Sodium oxide

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Sodium oxide
Sodium oxide
Sodium oxide
Names
IUPAC name
Sodium oxide
Other names
Disodium oxide
Identifiers
1313-59-3 YesY
EC Number 215-208-9
Jmol 3D model Interactive image
PubChem 73971
UN number 1825
Properties
Na2O
Molar mass 61.98 g·mol−1
Appearance white solid
Density 2.27 g/cm3
Melting point 1,132 °C (2,070 °F; 1,405 K)
Boiling point 1,950 °C (3,540 °F; 2,220 K) sublimates
sublimates at 1275 °C
reacts violently to form NaOH
Solubility reacts with ethanol
Structure
Antifluorite (face centered cubic), cF12
Fm3m, No. 225
Tetrahedral (Na+); cubic (O2−)
Thermochemistry
72.95 J/mol·K
73 J/mol·K[1]
-416 kJ/mol[1]
-377.1 kJ/mol
Vapor pressure {{{value}}}
Related compounds
Other anions
Sodium sulfide
Sodium selenide
Sodium telluride
Other cations
Lithium oxide
Potassium oxide
Rubidium oxide
Caesium oxide
Related sodium oxides
Sodium peroxide
Sodium superoxide
Related compounds
Sodium hydroxide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Sodium oxide (SOX) is a chemical compound with the formula Na2O. It is used in ceramics and glasses, though not in a raw form. It is the base anhydride of sodium hydroxide, so when water is added to sodium oxide NaOH is produced.

Na2O + H2O → 2 NaOH

The alkali metal oxides M2O (M = Li, Na, K, Rb) crystallise in the antifluorite structure. In this motif the positions of the anions and cations are reversed relative to their positions in CaF2, with sodium ions tetrahedrally coordinated to 4 oxide ions and oxide cubically coordinated to 8 sodium ions.[2][3]

Preparation

Sodium oxide is produced by the reaction of sodium with sodium hydroxide, sodium peroxide, or sodium nitrite:[4]

2 NaOH + 2 Na → 2 Na2O + H2
Na2O2 + 2 Na → 2 Na2O
2 NaNO2 + 6 Na → 4 Na2O + N2

Most of these reactions rely on the reduction of something by sodium, whether it is hydroxide, peroxide, or nitrite.

Burning sodium in air will produce Na2O and about 20% sodium peroxide Na2O2.

6 Na + 2 O2 → 2 Na2O + Na2O2

Alternatively, sodium carbonate can be heated to 851 °C, producing carbon dioxide and sodium oxide.

Na2CO3 → Na2O + CO2

At 208 °C, sodium ascorbate will decompose to furan derivatives and sodium oxide.[5]

Applications

Glass making

Sodium oxide is a significant component of glasses and windows although it is added in the form of "soda" (sodium carbonate). Sodium oxide does not explicitly exist in glasses, since glasses are complex cross-linked polymers. Typically, manufactured glass contains around 15% sodium oxide, 70% silica (silicon dioxide) and 9% lime (calcium oxide). The sodium carbonate "soda" serves as a flux to lower the temperature at which the silica melts. Soda glass has a much lower melting temperature than pure silica, and has slightly higher elasticity. These changes arise because the silicon dioxide and soda react to form sodium silicates of the general formula Na2[SiO2]x[SiO3].

Na2CO3 → Na2O + CO2
Na2O + SiO2 → Na2SiO3

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A23. ISBN 0-618-94690-X. 
  2. Zintl, E.; Harder, A.; Dauth B. (1934). "Gitterstruktur der oxyde, sulfide, selenide und telluride des lithiums, natriums und kaliums". Z. Elektrochem. Angew. Phys. Chem. 40: 588–93. 
  3. Wells, A.F. (1984) Structural Inorganic Chemistry, Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-855370-6.
  4. Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-08-037941-9. 
  5. http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/23667548

External links