Smoking bans (or smoke-free laws) are public policies, including criminal laws and occupational safety and health regulations, that prohibit tobacco smoking in workplaces and other public spaces. Legislation may also define smoking as more generally being the carrying or possessing of any lit tobacco product.
- 1 Rationale
- 2 Evidence basis
- 3 History
- 4 Total tobacco ban
- 5 Cigarette advertising
- 6 Public support
- 7 Effects of smoking bans
- 7.1 Effects upon health
- 7.2 Effects upon tobacco consumption
- 7.3 Effects upon businesses
- 7.4 Effects upon musical instruments
- 7.5 Effects of prison smoking restrictions
- 7.6 Compliance
- 8 Criticism of smoke-free laws
- 9 Alternatives to smoke-free laws
- 10 Preemption
- 11 Hardship exemptions
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The rationale for smoking bans posits that smoking is optional, whereas breathing is not. Therefore, proponents say, smoking bans are enforced to protect people from the effects of second-hand smoke, which include an increased risk of heart disease, cancer, emphysema, and other diseases. Laws implementing bans on indoor smoking have been introduced by many countries in various forms over the years, with some legislators citing scientific evidence that shows tobacco smoking is harmful to the smokers themselves and to those inhaling second-hand smoke.
In addition such laws may reduce health care costs, improve work productivity, and lower the overall cost of labour in the community thus protected, making that workforce more attractive for employers. In the US state of Indiana, the economic development agency included in its 2006 plan for acceleration of economic growth encouragement for cities and towns to adopt local smoking bans as a means of promoting job growth in communities.
Additional rationales for smoking restrictions include reduced risk of fire in areas with explosive hazards; cleanliness in places where food, pharmaceuticals, semiconductors, or precision instruments and machinery are produced; decreased legal liability; potentially reduced energy use via decreased ventilation needs; reduced quantities of litter; healthier environments; and giving smokers incentive to quit.
The World Health Organization considers smoking bans to have an influence to reduce demand for tobacco by creating an environment where smoking becomes increasingly more difficult and to help shift social norms away from the acceptance of smoking in everyday life. Along with tax measures, cessation measures, and education, smoking bans are viewed by public health experts as an important element in reducing smoking rates and promoting positive health outcomes. When effectively implemented they are seen as an important element of policy to support behaviour change in favour of a healthy lifestyle.
Banning smoking in public places has helped to cut premature births by 10 percent, according to new research from the United States and Europe.
Research has generated evidence that second-hand smoke causes the same problems as direct smoking, including lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, and lung ailments such as emphysema, bronchitis, and asthma. Specifically, meta-analyses show that lifelong non-smokers with partners who smoke in the home have a 20–30% greater risk of lung cancer than non-smokers who live with non-smokers. Non-smokers exposed to cigarette smoke in the workplace have an increased lung cancer risk of 16–19%.
A study issued in 2002 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization concluded that non-smokers are exposed to the same carcinogens on account of tobacco smoke as active smokers. Sidestream smoke contains 69 known carcinogens, particularly benzopyrene and other polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and radioactive decay products, such as polonium 210. Several well-established carcinogens have been shown by the tobacco companies' own research to be present at higher concentrations in second-hand smoke than in mainstream smoke.
Scientific organisations confirming the effects of second-hand smoke include the U.S. National Cancer Institute, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health, the Surgeon General of the United States, and the World Health Organization.
Restrictions upon smoking in bars and restaurants can substantially improve the air quality in such establishments. For example, one study listed on the website of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that New York's statewide law to eliminate smoking in enclosed workplaces and public places substantially reduced RSP (respirable suspended particles) levels in western New York hospitality venues. RSP levels were reduced in every venue that permitted smoking before the law was implemented, including venues in which only second-hand smoke from an adjacent room was observed at baseline. The CDC concluded that their results were similar to other studies which also showed substantially improved indoor air quality after smoking bans were instituted.
Research has also shown that improved air quality translates to decreased toxin exposure among employees. For example, among employees of the Norwegian establishments that enacted smoking restrictions, tests showed improved (i.e. decreased) levels of nicotine in the urine of both smoking and non-smoking workers (as compared with measurements prior to going smoke-free).
Public Health Law Research
In 2009, the Public Health Law Research Program, a national program office of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, published an evidence brief summarising the research assessing the effect of a specific law or policy on public health. They stated that "There is strong evidence supporting smoking bans and restrictions as effective public health interventions aimed at decreasing exposure to secondhand smoke."
One of the world's earliest smoking bans was a 1575 Roman Catholic church regulation which forbade the use of tobacco in any church in Mexico. In 1604, King James I of England published an anti-smoking treatise, A Counterblaste to Tobacco, that had the effect of raising taxes on tobacco. The Ottoman Sultan Murad IV prohibited smoking in his empire in 1633 and had smokers executed. Pope Urban VII also prohibited smoking in the Church in 1590 followed by Urban VIII in 1624. Pope Urban VII in particular threatened to excommunicate anyone who "took tobacco in the porchway of or inside a church, whether it be by chewing it, smoking it with a pipe or sniffing it in powdered form through the nose". The earliest citywide European smoking bans were enacted shortly thereafter. Such bans were enacted in Bavaria, Kursachsen, and certain parts of Austria in the late 17th century. Smoking was banned in Berlin in 1723, in Königsberg in 1742, and in Stettin in 1744. These bans were repealed in the revolutions of 1848. The first building in the world to ban smoking was the Old Government Building in Wellington, New Zealand in 1876. This was over concerns about the threat of fire, as it is the second largest wooden building in the world.
The first modern attempt at restricting smoking was imposed by the then German government in every university, post office, military hospital, and Nazi Party office, under the auspices of Karl Astel's Institute for Tobacco Hazards Research, created in 1941 under orders from Adolf Hitler. Major anti-tobacco campaigns were widely broadcast by the Nazis until the demise of the regime in 1945.
In the latter part of the 20th century, as research on the risks of second-hand tobacco smoke became public, the tobacco industry launched "courtesy awareness" campaigns. Fearing reduced sales, the industry created a media and legislative programme that focused upon "accommodation". Tolerance and courtesy were encouraged as a way to ease heightened tensions between smokers and those around them, while avoiding smoking bans. In the USA, states were encouraged to pass laws providing separate smoking sections.
In 1975, the US state of Minnesota enacted the Minnesota Clean Indoor Air Act, making it the first state to restrict smoking in most public spaces. At first, restaurants were required to have No Smoking sections, and bars were exempt from the Act. As of 1 October 2007, Minnesota enacted a ban on smoking in all restaurants and bars statewide, called the Freedom to Breathe Act of 2007.
On 3 April 1987, the City of Beverly Hills, California, initiated an ordinance to restrict smoking in most restaurants, in retail stores and at public meetings. It exempted restaurants in hotels – City Council members reasoned that hotel restaurants catered to large numbers of visitors from abroad, where smoking is more acceptable than in the United States.
In 1990, the city of San Luis Obispo, California, became the first city in the world to restrict indoor smoking in bars as well as restaurants. However, the ban did not include workplaces but covered all other indoor public spaces  and its enforcement was somewhat limited.
In America, California's 1998 smoking ban encouraged other states such as New York to implement similar regulations. California's ban included a controversial restriction upon smoking in bars, extending the statewide ban enacted in 1994. As of April 2009 there were 37 states with some form of smoking ban. Some areas in California began banning smoking across whole cities, including every place except residential homes. More than 20 cities in California enacted park and beach smoking restrictions.
