Soviet dissidents

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Soviet dissidents were persons who disagreed with certain features in the embodiment of Soviet ideology and who were willing to speak out against them.[1] As concerns the communist world, it is commonly recognized that the dissident "sits apart" from the regime.[2]

The dissidents were small groups of marginalized intellectuals whose modest challenges to the Soviet regime met protection and encouragement from correspondents.[3] Leonid Brezhnev succeeded in preventing many professionals from becoming a vocal opposition and the open Soviet dissidents became more an international embarrassment than an internal danger.[4] Soviet dissidents who criticized the state faced possible legal sanctions under Articles 70, 72, 142, 190.1, and 227 of the Soviet Criminal Code[5] and faced the choice of exile, the mental hospital, or the labor camp.[6] Anti-Soviet political behavior, in particular, being outspoken in opposition to the authorities, demonstrating for reform, writing books were defined in some persons as being simultaneously a criminal act (e.g., violation of Articles 70 or 190-1), a symptom (e.g., "delusion of reformism"), and a diagnosis (e.g., "sluggish schizophrenia").[7] Prison after prison, decade after decade, the dissident movement created vivid awareness of Soviet Communist tyranny.[8] Due to a half century of Soviet repression, Soviet scientists who had managed to emigrate greatly enriched American science.[9] Political opposition in the USSR was barely visible and, with rare exceptions, of little consequence.[10]

Soviet dissidents in the upper row: Naum Meiman, Sofiya Kallistratova, Petro Grigorenko, his wife Zinaida Grigorenko, Tatyana Velikanova's mother, priest Father Sergei Zheludkov and Andrei Sakharov; in the lower row: Genrikh Altunyan and Alexander Podrabinek. Photo taken on 16 October 1977[11]
Yelena Bonner and Andrei Sakharov after their arrival for the conferment of the honorary doctorate in law from the University of Groningen, 15 June 1989

The 1950s–1960s

In the 1950s, Soviet dissidents started leaking criticism to the West by sending documents and statements to foreign diplomatic missions in Moscow.[12] In the 1960s, Soviet dissidents frequently declared that the rights the government of the Soviet Union denied them were universal rights, possessed by everyone regardless of race, religion and nationality.[13] In August 1969, for instance, the Initiating Group for Defense of Civil Rights in the USSR appealed to the United Nations Committee on Human Rights to defend the human rights being trampled on by Soviet authorities in a number of trials.[14]

The 1970s

"Our history shows that most of the people can be fooled for a very long time. But now all this idiocy is coming into clear contradiction with the fact that we have some level of openness." (Vladimir Voinovich)[15]

The heyday of the dissenters as a presence in the Western public life was the 1970s.[16] The Helsinki Accords inspired dissidents in the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland to openly protest human rights failures by their own governments.[17] The Soviet dissidents demanded that the Soviet authorities implement their own commitments proceeding from the Helsinki Agreement with the same zeal and in the same way as formerly the outspoken legalists expected the Soviet authorities to adhere strictly to the letter of their constitution.[18] Dissident Russian and East European intellectuals who urged compliance with the Helsinki accords have been subjected to official repression.[19] According to Soviet dissident Leonid Plyushch, Moscow has taken advantage of the Helsinki security pact to improve its economy while increasing the suppression of political dissenters.[20] 50 members of Soviet Helsinki Groups were imprisoned.[21] Сases of political prisoners and prisoners of conscience in the Soviet Union were divulged by Amnesty International in 1975[22] and by The Committee for the Defense of Soviet Political Prisoners in 1975[23] and 1976.[24][25]

US President Jimmy Carter in his inaugural address on 20 January 1977 announced that human rights would be central to foreign policy during his administration.[26] In February, Carter sent Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov a letter expressing his support for the latter’s stance on human rights.[26][27] In the wake of Carter's letter to Sakharov, the USSR cautioned against attempts "to interfere' in its affairs under "a thought-up pretext of 'defending human rights.'"[28] Because of Carter's open show of support for Soviet dissidents, the KGB was able to link dissent with American imperialism through suggesting that such protest is a cover for American espionage in the Soviet Union.[29] The KGB head Yuri Andropov determined, "The need has thus emerged to terminate the actions of Orlov, fellow Helsinki monitor Ginzburg and others once and for all, on the basis of existing law."[30] According to Dmitri Volkogonov and Harold Shukman, it was Andropov who approved the numerous trials of human rights activists such as Andrei Amalrik, Vladimir Bukovsky, Vyacheslav Chornovil, Zviad Gamsakhurdia, Alexander Ginzburg, Natalya Gorbanevskaya, Pyotr Grigorenko, Anatoly Shcharansky, and others.[31] According to Soviet dissident Yuri Glazov, Andropov was a paradigmatic Homo Sovieticus and personally conducted disinformation campaigns against his main opponents and dissidents Andrei Sakharov and Alexander Solzhenitsyn.[32]

