Slava

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Slava
Sveti Jovan.jpg
Slava prepared for the veneration of John the Baptist.
Observed by Serbian Orthodox Christians
Significance Veneration of the family's patron saint
Observances church services, family and other social gatherings,
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The slava ("celebration"; Serbian Cyrillic: слава) is a Serbian Orthodox Christian tradition of the ritual glorification of one's family's patron saint. The family celebrates the Slava annually on the saint's feast day.

In November 2014 it was inscribed in UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists.

Overview

The Slava is the family's annual ceremony and veneration of their patron saint, a social event in which the family is together at the house of the patriarch. The slava also brings friends to the house, regardless if they have the same slava. The family saint is inherited from the patriarch (head of the household) – from father to son, while women do inherit the patron saint of their husbands upon leaving their families. As several patron saints are venerated twice a year, the main day is the slava, while the secondary one is called preslava. Some families may celebrate another patron saint in the case when the wife is the only left of her kin, in respect to her family.

The tradition is an important ethnic marker of Serb identity.[1] Serbs usually regard the Slava as their most significant and most solemn feast day.[2] The tradition of the Slava is also very well preserved among the Serb and Macedonian diaspora on all 5 continents.[3] Apart from Serbs, the custom is also practised by the Orthodox Macedonian families.[4]

Origin

Saint Sava (1174–1236)

The tradition has its origin in the Medieval Serbia, connected to Saint Sava, the first Archbishop of the Serbs. There are indications that the institution of the slava dates from Saint Sava, that "in his understanding and tactful approach to Serbian folk religion", he "seems to have found a compromise formula satisfactory to both his people's tradition and the requirements of Byzantine theology".[5] The slava is a reinterpretation of a pagan rite:[6] the ancestor-protector became a Christian saint,[7] frequently St. Nicholas,[6] with the pagan rite being reduced of many religious elements and frequent ceremonies and becoming a social event with the annual meeting of the family and friends.[7][8]

Modern history

When Bulgaria invaded southern Serbia during World War I, it regarded all who celebrated the slava as Serbs and enemies, as Bulgarians do not have the custom. For instance, when Bulgarian commander Protogerov was ordered to inflict reprisals in the east of Kumanovo for an earlier attack, and the population quickly declared as Bulgarians before the measures were taken (as to avoid punishment), his aides had the idea of asking the people who celebrated the slava; those who did were shot.[9]

The increased effective geographic mobility brought about by the post World War II urbanization of a previously highly agrarian society, combined with the brutal suppression of Serbian Orthodox traditions under the Communist rule, has made some aspects of the custom more relaxed. In particular, in the second half of the 20th century it became common to see traditional patriarchal families separated by great distances, so by necessity the Slava came to occasionally be celebrated at more than one place by members of the same family.

While the Slava kept something of a grassroots underground popularity during the Communist period, the post-Communist revival of Christian traditions has brought it a great resurgence. It is recognized as a distinctly (if not quite exclusively) Serbian custom, and today it is quite common for nonobservant Christians or even atheists to celebrate it in one form or another as a hereditary family holiday and a mark of ethnocultural identification.

In November 2014 it was inscribed in UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists.

The custom is also helpful in genealogical studies as an indicator in kin relations between families, tracing one's family to a specific region, etc.

Celebration

Breaking the bread, illustration by V. Titelbah, 1877.

Traditional foods that are prepared for the feast are: "Slavski kolač" (славски колач) and "koljivo" (кољиво). "Slavski kolač" literally means "the Slava cake", although it is actually more similar to bread.

The top of the kolač is adorned with the sign of the Cross, the "Dove of Peace", and other symbols that relate to the family. "Koljivo" (also called "Žito") is made of boiled wheat. It can be prepared in a variety of ways but most usually includes walnuts, nutmegs and/or cloves, and honey.

The wheat is a symbol of the Resurrection of Christ and deceased family members. Depending on whether the celebration falls in a period of fasting, the rest of the feast consists of animal-free (posni) meals or not (mrsni); thus, colloquially, Slavas can be referred to as mrsne or posne.

On the day of the Slava, the family attends church services and partakes in Holy Communion. Following the service, the parish priest is received in the family's home or the family brings the slavski kolač to the church. The parish priest performs a small service which entails venerating the Saint's memory, blessing the slavski kolač and koljivo, as well as lighting the "Slava candle". Though not necessary, it is common for the priest to bless the house and perform a small memorial service for dead relatives.