Since December 1993, in Peru, it is illegal to smoke in any public enclosed places and any public transport vehicles (according to Law 25357 issued on 27 November 1991 and its regulations issued on 25 November 1993 by decree D.S.983-93-PCM). There is also legislation restricting publicity, and it is also illegal (Law 26957 21 May 1998) to sell tobacco to minors or directly advertise tobacco within 500m of schools (Law 26849 9 Jul 1997).
On 3 December 2003, New Zealand passed legislation to progressively implement a smoking ban in schools, school grounds, and workplaces by December 2004. On 29 March 2004, Ireland implemented a nationwide ban on smoking in all workplaces. In Norway, similar legislation was put into force on 1 June the same year.
The Scottish ban on smoking in public areas was introduced on 26 March 2006 by the then Minister for Health and Community Care, Andy Kerr. Smoking was banned in all public places in the whole of the United Kingdom in 2007, when England became the final region to have the legislation come into effect (the age limit for buying tobacco was also raised from 16 to 18 on 1 October 2007).
On 12 July 1999, a Division Bench of the Kerala High Court in India banned smoking in public places by declaring "public smoking as illegal first time in the history of whole world, unconstitutional and violative of Article 21 of the Constitution." The Bench, headed by Dr. Justice K. Narayana Kurup, held that "tobacco smoking" in public places (in the form of cigarettes, cigars, beedies or otherwise) "falls within the mischief of the penal provisions relating to public nuisance as contained in the Indian Penal Code and also the definition of air pollution as contained in the statutes dealing with the protection and preservation of the environment, in particular, the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution), Act 1981."AFP: Nepal to ban smoking in public places On 31 May 2011 Venezuela introduced a restriction upon smoking in enclosed public and commercial spaces.
Smoking was first restricted in schools, hospitals, trains, buses and train stations in Turkey in 1996. In 2008, a more comprehensive smoking ban was implemented, covering all public indoor venues.
Smoking has been restricted at a French beach – the Plage Lumière in La Ciotat, France, became the first beach in Europe to restrict smoking, from August 2011, in an effort to encourage more tourists to visit the beach.
In 2012, smoking in Costa Rica became subject to some of the most restrictive regulations in the world, being banned from many outdoor recreational and educational areas as well as public buildings and vehicles.
Total tobacco ban
In 2004, Bhutan became the first country to completely outlaw the cultivation, harvesting, production, and sale of tobacco products. Penalties for violating the ban increased under the 'Tobacco Control Act of Bhutan 2010'. However, small allowances for personal possession are permitted as long as the possessor can prove that they have paid import duties. In January 2016, Turkmenistan president Gurbanguly Berdymukhammedov reportedly banned all tobacco sales in the country. The Pitcairn Islands had previously banned the sale of cigarettes; however, it now permits sales from a government run store. The Pacific island of Niue hopes to become the next country to prohibit the sale of tobacco. Iceland is also proposing banning tobacco sales from shops, making it prescription only and therefore dispensable only in pharmacies on doctor's orders. New Zealand hopes to achieve being tobacco free by 2025 and Finland by 2040. In 2012, anti-smoking groups proposed a 'smoking licence' – if a smoker managed to quit and hand back their licence, they would get back any money they paid for it. Singapore and the Australian state of Tasmania have proposed a 'tobacco free millennium generation initiative' by banning the sale of all tobacco products to anyone born in and after the year 2000.
In March 2012, Brazil became the world's first country to ban all flavored tobacco, including menthols. It also banned the majority of the estimated 600 additives used, permitting only eight. This regulation applies to domestic and internationally imported cigarettes. Tobacco manufacturers have 18 months to remove the non-compliant cigarettes, 24 months to remove the other forms of non-compliant tobacco.
In several parts of the world, tobacco advertising and sponsorship of sporting events is prohibited. The bar upon tobacco advertising and sponsorship in the European Union in 2005 prompted Formula One Management to look for venues that permit display of the [livery] of tobacco sponsors, and led to some of the races on the calendar being cancelled in favor of more 'tobacco-friendly' markets. As of 2007, only one Formula One team, Scuderia Ferrari, received sponsorship from a tobacco company. Marlboro branding appeared on its cars in three races; Bahrain, Monaco and China, as neither restricts tobacco advertising. Advertising bill-boards for tobacco are still in use in Germany, all other EU members have fobidden them.
MotoGP team Ducati Marlboro received sponsorship from Marlboro, its branding appearing at races in Qatar and China. On 1 July 2009 Ireland prohibited the advertising and display of tobacco products in all retail outlets; when fully implemented, this will mean that shops will have to store cigarettes in closed containers out of sight of customers.
A 2007 Gallup poll found that 54% of Americans favoured completely smoke-free restaurants, 34% favoured completely smoke-free hotel rooms, and 29% favoured completely smoke-free bars.
Another Gallup poll, of over 26,500 Europeans, conducted in December 2008, found that "a majority of EU citizens support smoking bans in public places, such as offices, restaurants and bars." The poll further found that "support for workplace smoking restrictions is slightly higher than support for such restrictions in restaurants (84% vs. 79%). Two-thirds support smoke-free bars, pubs and clubs." The support is highest in countries which have implemented clear smoking bans: "Citizens in Italy are the most prone to accept smoking restrictions in bars, pubs and clubs (93% – 87% "totally in favour"). Sweden and Ireland join Italy at the higher end of the scale with approximately eight out of 10 respondents supporting smoke-free bars, pubs and clubs (70% in both countries is totally in favor)."
Effects of smoking bans
Effects upon health
Several studies have documented health and economic benefits related to smoking bans. A 2009 report by the Institute of Medicine concluded that smoking bans reduced the risk of coronary heart disease and heart attacks, but the report's authors were unable to identify the magnitude of this reduction. Also in 2009, a systematic review and meta-analysis found that bans on smoking in public places were associated with a significant reduction of incidence of heart attacks. The lead author of this meta-analysis, David Meyers, said that this review suggested that a nationwide ban on smoking in public places could prevent between 100,000 and 225,000 heart attacks in the United States each year.
Legislating on smoking of tobacco in public places has reduced the cause of heart disease among adults. Such legislations include banning smoking in restaurants, buses, hotels and workplaces. Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) found out that there are cardiovascular effects from exposure to secondhand smoke. An epidemiology report says that the risk of coronary heart disease is increased to around 25-30% when one is exposed to secondhand smoke. The data shows that even at low levels of the smoke, there is the risk and the risks increases with more exposures.
A 2012 meta-analysis found that smoke-free legislation was associated with a lower rate of hospitalizations for cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases, and that "More comprehensive laws were associated with larger changes in risk." The senior author of this meta-analysis, Stanton Glantz, told USA Today that, with respect to exemptions for certain facilities from smoking bans, "The politicians who put those exemptions in are condemning people to be put into the emergency room." A 2013 review found that smoking bans were associated with "significant reduction in acute MI [myocardial infarction] risk".
A 2014 systematic review and meta-analysis found that smoke-free legislation was associated with approximately 10% reductions in preterm births and hospital attendance for asthma, but not with a decrease in low birth weight. A 2016 Cochrane review found that since the previous version of that review was published in 2010, the evidence that smoking bans improved health outcomes had become more robust, especially with respect to acute coronary syndrome admissions.