"If we accept human rights violations as just "their way" of doing things, then we are all guilty." (Andrei Sakharov)[33]

Voluntary and involuntary emigration allowed the authorities to rid themselves of many political active intellectuals including writers Valentin Turchin, Georgi Vladimov, Vladimir Voinovich, Lev Kopelev, Vladimir Maximov, Naum Korzhavin, Vasily Aksyonov and others.[34]:194 A Chronicle of Current Events covered 424 political trials, in which 753 people were convicted, and no one of the accused was acquitted; in addition, 164 people were declared insane and sent to compulsory treatment in a psychiatric hospital.[35]

According to Soviet dissidents and Western critics, the KGB had routinely sent dissenters to psychiatrists for diagnosing to avoid embarrassing publiс trials and to discredit dissidence as the product of ill minds.[36][37] On the grounds that political dissenters in the Soviet Union were psychotic and deluded, they were locked away in psychiatric hospitals and treated with neuroleptics.[38] Confinement of political dissenters in psychiatric institutions had become a common practice.[39] That technique could be called the "medicalization" of dissidence or psychiatric terror, the now familiar form of repression applied in the Soviet Union to Leonid Plyushch, Pyotr Grigorenko, and many others.[40] Finally, many persons at that time tended to believe that dissidents were abnormal people whose commitment to mental hospitals was quite justified.[34]:96[41] In the opinion of the Moscow Helsinki Group chairwoman Lyudmila Alexeyeva, the attribution of a mental illness to a prominent figure who came out with a political declaration or action is the most significant factor in the assessment of psychiatry during the 1960–1980s.[42] At that time Soviet dissident Vladimir Bukovsky wrote A New Mental Illness in the USSR: The Opposition published in French,[43] German,[44] Italian,[45] Spanish[46] and (coathored with Semyon Gluzman) A Manual on Psychiatry for Dissidents published in Russian,[47] English,[48] French,[49] Italian,[50] German,[51] Danish.[52]

Repression of the Helsinki Watch Groups

In 1977-1979 and again in 1980-1982, the KGB reacted to the Helsinki Watch Groups in Moscow, Kiev, Vilnius, Tbilisi, and Erevan by launching large-scale arrests and sentencing its members to in prison, labor camp, internal exile and psychiatric imprisonment.

From the members of the Moscow Helsinki Group, 1978 saw it members Yuri Orlov, Vladimir Slepak and Anatoly Shcharansky sentenced to lengthy labor camp terms and internal exile for "anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda" and treason. Another wave of arrests followed in the early 1980s: Malva Landa, Viktor Nekipelov, Leonard Ternovsky, Feliks Serebrov, Tatiana Osipova, Anatoly Marchenko, and Ivan Kovalev.[53]:249 Soviet authorities offered some activists the "opportunity" to emigrate. Lyudmila Alexeyeva emigrated in 1977. The Moscow Helsinki Group founding members Mikhail Bernshtam, Alexander Korchak, Vitaly Rubin also emigrated, and Pyotr Grigorenko was stripped of his Soviet citizenship while seeking medical treatment abroad.[54]

The Ukrainian Helsinki Group suffered severe repressions throughout 1977-1982, with at times multiple labor camp sentences handed out to Mykola Rudenko, Oleksy Tykhy, Myroslav Marynovych, Mykola Matusevych, Levko Lukyanenko, Oles Berdnyk, Mykola Horbal, Zinovy Krasivsky, Vitaly Kalynychenko, Vyacheslav Chornovil, Olha Heyko, Vasyl Stus, Oksana Meshko, Ivan Sokulsky, Ivan Kandyba, Petro Rozumny, Vasyl Striltsiv, Yaroslav Lesiv, Vasyl Sichko, Yuri Lytvyn, Petro Sichko.[53]:250–251 By 1983 the Ukrainian Helsinki Group had 37 members, of whom 22 were in prison camps, 5 were in exile, 6 emigrated to the West, 3 were released and were living in Ukraine, 1 (Mykhailo Melnyk) committed suicide.[55]

