Sorghum

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Sorghum
Sorghum.jpg
Sorghum bicolor
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Panicoideae
Tribe: Andropogoneae
Genus: Sorghum
Moench 1794, conserved name not Sorgum Adanson 1763
Type species
Sorghum bicolor
(L.) Moench
Synonyms[1]
  • Blumenbachia Koeler 1802, rejected name not Schrad. 1825 (Loasaceae)
  • Sarga Ewart
  • Vacoparis Spangler
  • Andropogon subg. Sorghum Hackel.

Sorghum is a genus of plants in the grass family. Most species are native to Australia, with some extending to Africa, Asia, Mesoamerica, and certain islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.[2][3][4][5][6][7]

One species is grown for grain, while many others are used as fodder plants, either intentionally cultivated or allowed to grow naturally, in pasture lands. The plants are cultivated in warm climates worldwide and naturalized in many places.[8] Sorghum is in the subfamily Panicoideae and the tribe Andropogoneae (the tribe of big bluestem and sugarcane).

Cultivation and uses

One species, Sorghum bicolor,[9] native to Africa with many cultivated forms now,[10] is an important crop worldwide, used for food (as grain and in sorghum syrup or "sorghum molasses"), animal fodder, the production of alcoholic beverages, and biofuels. Most varieties are drought- and heat-tolerant, and are especially important in arid regions, where the grain is one of the staples for poor and rural people. These varieties form important components of pastures in many tropical regions. S. bicolor is an important food crop in Africa, Central America, and South Asia, and is the "fifth-most important cereal crop grown in the world".[11]

Some species of sorghum can contain levels of hydrogen cyanide, hordenine, and nitrates lethal to grazing animals in the early stages of the plants' growth. When stressed by drought or heat, plants can also contain toxic levels of cyanide and/or nitrates at later stages in growth.[12]

Another Sorghum species, Johnson grass (S. halapense), is classified as an invasive species in the US by the Department of Agriculture.[13]

Nutrition

Sorghum, grain
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,377 kJ (329 kcal)
72.1 g
Dietary fiber 6.7 g
3.5 g
10.6 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(29%)
0.33 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(8%)
0.1 mg
Niacin (B3)
(25%)
3.7 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
(8%)
0.4 mg
Vitamin B6
(34%)
0.44 mg
Folate (B9)
(5%)
20 μg
Minerals
Calcium
(1%)
13 mg
Iron
(26%)
3.4 mg
Magnesium
(46%)
165 mg
Manganese
(76%)
1.6 mg
Phosphorus
(41%)
289 mg
Potassium
(8%)
363 mg
Sodium
(0%)
2 mg
Zinc
(18%)
1.7 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

In a 100 gram amount, raw sorghum provides 329 calories, 72% carbohydrates, 4% fat and 11% protein (table). Sorghum supplies numerous essential nutrients in rich content (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV), including protein, the B vitamins, niacin, thiamin and vitamin B6, and several dietary minerals, including iron (26% DV) and manganese (76% DV) (table). Sorghum nutrient contents generally are similar to those of raw oats (see nutrition table).

Diversity

Accepted species[1][not in citation given]
  1. Sorghum amplum – northwestern Australia
  2. Sorghum angustum – Queensland
  3. Sorghum arundinaceum – Africa, Indian Subcontinent, Madagascar, islands of western Indian Ocean
  4. Sorghum bicolor – cultivated sorghum, often individually called sorghum, also known as durra, jowari, or milo. - native to Sahel region of Africa; naturalized in many places
  5. Sorghum brachypodum – Northern Territory of Australia
  6. Sorghum bulbosum – Northern Territory, Western Australia
  7. Sorghum burmahicum – Thailand, Myanmar
  8. Sorghum controversum – India
  9. Sorghum × drummondii – Sahel and West Africa
  10. Sorghum ecarinatum – Northern Territory, Western Australia
  11. Sorghum exstans – Northern Territory of Australia
  12. Sorghum grande – Northern Territory, Queensland
  13. Sorghum halepense – Johnson grass – North Africa, islands of eastern Atlantic, southern Asia from Lebanon to Vietnam; naturalized in East Asia, Australia, the Americas
  14. Sorghum interjectum – Northern Territory, Western Australia
  15. Sorghum intrans – Northern Territory, Western Australia
  16. Sorghum laxiflorum – Philippines, Lesser Sunda Islands, Sulawesi, New Guinea, northern Australia
  17. Sorghum leiocladum – Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria
  18. Sorghum macrospermum – Northern Territory of Australia
  19. Sorghum matarankense – Northern Territory, Western Australia
  20. Sorghum nitidum – East Asia, Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Micronesia
  21. Sorghum plumosum – Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia
  22. Sorghum propinquum – China , Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Christmas Island, Micronesia, Cook Islands
  23. Sorghum purpureosericeum – Sahel from Mali to Tanzania; Yemen, Oman, India
  24. Sorghum stipoideum – Northern Territory, Western Australia
  25. Sorghum timorense – Lesser Sunda Islands, Maluku, New Guinea, northern Australia
  26. Sorghum trichocladum – Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras
  27. Sorghum versicolor – eastern + southern Africa from Ethiopia to Namibia; Oman
  28. Sorghum virgatum – dry regions from Senegal to Palestine
Formerly included[1][not in citation given]

Many species once considered part of Sorghum, but now considered better suited to other genera include: Andropogon, Arthraxon, Bothriochloa, Chrysopogon, Cymbopogon, Danthoniopsis, Dichanthium, Diectomis, Diheteropogon, Exotheca, Hyparrhenia, Hyperthelia, Monocymbium, Parahyparrhenia, Pentameris, Pseudosorghum, Schizachyrium, and Sorghastrum.

See also

References

External links