Effects upon tobacco consumption
Smoking bans are generally acknowledged to reduce rates of smoking; smoke-free workplaces reduce smoking rates among workers, and restrictions upon smoking in public places reduce general smoking rates through a combination of stigmatisation and reduction in the social cues for smoking. However, reports in the popular press after smoking bans have been enacted often present conflicting accounts as regards perceptions of effectiveness.
One report stated that cigarette sales in Ireland and Scotland increased after their smoking bans were implemented. In contrast, another report states that in Ireland, cigarette sales fell by 16% in the six months after implementation of the ban. In the UK, cigarette sales fell by 11% during July 2007, the first month of the nationwide smoking ban, compared with July 2006.
A 1992 document from Phillip Morris summarised the tobacco industry's concern about the effects of smoking bans: "Total prohibition of smoking in the workplace strongly effects [sic] tobacco industry volume. Smokers facing these restrictions consume 11%–15% less than average and quit at a rate that is 84% higher than average."
In the United States, the CDC reported a levelling-off of smoking rates in recent years despite a large number of ever more comprehensive smoking bans and large tax increases. It has also been suggested that a "backstop" of hardcore smokers has been reached: those unmotivated and increasingly defiant in the face of further legislation. The smoking ban in New York City was credited with the reduction in adult smoking rates at nearly twice the rate as in the rest of the country, "and life expectancy has climbed three years in a decade."
Smoking restrictions may make it easier for smokers to quit. A survey suggests 22% of UK smokers may have considered quitting in response to that nation's smoking ban.
Restaurant smoking restrictions may help to stop young people from becoming habitual smokers. A study of Massachusetts youths, found that those in towns with smoking bans were 35 percent less likely to be habitual smokers.
Effects upon businesses
Many studies have been published in the health industry literature on the economic effect of smoking bans. The majority of these government and academic studies have found that there is no negative economic impact associated with smoking restrictions and many findings that there may be a positive effect on local businesses. A 2003 review of 97 such studies of the economic effects of a smoking ban on the hospitality industry found that the "best-designed" studies concluded that smoking bans did not harm businesses. Similarly, a 2014 meta-analysis found no significant gains or losses in revenue in restaurants and bars affected by smoking bans.
Studies funded by the bar and restaurant associations have sometimes claimed that smoking bans have a negative effect on restaurant and bar profits. Such associations have also criticised studies which found that such legislation had no impact. Many bar and restaurant associations have relationships with the tobacco industry and are sponsored by them.
A government survey in Sydney found that the proportion of the population attending pubs and clubs rose after smoking was banned inside them. However, a ClubsNSW report in August 2008 blamed the smoking ban for New South Wales clubs suffering their worst fall in income ever, amounting to a decline of $385 million. Income for clubs was down 11% in New South Wales. Sydney CBD club income fell 21.7% and western Sydney clubs lost 15.5%.
Some smoking restrictions were introduced in German hotels, restaurants, and bars in 2008 and early 2009. The restaurant industry has claimed that some businesses in the states which restricted smoking in late 2007 (Lower Saxony, Baden-Württemberg, and Hessen) experienced reduced profits. The German Hotel and Restaurant Association (DEHOGA) claimed that the smoking ban deterred people from going out for a drink or meal, stating that 15% of establishments that adopted a ban in 2007 saw turnover fall by around 50%. However, a study by the University of Hamburg (Ahlfeldt and Maennig 2010) finds negative impacts on revenues, if any, only in the very short run. In the medium and long run, a recovery of revenues took place. These results suggest either, that the consumption in bars and restaurants is not affected by smoking bans in the long run, or, that negative revenue impacts by smokers are compensated by increasing revenues through non-smokers. Smoking is not permitted in any public transit or in or around railway stations except for the locations expressly indicated for smoking. Smoking on trains was banned completely by the Deutsche Bahn AG in 2007. Smoking has been restricted in airports and all Lufthansa planes since the late 1990s.
The 2006 FIFA World cup which the country hosted was the last one before bans on smoking in cafes, bars and restaurants were introduced in most of the countries around the World.
In 2008, Bavaria became the first federal state of Germany to completely ban smoking in bars and restaurants. After this restriction was criticized as being "too harsh" by some members of the governing party CSU, it was relaxed one year later. Supporters of smoking bans then brought about a public referendum on the issue, which led to even firmer restrictions than the initial ban. Thereafter, a more comprehensive ban was introduced in 2010.
Smoking bans by state:
|1 7||6||4||5||9||1 12|
|Bavaria||10||6 10||7 10||10||10|
|Brandenburg||1||1 7||6||7||6||1||1 12|
|Hesse||1||1 7||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1 12||1|
|Lower Saxony||6 10||7||10||1 12||10|
|Rhineland-Palatinate||1 2||1 7||9||1 11|
|Saxony||1 11 12|
|1||With exception: separated areas, marquee.|
|2||Smoking permitted in detention premises which are exclusively for smokers.|
|3||For passenger terminal of flight, ferry and seaports which are listed in the Act.|
|4||For adult students from Grade 11, and teachers smoking zones can be established outside of school buildings.|
|5||Since smoking is banned in Baden-Württemberg, in all public rooms where food or drinks are served for consumption on the spot, the smoking ban applies to all cinemas, as the mentioned criterion necessarily apply to cinemas. This was confirmed on request from the Government of Tübingen and by the relevant ministry.|
|6||Special permission for some exceptions.|
|7||No ban in rooms that are left for personal use.|
|8||Clubhouses can perform private events without smoking ban.|
|9||A side room with no dance floor can be expelled for smoking.|
|10||Separated smoking rooms can be established.|
|11||Smoking allowed in owner-managed "Einraumgaststätten" (Restaurants with maximum 1 room) without permanent staff personnel.|
|12||In bars (which mainly serve drinks) with maximum 1 room and less than 75 square meters, smoking can be permitted if they are signed as such and minors under the age of 18 aren't permitted. It's not allowed to serve warm meals.|
|13||Only on public treads.|
|14||Only public areas.|
Ireland was the first country to introduce fully smoke-free workplaces (March 2004). The Irish workplace smoke-free law was introduced with the intention of protecting workers from second-hand smoke and to discourage smoking in a nation with a high percentage of smokers. In Ireland, the main opposition was from publicans. Many pubs introduced "outdoor" arrangements (generally heated areas with shelters). It was speculated by opponents that the smoke-free workplaces law would increase the amount of drinking and smoking in the home, but recent studies showed this was not the case.
Ireland's Office of Tobacco Control website indicates that "an evaluation of the official hospitality sector data shows there has been no adverse economic effect from the introduction of this measure (the March 2004 national introduction of smoke-free in bars, restaurants, etc). It has been claimed that the smoke-free law was a significant contributing factor to the closure of hundreds of small rural pubs, with almost 440 fewer licences renewed in 2006 than in 2005."
Isle of Man
Smoke-free restrictions came into effect in the Isle of Man on 30 March 2008.