The Lithuanian Helsinki Group saw its members subjected to two waves of imprisonment for anti-Soviet activities and "organization of religious processions": Viktoras Petkus was sentenced in 1978; others followed in 1980-1981: Algirdas Statkevičius, Vytautas Skuodys, Mečislovas Jurevičius, and Vytautas Vaičiūnas.[53]:251–252

Currents of dissidence

Civil and human rights movement

In the 1960s, the early years of the Brezhnev stagnation, dissidents in the Soviet Union increasingly turned their attention towards civil and eventually human rights concerns. The fight for civil and human rights focused on issues of freedom of expression, freedom of conscience, freedom to emigrate, punitive psychiatry, and the plight of political prisoners. It was characterized by a new openness of dissent, a concern for legality, the rejection of any 'underground' and violent struggle.[56] The civil and human rights initiatives played a significant role in providing a common language and goal for many Soviet dissidents, and became a cause for diverse social groups in the dissident millieu, ranging from activists in the youth subculture to academics such as Andrei Sakharov.

Throughout the 1960s-1980s, dissidents in the civil and human rights movement engaged in a variety of activities: The documentation of political repression and rights violations in samizdat; individual and collective protest letters and petitions; unsanctioned demonstrations; an informal network of mutual aid for prisoners of conscience; and, most prominently, civic watch groups appealing to the international community. All of these activities came at great personal risk and with repercussions ranging from dismissal from work and studies to many years of imprisonment in labor camps and being subjected to punitive psychiatry.

Significantly, Soviet dissidents of the 1960s introduced the "legalist" approach of avoiding moral and political commentary in favor of close attention to legal and procedural issues. Following several landmark trials, coverage of arrests and trials in samizdat (unsanctioned press) became more common. This activity eventually led to the founding of the Chronicle of Current Events in April 1968. The unofficial newsletter reported violations of civil rights and judicial procedure by the Soviet government and responses to those violations by citizens across the USSR.[57]

The rights-based strategy of dissent merged with the idea of human rights. The human rights movement included figures such as Valery Chalidze, Yuri Orlov, and Lyudmila Alexeyeva. Special groups were founded such as the Initiative Group for the Defense of Human Rights in the USSR (1969) and the Committee on Human Rights in the USSR (1970). The signing of the Helsinki Accords (1975) containing human rights clauses provided civil rights campaigners with a new hope to use international instruments. This led to the creation of dedicated Helsinki Watch Groups in Moscow (Moscow Helsinki Group), Kiev (Ukrainian Helsinki Group), Vilnius (Lithuanian Helsinki Group), Tbilisi, and Erevan (1976–77).[58]:159–194

Due to the contacts with Western journalists as well as the political focus during détente (e.g., the Jackson-Vanick amendment and the Helsinki Accords), dissidents active in the human rights movement were among those most visible in the West (next to refuseniks).

Movements of deported nations

In 1944 THE WHOLE OF OUR PEOPLE was slanderously accused of betraying the Soviet Мotherland and was forcibly deported from the Crimea. [...] [O]n 5 September 1967, there appeared a Decree of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet which cleared us of the charge of treason but described us not as Crimean Tatars but as “citizens of Tatar nationality formerly resident in the Crimea”, thus legitimizing our banishment from our home country and liquidating us as a nation. Since 1959 more than two hundred of the most active and courageous representatives have been sentenced to terms of up to seven years although they had always acted within the limits of the Soviet Constitution.
– Appeal by Crimean Tatars to World Public Opinion, Chronicle of Current Events Issue No 2 (30 June 1968)[59]

Several national or ethnic groups who had been deported under Stalin formed movements to return to their homelands. In particular, the Crimean Tatars aimed to return to Crimea, the Meskhetian Turks to South Georgia and ethnic Germans aimed to resettle along the Volga River near Saratov.

