krasicki: Fables and Parables
- Herman Melville: Moby-Dick, other works
- Montaigne: Essais.
- Bolesław Prus: Pharaoh
- Emily Rosa: "A Close Look at Therapeutic Touch," Journal of the American Medical Association, April 1, 1998; 279(13):1005–1010.
- Voltaire: Candide
- Australian Skeptics
- Brights movement
- Center for Inquiry
- Committee for Skeptical Inquiry
- Independent Investigations Group
- James Randi Educational Foundation
- New England Skeptical Society
- New Zealand Skeptics
- Rationalist International
- Richard Dawkins Foundation for Reason and Science
- SKEPP (Belgian association of skeptics)
- Skepsis ry (Finnish association of skeptics)
- Skeptics in the Pub
- The Skeptics Society
- Popkin, R. H. The History of Skepticism from Erasmus to Descartes (rev. ed. 1968); C. L. Stough, Greek Skepticism (1969); M. Burnyeat, ed., The Skeptical Tradition (1983); B. Stroud, The Significance of Philosophical Skepticism (1984). Encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Philosophical views are typically classed as skeptical when they involve advancing some degree of doubt regarding claims that are elsewhere taken for granted." utm.edu
- "Philosophical skepticism should be distinguished from ordinary skepticism, where doubts are raised against certain beliefs or types of beliefs because the evidence for the particular belief or type of belief is weak or lacking ..." skepdic.com
- Liddell and Scott
- Sextus Empiricus, Outlines Of Pyrrhonism, Translated by R. G. Bury, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1933, p. 21
- "... the two most influential forms of skepticism have, arguably, been the radical epistemological skepticism of the classical Pyrrhonian skeptics and the Cartesian form of radical epistemological skepticism" utm.edu
- Scepticism – History of Scepticism Archived 9 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
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- Skeptoid.com: What is skepticism?
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- Durant, Will (1944). Caesar and Christ: The Story of Civilization. Simon & Schuster. p. 164.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "JAMA Network | JAMA | A Close Look at Therapeutic Touch". Jama.ama-assn.org. Retrieved 2014-01-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- A Greek-English Lexicon, Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott, revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones, with the assistance of Roderick McKenzie, Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, 1940. Online, perseus.tufts.edu.
- Butchvarov, Panayot, Skepticism About the External World (Oxford University Press, 1998).
- Daniels, M.D., D.; Price, PhD, V. (2000), The Essential Enneagram, New York: HarperCollins<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Richard Hönigswald, Die Skepsis in Philosophie und Wissenschaft, 1914, new edition (ed. and introduction by Christian Benne and Thomas Schirren), Göttingen: Edition Ruprecht, 2008, ISBN 978-3-7675-3056-0
- Keeton, Morris T., "skepticism", pp. 277–278 in Dagobert D. Runes (ed.), Dictionary of Philosophy, Littlefield, Adams, and Company, Totowa, NJ, 1962.
- Le Morvan, P. Healthy Skepticism and Practical Wisdom," Logos & Episteme II, 1 (2011): 87-102 (PDF).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Runes, D.D. (ed.), Dictionary of Philosophy, Littlefield, Adams, and Company, Totowa, NJ, 1962.
- Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, Second Edition, Unabridged, W.A. Neilson, T.A. Knott, P.W. Carhart (eds.), G. & C. Merriam Company, Springfield, MA, 1950.
- Sextus Empiricus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism, R.G. Bury (trans.), Prometheus Books, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1933.
- Myles Burnyeat (ed.), The Skeptical Tradition, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.
- Richard H. Popkin, The History of Scepticism from Savonarola to Bayle. Third enlarged edition, New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-19-510768-3.
- Richard Wilson, Don't Get Fooled Again - The Skeptic's Guide to Life, London: Icon Books, 2008. ISBN 978-1-84831-014-8
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- Skepticism at PhilPapers
- Skepticism at the Indiana Philosophy Ontology Project
- Peter Klein. "Skepticism". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Katja Vogt. "Ancient Greek Skepticism". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Ancient Greek Skepticism entry by Harald Thorsrud in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- Charles Bolyard. "Medieval Skepticism". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Contemporary Skepticism entry by Duncan Pritchard in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- Skeptical Inquiry at DMOZ
- "Most Scientific Papers are Probably Wrong", NewScientist, 30 August 2005
- "In the Name of Skepticism: Martin Gardner's Misrepresentations of General Semantics", by Bruce I. Kodish, appeared in General Semantics Bulletin, Number 71, 2004.
- Classical Skepticism by Peter Suber
- "Outstanding skeptics of the 20th century" – Skeptical Inquirer magazine
- "CSICOP and the Skeptics" – critical essay by paranormal believer George P. Hansen
- "Nonsense (And Why It's So Popular)" – course syllabus from The College of Wooster.
- Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Scepticism". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> – A Christian (Catholic) account of scepticism
- Media Guide to Skepticism - Doubtful News
- The Rise and Fall of Militant Skepticism an essay by Deepak Chopra