Chandigarh became the first smoke-free city-state of India to become smoke-free in July 2007. Social activist Hemant Goswami did pioneering work to make Chandigarh smoke-free. Inspired by the success of Chandigarh, the then Union Health Minister Dr. Ambumani Ramadoss enacted the new smoke-free regulation in 2008. India banned smoking in public places on 2 October 2008. Nearly a decade earlier, on 12 July 1999, a Division Bench of the Kerala High Court in India banned smoking in public places by declaring ``public smoking as illegal (the first time in the world), unconstitutional, and violative of Article 21 of the constitution. The bench headed by Dr. Justice K. Narayana Kurup, held that tobacco smoking in public places (in the form of cigarettes, cigars, beedies or otherwise) falls within the mischief of the penal provisions relating to public nuisance as contained in the Indian Penal Code and within the definition of air pollution as contained in the statutes dealing with protection and preservation of environment, in particular, Prevention and Control of Pollution Act 1981. The Supreme Court in Murli S Deora vs. Union of India and Ors., recognized the harmful effects of smoking in public and also the effect on passive smokers, and in the absence of statutory provisons at that time, prohibited smoking in public places such as,1.auditoriums, 2. hospital buildings, 3. health institutions, 4. educational institutions, 5.libraries, 6. court buildings, 7. public office, 8. public conveyances, including the railways.
"Tobacco is universally regarded as one of the major public health hazards and is responsible directly or indirectly for an estimated eight lakh deaths annually in the country. It has also been found that treatment of tobacco related diseases and the loss of productivity caused therein cost the country almost Rs. 13,500 crores annually, which more than offsets all the benefits accruing in the form of revenue and employment generated by tobacco industry".— Supreme Court of India, Murli S. Deora vs Union Of India And Ors on 2 November 2001
The Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999 prohibits smoking inside a public building or an enclosed public place including public vehicles and other means of transport or in any enclosed area outside of one’s private residence, private place of work or any duly designated smoking area. The implementing rules require local government units to implement or enforce a ban on smoking inside a public building or an enclosed public place including public vehicles and other means of transport or in any enclosed area outside of one's private residence, private place or work or any duly designated smoking area and specify that any person who smokes inside a public building or an enclosed public place, including public utility vehicles or other means of public transport or in any enclosed area outside of his private residence, private place of work or any duly designated smoking area shall be punished with six months and one day to one year imprisonment or a fine of ten thousand pesos.
Smoking in public places was banned in Poland on 15 November 2010 by a change in parliamentary act "On Defending Health Against Results of Tobacco and Tobacco Products Usage" (Ustawa o ochronie zdrowia przed następstwami używania tytoniu i wyrobów tytoniowych). The smoke ban includes all public places, regardless of ownership, that is restaurants, pubs, workplaces, hospitals, universities, public transport stops and stations and sports facilities (institutions of primary and secondary education had been declared smoke-free already in 1996). The fine for violating the ban is up to 500 Polish złoty. Owners of businesses who fail to put up no smoking signs could be penalised with a fine of up to 2000 złoty, while tobacco producers who advertise their products as "less harmful" or "healthier" could be fined with up to 200000 złoty.
However, after two years in effect the ban did not affect the number of active smokers in Poland. According to a 2012 poll by CBOS, both before the ban and 2 years later the percentage of smoking Poles was exactly the same: 31.
Russia was one of the last countries in the world not to have anti-smoking legislation in place. However, in October 2012, Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev commenced an anti-tobacco strategy that has led to proposals from the Health Ministry to cease advertising, increase tax on cigarette sales and ban smoking in public spaces. The Prime Minister lamented the smoking death rate in the country with 400,000 citizens dying every year of smoking-related causes and this is also compounded by the fact that a pack of cigarettes in Russia typically costs around the £1 mark.
A strict law aimed to protect people’s health from tobacco smoke and the consequences of smoking that introduced a ban on smoking in all closed public areas in compliance with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control took effect on 1 June 2013. At first smoking ban abusers were not fined - the mechanism was still under consideration. The law prohibits smoking at schools and universities, cultural and sporting organizations, beaches, stadiums, on playgrounds and in hospitals, in sanatoriums and at health resorts, inside the offices of public organizations and at filling stations. Smoking is banned aboard aircraft, on the subway and all kinds of public transport. From 15 November 2013 on, smoking at working places, near and within the educational, cultural, sporting and healthcare organizations, in houses’ hallways, at railway stations and airports is to be punished with a fine from 500 to 1,500 roubles ($15 – 45.5). The management of organizations where the ban is violated will face tougher fines. From 1 June 2014 the list will be complemented with restaurants and bars, dormitories, hotels, long-haul trains, and the boarding platforms of suburban railway stations.
No-smoking regulations came into effect in Scotland on 26 March 2006, in Wales on 2 April 2007, in Northern Ireland on 30 April 2007 and in England on 1 July 2007. The legislation was cited as an example of good regulation which has had a favourable impact on the UK economy by the Department of Business Innovation and Skills and a review of the impact of smoke-free legislation carried out for the Department of Health concluded that there was no clear adverse impact on the hospitality industry despite initial criticism from some voices within the pub trade.
Six months after implementation in Wales, the Licensed Victuallers Association (LVA), which represents pub operators across Wales, claimed that pubs had lost up to 20% of their trade. The LVA said some businesses were on the brink of closure, others had already closed down, and there was little optimism trade would eventually return to previous levels.
The British Beer and Pub Association (BBPA), which represents some pubs and breweries across the UK claimed that beer sales were at their lowest level since the 1930s, ascribing a fall in sales of 7% during 2007 to the smoke-free regulations.
According to a survey conducted by pub and bar trade magazine The Publican, the anticipated increase in sales of food following introduction of smoke-free workplaces did not immediately occur. The trade magazine's survey of 303 pubs in the United Kingdom found the average customer spent £14.86 on food and drink at dinner in 2007, virtually identical to 2006.
A survey conducted by BII (formerly British Institute of Innkeeping) and the Federation of Licensed Victuallers' Associations (FLVA) concluded that sales had decreased by 7.3% in the 5 months since the introduction of smoke-free workplaces on 1 July 2007. Of the 2,708 responses to the survey, 58% of licensees said they had seen smokers visiting less regularly, while 73% had seen their smoking customers spending less time at the pub.
The data suggesting a negative impact on pubs is partly explained by the reclassification of some as restaurants when serving food becomes the prime source of income. As a result, while the number of premises described as pubs went down following the implementation of the legislation, the total number of premises licensed to sell alcohol went up.
In the USA, smokers and hospitality businesses initially argued that businesses would suffer from no-smoking laws. However, a 2006 review by the U.S. Surgeon General found that smoking restrictions were unlikely to harm businesses in practice, and that many restaurants and bars might see increased business.
In 2003, New York City amended its smoke-free law to include all restaurants and bars, including those in private clubs, making it, along with the California smoke-free law, one of the toughest in the United States. The city's Department of Health found in a 2004 study that air pollution levels had decreased sixfold in bars and restaurants after the restrictions went into effect, and that New Yorkers had reported less second-hand smoke in the workplace. The study also found the city's restaurants and bars prospered despite the smoke-free law, with increases in jobs, liquor licenses, and business tax payments. The President of the New York nightlife association remarked that the study was not wholly representative, as by not differentiating between restaurants and nightclubs, the reform may have caused businesses like nightclubs and bars to suffer instead. A 2006 study by the New York State Department of Health found that "(...) the CIAA has not had any significant negative financial effect on restaurants and bars in either the short or the long term." On 30 October 2013, the city council agree to raise age to buy any kinds of tobacco and even electronic cigarettes to 21 from 18 years old before. In the United States, a small number of cities, including New York and suburbs of Boston such as Needham, Massachusetts, have 21 years as the minimum age to purchase cigarettes; in most other areas the legal age is 18 or 19.