The Crimean Tatar movement takes a prominent place among the movement of deported nations. The Tatars had been refused the right to return to the Crimea, even though the laws justifying their deportation had been overturned. Their first collective letter calling for the restoration dates to 1957.[60] In the early 1960s, the Crimean Tatars had began to establish initiative groups in the places where they had been forcibly resettled. Lead by Mustafa Dzhemilev, they founded their own democratic and decentralized organization, considered unique in the history of independent movements in the Soviet Union.[61]:131[62]:7

Emigration movements

The emigration movements in the Soviet Union included the movement of Soviet Jews to emigrate to Israel and of the Volga Germans to emigrate to West Germany.

Soviet Jews were routinely denied permission to emigrate by the authorities of the former Soviet Union and other countries of the Eastern bloc.[63] A movement for the right to emigrate formed in the 1960s, which also gave rise to a revival of interest in Jewish culture. The refusenik cause gathered considerable attention in the West.

Citizens of German origin who lived in the Baltic states prior to their annexation in 1940 and descendants of the eighteenth-century Volga German settlers also formed a movement to leave the Soviet Union.[61]:132[64]:67 In 1972, the West German government entered an agreement with the Soviet authorities which permitted between 6000 and 8000 people to emigrate to West Germany every year for the rest of the decade. As a result, almost 70000 ethnic Germans had left the Soviet Union by the mid-1980s.[64]:67

Similarly, Armenians achieved a small emigration. By the mid-1980s, over 15000 Armenians had emigrated.[64]:68

Religious movements

The religious movements in the USSR included Russian Orthodox, Catholic, and Protestant movements. They focused on the freedom to practice their faith and resistance to interference by the state in their internal affairs.[62]:8

The Russian Orthodox movement remained relatively small. The Catholic movement in Lithuania was part of the larger Lithuanian national movement. Protestant groups which opposed the anti-religious state directives included the Baptists, the Seventh Day Adventists, and the Pentecostals. Similar to the Jewish and German dissident movements, many in the independent Pentecostal movement pursued emigration.

National movements

The national movements included the Russian national dissidents as well as dissident movements from Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Georgia, and Armenia.

Among the nations that lived in their own territories with the status of republics within the Soviet Union, the first movement to emerge in the 1960s was the Ukrainian movement. Its aspiration was to resist the Russification of Ukraine and to insist on equal rights and democratization for the republic.[62]:7

In Lithuania, the national movement of the 1970s was closely linked to the Catholic movement.[62]:7

Literary and cultural

TASS press release on the expulsion of Alexandr Solzhenitzyn: By Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., A. Solzhenitsyn has been deprived of his citizenship for systematic actions incompatible with being a citizen of the U.S.S.R. and for damaging the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Solzhenitzyn’s family may join him when they consider it necessary. Izvestia, 15 February 1974.[65]

Several landmark examples of dissenting writers played a significant role for the wider dissident movement. These include the persecutions of Osip Mandelshtam, Boris Pasternak, Mikhail Bulgakov, and Joseph Brodsky, as well as the publication of The Gulag Archipelago by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn.

In literary world, there were dozens of literati who participated in dissident movement, including Vasily Aksyonov, Arkadiy Belinkov, Leonid Borodin, Joseph Brodsky, Georgi Vladimov, Vladimir Voinovich, Aleksandr Galich, Venedikt Yerofeyev, Alexander Zinoviev, Lev Kopelev, Naum Korzhavin, Vladimir Maximov, Viktor Nekrasov, Andrei Sinyavsky, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, and Varlam Shalamov.[66]

In the early Soviet Union, non-conforming academics were exiled via so-called Philosophers' ships.[67] Later, figures such as cultural theorist Grigori Pomerants were among active dissidents.[62]:327

Other intersections of cultural and literary nonconformism with dissidents include the wide field of Soviet Nonconformist Art, such as the painters of the underground Lianozovo group, and artists active in the "Second Culture".

Other groups

Other groups included the Socialists, the movements for socioeconomic rights (especially the independent unions), as well as women's, environmental, and peace movements.[61]:132[62]:3–18

Dissidents and the Cold War

President Reagan delivering the March 23, 1983 speech initiating Star Wars program

Responding to the issue of refuseniks in the Soviet Union, the United States Congress passed the Jackson–Vanik amendment in 1974. The provision in United States federal law intended to affect U.S. trade relations with countries of the Communist bloc that restrict freedom of emigration and other human rights.