The most common feast days are St. Nicholas (falling on December 19), St. George (May 6, see Đurđevdan), St. John the Baptist (January 20), Saint Demetrius (November 8), St. Michael (November 21) and Saint Sava (January 27). Given dates are by official Gregorian calendar. Serbian Orthodox Church uses Julian calendar that is late 13 days. For example, St. Nicholas date is December 6, but by Julian calendar this date is 13 days later, when by Gregorian calendar is December 19.

Many Serbian communities (villages, cities, organizations, political parties, institutions, companies, professions) also celebrate their patron saint. For example, the city of Belgrade celebrates the Ascension as its Slava.

See also

Annotations

  • Krsna slava (Крсна слава, "christened Slava") and Krsno ime (Крсно име, "christened name")

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Ethnologia Balkanica. LIT Verlag Münster. pp. 70–. GGKEY:ES2RY3RRUDS.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Celia Jaes Falicov (1991). Family Transitions: Continuity and Change Over the Life Cycle. New York City: Guilford Press. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-89862-484-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Michael B. Petrovich; Joel Halpern (1980). "Serbs". In Stephan Thernstrom, Ann Orlov, and Oscar Handlin (ed.). Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups (2nd ed.). Harvard University Press. p. 925. ISBN 978-0-674-37512-3.CS1 maint: multiple names: editors list (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Jovan F. Trifunovski. "Породична слава и сличне славе у охридско-струшкој области" (PDF). Bulletin of the Ethnografical Institute SASA, vol XLV (in српски / srpski).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Serb World. 3–4. Neven Publishing Corporation. 1982. p. 5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. 6.0 6.1 A. P. Vlasto (1970). The Entry of the Slavs Into Christendom: An Introduction to the Medieval History of the Slavs. CUP Archive. pp. 223–. ISBN 978-0-521-07459-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. 7.0 7.1 The folk arts of Yugoslavia: papers presented at a symposium, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, March 1977. Duquesne University Tamburitzans Institute of Folk Arts. 1976. p. 41.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Folk Culture: Folk culture & the great tradition. Institute of Oriental and Orissan Studies. 1983. p. 113.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Đoko M. Slijepčević (1958). The Macedonian Question: The Struggle for Southern Serbia. American Institute for Balkan Affairs. p. 77. "Then Protogerov's aides had an idea: they asked who celebrated the slava. Those who did so were shot, since the celebration of the slava is a sign that one is a Serb: it is a custom which the Bulgars do not ...<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>; Gilbert in der Maur (1936). Die Jugoslawen einst und jetzt: Jugoslawiens Aussenpolitik. Günther. p. 330.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Further reading

  • Hrizostom Vojinović (1963). Srpska slava ili krsno ime. Mala religiozna biblioteka 23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Jovan Todorovich (1978). Serbian Patron Saint (Krsna Slava).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Dimitrije Kiki Popadic (1999). Krsna Slava Among the Serbs: A Case for Contextualized Reinterpretation. Fuller Theological Seminary.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Љубисав Милосављевић, ed. (2005). Домаћине, срећна ти крсна слава. ИТТ Национал. ISBN 978-86-85233-37-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Milan T. Vuković (1972). Narodni običaji, verovanja i poslovice kod Srba.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Krsto Milovanović (1997). Slave. Narodno delo.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Mile Nedeljković (1991). Slava u Srba. Vuk Karadžić.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Bratislav Grubačić; Momir Tomić (1988). Srpske slave: narodni običaji i verovanja, narodne pesme i zdravice, slavska jela i pića. Litera.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Dimitrije M. Kalezić (2000). Krsne slave u Srba. Narodna knjiga-Alfa.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Влаховић, П. (1998). Крсна слава и њена улога у породичном и друштвеном животу код Срба. В: Етно-културолошки зборник. Књ. ІV, Сврљиг, 23-32.
  • Чајкановић, Веселин. "Мит и религија у Срба." Српска књижевна задруга 443 (1973): 128-153.
  • Vasić, M. (1985). Slava-Krsno ime. u: O krsnom imenu-zbornik. Beograd: Prosveta, 218-219.
  • Radenković, L. R. (2013). Slava: The Serb family feast. Zbornik Matice srpske za slavistiku, (84), 9-23.
  • Pavković, Nikola F. (2015). "The Slava or Patron Saint's Day among the Serbs" (PDF). Glasnik Etnografskog instituta SANU. 63 (1): 123–145. doi:10.2298/GEI1501123P.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links

  • Ranković, Ljubomir. "Krsna Slava" (in српски / srpski). Svetoslavlje.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "Serb families honour their saints with Slava celebrations". BBC. 3 March 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Intergovernmental Committee for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (November 2014). "Slava". Nomination file no. 01010 for Inscription on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2014. Paris, France: UNESCO.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>