Using sales and tobacco tax data from 216 cities and counties over 11 years, the researchers projected that seven of the states would have no economic impact, and West Virginia would see a 1 percent boost in restaurant jobs if a statewide smoking ban was adopted. Other benefits of smoking bans in bars and restaurants include improved lung function and a decrease in smoking rates among staff. Some data came from the Missouri Department of Revenue after smoking bans were passed in Lake Saint Louis, Kirkwood, Clayton and Ballwin.
Oregon is one state that introduced a bill that would have worked to end the use of cigarettes. The bill would have made nicotine a controlled substance, which is illegal to possess. The possession of nicotine would have consequences similar to consequences associated with other controlled substances, like cocaine, including jail time and a large fine, Rettner explains. People who opposed the ban did so because they felt that it would create a "black market" for cigarettes, similar to the market for other illegal drugs, and the ban would hurt instead of help the people in the state (Rettner). The opposition to the bill did not just include experts on drug trafficking, but the tobacco companies, as they would lose a tremendous amount of money, forcing them to fight such proposed bills with all their might until they are denied (Rettner).
Effects upon musical instruments
Bellows-driven instruments – such as the accordion, concertina, melodeon and (Irish) Uilleann bagpipes – reportedly need less frequent cleaning and maintenance as a result of the Irish smoke-free law. "Third-hand smoke", solid particulates from secondhand smoke that are adsorbed onto surfaces and later re-emitted as gases or transferred through touch, are a particular problem for musicians. After playing in smoky bars, instruments can emit nicotine, 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP), phenol, cresols, naphthalene, formaldehyde, and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (including some not found in freshly emitted tobacco smoke), which can enter musicians' bodies through the skin, or be re-emitted as gases after they have left the smoky environment. Concern about third-hand smoke on instruments is one of the reasons many musicians, represented by the New Orleans Musicians' Clinic, supported the smoking ban there.
Effects of prison smoking restrictions
Prisons are increasingly restricting tobacco smoking. In the United States, 24 states prohibit indoor smoking whereas California, Nebraska, Arkansas, and Kentucky prohibit smoking on the entire prison grounds, both indoors and outdoors. In July 2004 the Federal Bureau of Prisons adopted a smoke-free policy for its facilities. A 1993 Supreme Court ruling acknowledged that a prisoner's exposure to second-hand smoke could be regarded as cruel and unusual punishment (which would be in violation of the Eighth Amendment). A 1997 ruling in Massachusetts established that prison smoking bans do not constitute cruel and unusual punishment. Many officials view prison smoking bans as a means of reducing health-care costs.
With the exception of Quebec, all Canadian provinces have banned smoking indoors and outdoors in all their prison facilities. Prison officials and guards are sometimes worried due to previous events in other prisons concerning riots, fostering a cigarette black market within the prison, and other problems resulting from total prison smoking restrictions. Prisons have experienced riots when placing smoking restrictions into effect resulting in prisoners setting fires, destroying prison property, persons being assaulted, injured, and stabbed. One prison in Canada had some guards reporting breathing difficulties from the fumes of prisoners smoking artificial cigarettes made from nicotine patches lit by creating sparks from inserting metal objects into electrical outlets. For example in 2008, the Orsainville Detention Centre near Quebec City, withdrew its smoke-free provision following a riot. But the feared increase in tension and violence expected in association with smoking restrictions has generally not been experienced in practice.
Prison smoking bans are also in force in New Zealand, the Isle of Man and the Australian states of Victoria, Queensland, Tasmania, Northern Territory and New South Wales. The New Zealand ban was subsequently successfully challenged in court on two occasions, resulting in a law change to maintain it.
The introduction of smoking restrictions occasionally generates protests and predictions of widespread non-compliance, and media stories regarding the rise of clandestine smokeasies, including in New York City, Germany, Illinois, the United Kingdom, Utah, and Washington, D.C.
In reality, however, high levels of compliance with smoke-free laws (in excess of 90 per cent) have been reported in most jurisdictions including New York, Ireland, Italy and Scotland. Poor compliance was reported in Calcutta.
Criticism of smoke-free laws
Smoke-free regulations and ordinances have been criticised on a number of grounds.
Government interference with personal lifestyle
Critics of smoke-free provisions, including musician Joe Jackson, and political essayist Christopher Hitchens, have claimed that regulation efforts are misguided. Typically, such arguments are based upon an interpretation of John Stuart Mill's harm principle which perceives smoke-free laws as an obstacle to tobacco consumption per se, rather than a bar upon harming other people.
Such arguments, which usually refer to the notion of personal liberty, have themselves been criticised by Nobel Prize-winning economist Amartya Sen who defended smoke-free regulations on several grounds. Among other things, Sen argued that while a person may be free to acquire the habit of smoking, they thereby restrict their own freedom in the future given that the habit of smoking is hard to break. Sen also pointed out the heavy costs that smoking inevitably imposes on every society which grants smokers unrestricted access to public services (which, Sen noted, every society that is not "monstrously unforgiving" would do). Arguments which invoke the notion of personal liberty against smoke-free laws are thus incomplete and inadequate, according to Sen.
In New Zealand, two psychiatrist patients and a nurse took their local district health board to court, arguing a smoking ban at intensive care units violated "human dignity" as they were there for mental health reasons, not smoking-related illness. They argued it was "cruel" to deny patients cigarettes.
Some critics of smoke-free laws emphasise the property rights of business owners, drawing a distinction between nominally public places (such as government buildings) and privately owned establishments (such as bars and restaurants). Citing economic efficiency, some economists suggest that the basic institutions of private property rights and contractual freedom are capable of resolving conflicts between the preferences of smokers and those who seek a smoke-free environment, without government intrusion.
Effects on existing smoke-free businesses
Many critics, including a substantial number of those who oppose smoking bans on property-rights grounds, note that where no private-establishment smoking bans are in place, a subset of establishments are able to set themselves apart by catering to the market niche of patrons who prefer smoke-free establishments. Prohibiting smoking in all areas, these critics argue, would eliminate the competitive advantage of these establishments.
Legality of smoke-free regulations
Businesses affected by smoke-free regulations have filed lawsuits claiming that these are unconstitutional or otherwise illegal. In the United States, some cite unequal protection under the law while others cite loss of business without compensation, as well as other types of challenges. Some localities where hospitality businesses filed lawsuits against the State or local government include, Nevada, Montana, Iowa, Colorado, Kentucky, New York, South Carolina, and Hawaii. Such lawsuits have generally been unsuccessful.
Smoke-free laws may move smoking elsewhere
Restrictions upon smoking in offices and other enclosed public places often result in smokers going outside to smoke, frequently congregating outside doorways. This can result in non-smokers passing through these doorways getting exposed to more secondhand smoke rather than less. Many jurisdictions that have restricted smoking in enclosed public places have extended provisions to cover areas within a fixed distance of entrances to buildings.
The former British Secretary of State for Health John Reid claimed that restrictions upon smoking in public places may lead to more smoking at home. However, both the House of Commons Health Committee and the Royal College of Physicians disagreed, with the former finding no evidence to support Reid's claim after studying Ireland, and the latter finding that smoke-free households increased from 22% to 37% between 1996 and 2003.