The eight member countries of the Warsaw Pact signed the Helsinki Final Act in August 1975. The "third basket" of the Act included extensive human rights clauses.[68]:99–100

When Jimmy Carter entered office in 1976, he broadened his advisory circle to include critics of US–Soviet détente. He voiced support for the Czech dissident movement known as Charter 77, and publicly expressed concern about the Soviet treatment of dissidents Aleksandr Ginzburg and Andrei Sakharov. In 1977, Carter received prominent dissident Vladimir Bukovsky in the White House, asserting that he did not intend "to be timid" in his support of human rights.[69]:73

In 1979, the US Helsinki Watch Committee was established, funded by the Ford Foundation. Founded after the example of the Moscow Helsinki Group and similar watch groups in the Soviet bloc, it also aimed to monitor compliance with the human rights provisions of the Helsinki Accords and to provide moral support for those struggling for that objective inside the Soviet bloc. It acted as aconduit for information on repression in the Soviet Union, and lobbied policy-makers in the United States to continue to press the issue with Soviet leaders.[70]:460

US President Ronald Reagan attributed to the view that the "brutal treatment of Soviet dissidents was due to bureaucratic inertia."[71] On 14 November 1988, he held a meeting with Andrei Sakharov at the White House and said that Soviet human rights abuses are impeding progress and would continue to do so until the problem is "completely eliminated."[72] Whether talking to about one hundred dissidents in a broadcast to the Soviet people or at the U.S. Embassy, Reagan’s agenda was one of freedom to travel, freedom of speech, freedom of religion.[73] There is an opinion that Star Wars program, which was launched in the US under Ronald Reagan, was a major factor in the chain of events that led to the first defeat of the USSR in the Cold War and later to the collapse of the communist regime in the country.[74]

Dissidents about their dissent

Andrei Sakharov said, "Everyone wants to have a job, be married, have children, be happy, but dissidents must be prepared to see their lives destroyed and those dear to them hurt. When I look at my situation and my family's situation and that of my country, I realize that things are getting steadily worse."[75]

Fellow dissident and one of the founders of the Moscow Helsinki Group Lyudmila Alexeyeva wrote:

What would happen if citizens acted on the assumption that they have rights? If one person did it, he would become a martyr; if two people did it, they would be labeled an enemy organization; if thousands of people did it, the state would have to become less oppressive.[62]:275

According to Soviet dissident Victor Davydoff, totalitarian system has no mechanisms that could change the behavior of the ruling group from within.[76] Any attempts to change this are immediately suppressed through repression.[76] Dissidents appealed to international human rights organizations, foreign governments, and there was a result.[76] The same should be used now as well; in the situation where the mass manipulation through the media brought the country to the point where people do not realize what happens in the country, when people do not understand what is going on in the world, one can only rely on the fact that those who know and understand will be able to find common language with people abroad and thus to change the situation.[76]