In January 2010, the mayor of Boston, Massachusetts, Thomas Menino, proposed a restriction upon smoking inside public housing apartments under the jurisdiction of the Boston Housing Authority.
Connection to DUI fatalities
In May 2008, research published by Adams and Cotti in the Journal of Public Economics examined statistics of drunken-driving fatalities and accidents in areas where smoke-free laws have been implemented in bars and found that fatal drunken-driving accidents increased by about 13 percent, or about 2.5 such accidents per year for a typical county of 680,000. They speculate this could be caused by smokers driving farther away to jurisdictions without smoke-free laws or where enforcement is lax. No evidence is presented for jurisdictions where smoke-free laws and enforcement thereof are consistent.
Effects of funding on research literature
As in other areas of research, the effect of funding on research literature has been discussed with respect to smoke-free laws. Most commonly, studies which found few or no positive and/or negative effects of smoke-free laws and which were funded by tobacco companies have been delegitimised because they were seen as biased in favor of their funders.
Professor of Economics at the California State Polytechnic University-San Luis Obispo, Michael L. Marlow, defended "tobacco-sponsored" studies arguing that all studies merited "scrutiny and a degree of skepticism," irrespective of their funding. He wished for the basic assumption that every author were "fair minded and trustworthy, and deserves being heard out" and for less attention to research funding when evaluating the results of a study. Marlow suggests that studies funded by tobacco companies are viewed and dismissed as "deceitful," i.e. as being driven by (conscious) bad intention.
Alternatives to smoke-free laws
Incentives for voluntarily smoke-free establishments
During the debates over the Washington, DC, smoke-free law, city council member Carol Schwartz proposed legislation that would have enacted either a substantial tax credit for businesses that chose to voluntarily restrict smoking or a quadrupling of the annual business license fee for bars, restaurants and clubs that wished to allow smoking. Additionally, locations allowing smoking would have been required to install specified high-performance ventilation systems.
Critics of smoke-free laws have suggested that ventilation is a means of reducing the harmful effects of second-hand smoke. A tobacco industry-funded study conducted by the School of Technology of the University of Glamorgan in Wales, published in the Building Services Journal suggested that "ventilation is effective in controlling the level of contamination", although "ventilation can only dilute or partially displace contaminants and occupational exposure limits are based on the 'as low as reasonably practicable' principle".
Some hospitality organisations have claimed that ventilation systems could bring venues into line with smoke-free restaurant ordinances. A study published by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers and funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation found one establishment with lower air quality in the non-smoking section, due to improperly installed ventilation systems. They also determined that even properly functioning systems "are not substitutes for smoking bans in controlling environmental smoke exposure."
The tobacco industry has focused on proposing ventilation as an alternative to smoke-free laws, though this approach has not been widely adopted in the U.S. because "in the end, it is simpler, cheaper, and healthier to end smoking." The Italian smoke-free law ban permits dedicated smoking rooms with automatic doors and smoke extractors. Nevertheless, few Italian establishments are creating smoking rooms due to the additional cost.
A landmark report from the U.S. Surgeon General found that even the use of elaborate ventilation systems and smoking rooms fail to provide protection from the health hazards of second-hand smoke, since there is "no safe level of second-hand smoke".
A number of states in the United States have "preemption clauses" within state law which block local communities from passing smoke-free ordinances more strict than the state laws on the books. The rationale is to prevent local communities from passing smoke-free ordinances which are viewed as excessive by that state's legislature. Other states have "anti-preemption clauses" that allow local communities to pass smoking ban ordinances that their legislature found unacceptable.
- List of smoking bans (worldwide)
- List of smoking bans in the United States
- Smoking bans in private vehicles
- List of smoke-free colleges and universities
- Tobacco control
- Tobacco fatwa
- A Counterblaste to Tobacco
- Blue law
- Indoor air quality
- Action on Smoking and Health
- Airspace Action on Smoking and Health
- Anti-Cigarette League of America
- FOREST (A UK pro-tobacco group)
- Douglas Eads Foster, Los Angeles, California, City Council member, 1927–29, proposed prohibition of smoking near schools
- Evan Lewis, Los Angeles City Council member, 1925–41, opposed smoking in balconies of theaters
- Adolf Hitler, 1889–1945, often considered to be the first national leader to advocate nonsmoking.
- Patricia Hewitt introduced bans in UK.
- Nicola Roxon introduced plain packaging in Australia
- "36-601.01 – Smoke-free Arizona act". Arizona Revised Statutes Title 36 – Public Health and Safety. Arizona State Legislature. Retrieved 18 June 2009.
|chapter=ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Smokefree legislation consultation response, The Institute of Public Health in Ireland". Archived from the original on 8 October 2007. Retrieved 5 September 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "New health bill will ban smoking in majority of workplaces". Retrieved 5 September 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> (UK Health Secretary: The smoking ban "is a huge step forward for public health and will help reduce deaths from cancer, heart disease and other smoking related diseases") See also WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control; First international treaty on public health, adopted by 192 countries and signed by 168. See in particular Article 8 Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke.
- Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
- "New health bill will ban smoking in majority of workplaces". 28 October 2005. Retrieved 5 September 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control". World Health Organization. Retrieved 17 June 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Smoking bans cut premature births and child asthma attacks". Reuters. 28 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
- Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
- Jerry Markon; Renae Merle (13 April 2004). "Disparity in Protecting Food Service Staff from Secondhand Smoke Shows Need for Comprehensive Smoke-Free Policies, Say Groups" (Press release).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Glossary: Sidestream smoke
- "Involuntary smoking". Retrieved 15 July 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- E. S. Ferri and E. J. Baratta: Polonium 210 in Tobacco, Cigarette Smoke, and Selected Human Organs, in: Public Health Reports, Vol. 81, No. 2, February 1966, pp. 121–127.
- Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A monograph from the U.S. National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
- Secondhand Smoke Fact Sheet, from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
- Environmental Tobacco Smoke. From the 11th Report on Carcinogens of the National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
- The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. Dated 27 June 2006. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
- Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking: A monograph of the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
- "Indoor Air Quality in Hospitality Venues Before and After Implementation of a Clean Indoor Air Law --- Western New York, 2003". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 53 (44): 1038–1041. 12 November 2004.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Study Finds That New Jersey Bars and Restaurants Have Nine Times More Air Pollution than Those in Smoke-Free New York".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Nina Athey-Pollard (16 March 2006). "Smoking ban leads to healthier bar staff". Chemical Science. RSC Publishing.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Workplace Smoking Bans and Restrictions, Public Health Law Research 2009
- Smith, Kyle (19 December 2010). "Could smoking become extinct?". New York Post. Retrieved 1 January 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "The ashtray of history", the Atlantic Magazine, available at: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2007/01/the-ashtray-of-history/5532/
- Lader, Malcolm Harold; Henningfield, Jack E.; Martin Jarvis (1985). Nicotine, an old-fashioned addiction. London: Burke Publishing. pp. 96–8.
- Lader, Malcolm Harold; Henningfield, Jack E.; Martin Jarvis (1985). Nicotine, an old-fashioned addiction. London: Burke Publishing. pp. 96–8. ISBN 0-222-01216-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Daragan K, Fisher S, Keane D, Lattanzio T, Laufer D, Pontarelli J, Trach B, Walls T (30 June 1994). "Preemption/Accommodation presentation" (PDF). Legacy Tobacco Documents Library. University of California at San Francisco. Retrieved 23 November 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Minnesota Clean Indoor Air Act – Freedom to Breathe". Minnesota Department of Health.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Martiga Lohn (13 May 2007). "Minnesota lawmakers approve smoking ban". Boston Globe. Associated Press.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Judith Cummings (4 April 1987). "BEVERLY HILLS SMOKING BAN CLEARS AIR BUT ASH TRAYS STAY". New York Times. New York Times.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- David E. Garth (29 January 2001). "Letter to Nebraska Senators from San Luis Obispo Chamber of Commerce in favor of Smokefree Legislation". Tobacco.org. Retrieved 7 April 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "How many Smokefree Laws?" (PDF). American Nonsmokers’ Rights Foundation. 6 October 2006. Retrieved 23 November 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Ministry of Health (15 September 2005). "Smokefree Law in New Zealand". moh.govt.nz. Retrieved 24 March 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Venezuelanalysis.com, 30 May 2011, Smoking Banned in Public and Commercial Closed Spaces in Venezuela
- Desk, Lifestyle (27 August 2011). "Smoking Ban Announced at Plage Lumière, Provence, France". The Global Herald. Retrieved 29 August 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Parameswaran, Gayatri. "Bhutan smokers huff and puff over tobacco ban". aljazeera.com. Aljazeera. Retrieved 14 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Marks, Kathy (9 July 2008). "World's smallest state aims to become the first smoke-free paradise island". independent.co.uk. London: The Independent. Retrieved 14 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Pidd, Helen. "What a drag … Iceland considers prescription-only cigarettes". The Guardian. Guardian News. Retrieved 14 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Nanayakara, Daryll. "Summit to spread anti-tobacco message among youth". Retrieved 4 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Heng, Nung Koong. "The Tobacco Free Generation 2000 Proposal (TFG2000)". Retrieved 4 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Brazil - Flavoured cigarettes banned". WHO FCTC. World Health Organization. Retrieved 14 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Tucker, Todd. "Brazil's flavored cigarette ban now targeted". citizen.typepad.com. Public Citizen. Retrieved 14 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- More Smokers Feeling Harassed by Smoking Bans
- The Gallup Organization (March 2009). "Survey on Tobacco – Analytical Report" (PDF). European Commission. Retrieved 24 May 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Cardiovascular Effects: Making Sense of the Evidence". Institute of Medicine. 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Blue, Laura (30 October 2012). "Smoke-Free Laws Are Saving Lives". Time. Retrieved 5 September 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Tamkins, Theresa (22 September 2009). "Big drop in heart attacks after smoking bans, studies say". CNN. Retrieved 5 September 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Nield-Gehrig, Jill S, Donald E. Willmann. "Patient Assessment Tutorials: A Step-by-Step Procedures Guide for the Dental Hygienist". New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Missing or empty
- Szabo, Liz (29 October 2012). "Smoking bans cut number of heart attacks, strokes". USA Today. Retrieved 5 September 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Smoking bans cut asthma and premature births by 10%, study says". BBC News. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 4 September 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Siddique, Haroon (4 February 2016). "Smoking bans reduce harm from passive smoking, study finds". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 February 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Do Smoking Bans Really Get People to Quit?, ABC World News, 8 November 2005, http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/QuitToLive/story?id=1292456
- Langlands, Eva (15 October 2006). "Cigarette sales up 5% despite smoking ban". The Times. London. Retrieved 7 April 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Pagnamenta, Robin (21 August 2007). "Cigarette sales drop 7% in a month". The Times. London. Retrieved 7 April 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- BBC Cigarette sales 'slump after ban' 2 October 2007
- John Heironimus (21 January 1992). "Impact of Workplace Restrictions on Consumption and Incidence" (PDF). Retrieved 26 December 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Washington Post
- Michael Sherer, "Michael Bloomberg Wants To Be Mayor of the World," Time, 21 October 2013, pages 20-31
- (sv) SVD: Folkhälsoinstitutet: Snus ger cancer
- BBC News A fifth of smokers 'plan to quit' 8 March 2006
- Restaurant smoking bans stop teens getting the habit New Scientist Issue 2655, 10 May 2008, page 4
- "Economic impacts" Tavern League of Wisconsin (broken link)
- "No smoke signals a boom for pubs, clubs". Sydney Morning Herald. 2 September 2007. Retrieved 1 September 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- The Australian
- Germany's Smoking Ban Spreads Through States, Deutsche Welle, 14 January 2007
- Ahlfeldt G., Maennig, W. (2010), Impact of non-smoking ordinances on hospitality revenues: The case of Germany, in: Journal of Economics and Statistics, 230(5), 506–521; preliminary version in: Hamburg Contemporary Discussion Papers N° 26, http://www.uni-hamburg.de/economicpolicy/hced.html.
- "Nudity, cartoons grab air travelers' attention". CNN. 31 July 2009. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Does smoke-free Ireland have more smoking inside the home and less in pubs than the United Kingdom? Findings from the international tobacco control policy evaluation project". The European Journal of Public Health. London. 2008. Retrieved 25 April 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Lister, David (27 February 2007). "Rural pubs will suffer from smoking ban". The Times. London. Retrieved 7 April 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Environment and Health by Adv. Vijay Hiremath on Page 116" (PDF). Retrieved 1 June 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> This source contains quotations from the legislation, which is in the public domain.