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Further reading

Outsiders' works

  • "Chomsky signs statement hitting Soviet repression". The Harvard Crimson. 31 October 1973.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Civil dissent in the USSR: the Ford and Carter administrations' treatment of human rights during the era of the Moscow Helsinki Group. University of Scranton. 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • De la dissidence à la démocratie: passé, présent, avenir de la Russie: actes du colloque consacré à la mémoire de Vladimir Maximov [From dissent to democracy: past, present and future of Russia: proceedings of a symposium dedicated to commemoration of Vladimir Maximov] (in French). Paris: Éditions du Rocher. 1996. ISBN 226802430X. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • Dissent, ethnonationalism, and the politics of coercion in the USSR. Carleton University. 1990.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "Dissent, psychiatry, and the Soviet Union". The Lancet. 1 (7854): 419–420. 9 March 1974. PMID 11643587.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "Human rights: the dissidents v. Moscow". Time. 109 (8): 28. 21 February 1977.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Il dissenso culturale nell'URSS: documenti leterari edel samizdat [The cultural dissent in the USSR: literary documents of samizdat] (in Italian). La biennale di Venezia. 1977. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Politics and deviance: the social control of dissidents in the Soviet Union, 1965–78. University of Essex. 1980.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "Sakharov case spotlights Soviet efforts against dissidents". The Hour. 26 May 1984.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Slavophiles and westernizers in Soviet dissent. Wellesley College. 1975.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "Solzhenitsyn urges Slavic nation to replace U.S.S.R.: dissent: exiled writer launches a vehement attack on Gorbachev's policies. His article will be distributed widely in the Soviet Union". Los Angeles Times. 19 September 1990.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • Soviet dissent and the American national interest. Defense Technical Information Center. 1986.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Soviet dissident scientists, 1966–78: a study. Defense Technical Information Center. 1979.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "Soviet dissidents and Jimmy Carter". Memorial. Retrieved 28 November 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • "Soviet dissidents seek paper support". New Scientist. 74 (1054): 517. 2 June 1977.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "Soviet-era dissidents despise Putin". The Washington Times. 13 November 2004.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • "Soviet Union: bad days for dissidents". Time. 26 April 1976.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "Soviet Union: crackdown on dissent". Time. 18 December 1972.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "Soviet Union: dissent = insanity". Time. 19 December 1969.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "Soviet Union: exile for dissenters". Time. 20 August 1973.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "Soviet Union: music of dissent". Time. 7 September 1970.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "Soviet Union: smothering dissent". Time. 11 February 1974.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • "Soviet Union, the war: asylums or prisons?". Time. 7 February 1972.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • The human rights movement and dissidents in the Soviet Union: can their demand for legality prevent arbitrariness?. University of Maine School of Law. 1985.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "The KGB file of Andrei Sakharov. Index of documents" (in English and Russian). <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "Two Soviet giants, in dissent". The New York Times. 29 September 1990.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • U.S. policy toward Russia: warnings and dissent. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 2000.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "US science academy supports dissident scientists". New Scientist. 77 (1084): 3. 5 January 1978.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "Western pressure for Soviet dissidents continues". New Scientist. 85 (1197): 720. 6 March 1980.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Власть и диссиденты: Из документов КГБ и ЦК КПСС [Authority and dissidents: From documents by the KGB and the Central Committee of the CPSU] (PDF) (in Russian). Moscow: Moscow Helsinki Group. 2006. ISBN 5-98440-034-0. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 March 2013. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "Писатели-диссиденты: биобиблиографические статьи (начало)" [Dissident writers: bibliographic articles (beginning)]. Новое литературное обозрение [New Literary Review] (in Russian) (66). 2004. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "Писатели-диссиденты: биобиблиографические статьи (продолжение)" [Dissident writers: bibliographic articles (continuance)]. Новое литературное обозрение [New Literary Review] (in Russian) (67). 2004. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "Писатели-диссиденты: биобиблиографические статьи (окончание)" [Dissident writers: bibliographic articles (ending)]. Новое литературное обозрение [New Literary Review] (in Russian) (68). 2004. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "П.Л. Капица и Ю.В. Андропов об инакомыслии" [P.L. Kapitsa and Yu.V. Andropov about dissent]. Kommunist (in Russian) (7). 1991. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "Resistance to Unfreedom in the USSR". The Andrei Sakharov Museum and Public Center "Peace, Progress, Human Rights".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Ackerman, Galina (2006). "Еще раз о диссидентах — об их роли в падении советского режима" [Once again about dissidents – about their role in the fall of the Soviet regime]. Kontinent (in Russian) (128). <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Anderson, Elena (1994). Repressive policies against Soviet dissent in the post-Stalin era, 1964–1972.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Aron, Leon (19 March 2008). "The return of Soviet dissidents". The Moscow Times.