- "The Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999". Chan Robles Law Library.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Implementing Rules and Regulations of the Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999". Chan Robles Law Library.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Telegraph (17 October 2012). "Russia launches smoking crackdown". London: Telegraph.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Smoking ban not effective thus far". ITAR TASS. Retrieved 14 December 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Scottish Government".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Third of pubs 'not ready for ban'". BBC News. 2 March 2007. Retrieved 4 January 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Better regulation, Better Benefits: Getting the Balance Right. Case Studies" (PDF). Department of Business Innovation and Skills. October 2009. Retrieved 14 February 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "The impact of smokefree legislation in England: evidence review" (PDF). Department of Health. March 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "ic Wales (icwales.icnetwork.co.uk)".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Pub beer sales slump to low point 20 November 2007, BBC News
- Smoke Ban Fails To Boost Pub Meal Sales 26 November 2007, SKY News
- Smoking ban 'costs pub takings' 17 December 2007, BBC News
- "Pubs aren't dying – they are evolving". Mark Easton, BBC News. 31 July 2009. Retrieved 14 February 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General". Retrieved 27 June 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Richard Roesler: Surgeon general: No safe level of secondhand smoke". CNN. Archived from the original on 13 July 2006. Retrieved 27 June 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Bars and Restaurants Thrive Amid Smoking Ban, Study Says 29 March 2003, The New York Times
- Mark Engelen, Matthew Farrelly & Andrew Hyland: The Health and Economic Impact of New York's Clean Indoor Air Act. July 2006, p. 21
- Hartocollis, Anemona (30 October 2013). "New York Raising Age to Buy Cigarettes to 21". The New York Times.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Quinn, Colleen (26 December 2013). "Nearly a dozen Massachusetts towns raise age for cigarette sales". Boston.com. The Boston Globe. State House News Service. Retrieved 4 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- John F. Garvey, Paul McElwaine, Thomas S. Monaghan, and Walter T. McNicholas Confessions of an accordion cleaner – a marker of improved air quality since the Irish smoking ban BMJ 24 September 2007
- Polito, John R. "Prison Smoking Cessation, Tobacco Cessation and Nicotine Cessation". WhyQuit.com. Retrieved 23 May 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Young, Christie Getto (20 April 2009). "100% SMOKEFREE CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES" (PDF). American NonSmokers' Rights Foundation. Retrieved 23 May 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Zoroya, Gregg (21 July 2004). "Smoking bans spread to prisons". USA TODAY. Retrieved 23 May 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "HELLING et al. v. McKINNEY". Supreme Court collection. Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 23 May 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Young, Christie Getto. "Prison smoking ban is not cruel and unusual punishment". Tobacco Control Resource Center, Inc., Northeastern University. Retrieved 23 May 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Agar, John (31 January 2009). "State's prison smoking ban to save health-care costs, end prisoner 'luxury'". Grand Rapids News. The Grand Rapids Press. Retrieved 23 May 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- The Smokers Club, Inc. – Prison Ban Casualty
- Prisoner riot reverses smoking ban | libcom.org
- Koubaridis, Andrew (24 December 2012). "Prison smokes ban ruled unlawful". The New Zealand Herald.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Tobacco victory goes up in a puff of smoke". The New Zealand Herald. 4 July 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- AFP: Dutch cafe owners rally against smoking ban
- "Waiting to inhale", The New York Times, 4 January 2004 See also: "Lighting-up time: Big Apple meets Big Smoke," The Times, 1 April 2005. See also "Gangsters will be the real winners in smoking ban," Scottish Daily Record, 7 January 2005. "Smoked out?" The Buffalo News, 18 February 2004."N.Y. restaurants cutting trans fat from menus," The Washington Times, 6 December 2006. "The Guide to the Guides," The Observer (United Kingdom), 30 January 2005. "A year after New York smoking ban, debate still rages over effects," The Philadelphia Inquirer, 31 March 2004. "Late Night Cracks in City's Ban," New York Post, 4 March 2004. "On The Run," The New York Times, 8 June 2003.
- Connolly, Kate (19 January 2008). ""'Nazi' claim as Germans rebel over smoking ban," The Observer, 20 January 2008". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 April 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> ""German Don Quixotes Tilt against Smoking Ban", Der Spiegel, 11 January 2008".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Eric Petersen, "Three Schaumburg businesses violate new smoking ban," The Arlington Heights Daily Herald, March 2007 See also: ""Smoking ban holds up, despite opposition", The Telegraph, 23 February 2008".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Beware of complacency as 'smoke-easies' appear", The Irish News, 12 June 2007
- ""Warning over 'smoke-easy' lock-ins," The Scotsman, 29 August 2006". Edinburgh.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ""Stand-off!", The Huddersfield Daily Examiner, 17 January 2008".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> "Defiant bar owner finds 'loophole' to flout smoking ban," The Daily Mail, 3 August 2007 ""My local smoke-easy", The New Statesman, 7 February 2008".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> ""The Big Smoke-easy," The Publican, 21 February 2008".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Everyone Head for the Smoke-Easy", Utah Statesman, 12 December 2006
- "Smoke-easies offer cover from puff police; Aficionados just want a place to light up, relax," The Washington Times, 20 November 2003
- "tobaccofreecenter.org" (PDF).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Record compliance with smoking ban – The Irish Times – Mon, 22 Jun 2009". 6 June 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Times Higher Education – Italian smoking ban leads to drop in heart attacks".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Smoking ban gets seal of public approval" (Press release). Scottish Government. 26 June 2006. Archived from the original on 5 February 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Smoking ban up in smoke in Kolkata".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "The Official Website of Joe Jackson". Retrieved 12 April 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- The American Spectator : Smoking Room
- Hoggart, Simon (18 May 2007). "Is the smoking ban a good idea?". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 April 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Sen, Amartya (11 February 2007). "Unrestrained smoking is a libertarian half-way house". Financial Times.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Lawyer: smoking ban may harm patients". 3 News NZ. 20 May 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Smoking ban cruel to psychiatric patients, court told". 3 News NZ. 20 May 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Valentin Petkantchin, "Should cigarettes be banned in public places?" (Montreal Economic Institute: April, 2005)" (PDF). Retrieved 22 June 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Judge Rules Nevada Smoking Ban is Constitutional – Las Vegas Now |
- Montana Gaming Group, effect of public smoking ban on Montana businesses | smoking ban in public areas|Helena Montana smoking ban|environmental tobacco smoke
- Seven businesses sue over smoking ban
- Anti-smoking law challenged | The Honolulu Advertiser|Hawaii's Newspaper
- Colorado AG Asks State Smoking Ban Lawsuit Be Dismissed [06/23/06-4]
- Lawsuit Challenges Louisville's Smoking Ban – Louisville News Story – WLKY Louisville
- smoking ban lawsuit loss – Google Search
- Health board stands by smoking ban,: Lawsuit alleges group overstepped its authority | Article from Charleston Gazette|HighBeam Research
- "Americans for Nonsmokers' Rights – Australia".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Wintour, Patrick (17 December 2005). "MPs to challenge ministers' veto on total smoking ban". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 October 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Smoking ban in public places also cuts smoking at home". Retrieved 7 October 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Smiley, Colneth, Jr., "Puffers fuming over planned ban", Boston Herald, Sunday, 31 January 2010
- Fermin, Marisela, "Not in Here You Don’t: Plans to Ban Smoking in Boston Public Housing", Spare Change News, Boston, 25 March 2010
- "Drunk driving after the passage of smoking bans in bars". The Economist. 3 April 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- e.g. mentioned on p. 167 in  Econ Journal Watch, Volume 5, Number 2, pp. 163–168. Retrieved 19 November 2009.
- Marlow Michael L (2008). "Honestly, Who Else Would Fund Such Research? Reflections of a Non-Smoking Scholar". Econ Journal Watch. 5 (2): 240–268.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Press Advisory – Statement of Councilmember Carol Schwartz at the 14 June 2005 Smoke-Free Hearing". 14 June 2005. Archived from the original on 19 April 2008. Retrieved 31 July 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Cited at parliament.uk. "Dealing with the health effects of secondhand smoke". Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- Cited at parliament.uk. "COMMENTARY ON STUDIES CARRIED OUT BY DR ANDREW GEENS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF GLAMORGAN SCHOOL OF TECHNOLOGY". Retrieved 29 December 2011.
- "Can Displacement Ventilation Control Secondhand ETS?".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- BBC News Italians fume over cigarette curb 10 January 2005
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequesnces of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2006. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- Banks, Gabrielle; Srikameswaran, Anita (23 December 2006). "Allegheny County smoking ban put on hold". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Hector's wants longer exemption See also: D.C. Grants First Exemption to Smoking Ban  The Gazette, Gaithersburg, MD,
|Wikinews has related news:|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Smoking ban.|
- Canadian Council for Tobacco Control
- Clearing the Air Scotland Scottish Executive site established to provide information on Scotland's smoke-free legislation
- Hong Kong Tobacco Control Office
- History of Smoking Bans in the US
- Irish Government's Office of Tobacco Control
- State Tobacco Laws from the American Cancer Society
- Legacy Tobacco Documents Library from the University of California, San Francisco
- Philip Morris USA Document Archive
- Prevalence of smoking and information on smoking bans in an interactive world map