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Astrachan, Antony (22 September 1973). "Détente and dissent". The New Republic: 15–18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Barashkov, Gregory (2007). "Диссидентское движение в СССР(1960–1970)" [Dissident movement in the USSR (1960–1970)] (PDF, immediate download). Известия Саратовского университета. Серия Экономика. Управление. Право (in Russian). 7 (1): 102–104. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Barghoorn, Frederick (1971). The general pattern of Soviet dissent. Research Institute on Communist Affairs, School of International Affairs, Columbia University.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Barghoorn, Frederick (1974). "Soviet dissenters on Soviet nationality policy". In Bell, Wendell; Freeman, Walter (eds.). Ethnicity and nation-building: comparative, international, and historical perspectives. Beverly Hills, London: Sage Publications. pp. 117–133. ISBN 0803901739. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Barghoorn, Frederick (1976). Détente and the democratic movement in the USSR. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0029018501.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Barghoorn, Frederick (1983). "Regime–dissenter relations after Khrushchev: some observations". In Solomon, Susan; Skilling, Harold (eds.). Pluralism in the Soviet Union. Macmillan. pp. 131–168. ISBN 0333345827. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Barringer, Felicity (27 May 1988). "Toward the summit; Soviet warns Reagan about seeing dissidents". The New York Times.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Belotserkovsky, Vadim (1975). "Soviet dissenters: Solzhenitsyn, Sakharov, Medvedev". Partisan Review. 42 (1): 35–68.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Bernstein, Richard (12 April 1988). "Exiled Soviet dissidents' group in dispute over threat to dissenters". The New York Times.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Beyrau, Dietrich (1993). Intelligenz und Dissens. Die russischen Bildungsschichten in der Sowjetunion 1917 bis 1985 [Intelligentsia and dissent. The Russian educational stratum in the Soviet Union from 1917 to 1985] (in German). Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht. ISBN 3525362315. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Bilocerkowycz, Jaroslaw (1988). Soviet Ukrainian dissent: a study of political alienation. Westview Press. ISBN 0813372402.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Bittner, Stephen (2008). "Dissidence and the end of the Thaw". The many lives of Khrushchev's Thaw: experience and memory in Moscow's Arbat. Cornell University Press. pp. 174–210. ISBN 0801446066.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Blake, Patricia (1 December 1980). "Soviet Union: killing the spirit of Helsinki". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Bloch, Sidney; Reddaway, Peter (21 July 1977). "Your disease is dissent!". New Scientist. 75 (1061): 149–151. PMID 11663776. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Bloch, Sidney; Reddaway, Peter (1977). Psychiatric terror: How Soviet psychiatry is used to suppress dissent. Basic Books. ISBN 0465064884. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Bloch, Sidney; Reddaway, Peter (1985). "Psychiatrists and dissenters in the Soviet Union". In Stover, Eric; Nightingale, Elena (eds.). The breaking of bodies and minds: torture, psychiatric abuse, and the health professions. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. pp. 132–163. ISBN 0716717336. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Bloche, Gregg (Spring 1986). "Law, theory, and politics: the dilemma of Soviet psychiatry". The Yale Journal of International Law. 11 (2): 298–358.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Boobbyer, Philip (2005). Conscience, dissent and reform in Soviet Russia. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415331862.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Brahm, Heinz (1978). Die sowjetischen Dissidenten: Strömungen und Ziele [The Soviet dissidents: trends and goals] (in German). Bundesinstitut für Ostwissenschaftliche und Internationale Studien. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Breuillard, Sabine (1 January 1993). "La dissidence en U.R.S.S. : les années 1950–1980 – objet d'étude, sources, problèmes de méthode (Colloque de Moscou, 24–26 août 1992)" [Dissent in the U.S.S.R.: The 1950–1980s – object of study, sources, methodological problems (Moscow symposium, 24–26 August 1992)]. Revue des Études Slaves (in French). 65 (2): 423–428. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Brumberg, Abraham (1970). In quest of justice: protest and dissent in the Soviet Union today. New York: Praeger.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Campa, Riccardo (1 July 1979). "El fenómeno de la disidencia en la U.R.S.S." [The phenomenon of dissent in the U.S.S.R.]. Arbor (in Spanish). 103 (403): 345. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Chapple, Richard (February 1976). "Criminals and criminality according to the Soviet dissidents–works of Andrey Sinyavsky and Yuly Daniel". In Fox, Vernon (ed.). Proceedings of the 21st annual Southern conference on corrections. 21. Tallahassee: Florida State University. pp. 149–158. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Chomsky, Noam; Barsamian, David (1992). Chronicles of dissent: interviews with David Barsamian. Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press. ISBN 1873176902. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Clementi, Marco (2002). Il diritto al dissenso: il progetto costituzionale di Andrej Sacharov [The right to dissent: Andrei Sakharov's constitutional project] (in Italian). Rome: Odradek Edizioni. ISBN 8886973446. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Clementi, Marco (2007). Storia del dissenso sovietico (1953–1991) [History of the Soviet dissent (1953–1991)] (in Italian). Rome: Odradek Edizioni. ISBN 8886973853. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Dalos, György (2012). "Der Umgang mit dem Dissens" [Dealing with dissent]. Lebt wohl, Genossen!: Der Untergang des sowjetischen Imperiums [Farewell, comrades!: the fall of the Soviet empire] (in German). C.H.Beck. pp. 14–16. ISBN 3406621791. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Daniels, Susan (1985). Carter administration's influence on coverage of Soviet dissidents. University of Texas at Austin.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Daucé, Françoise (2006). "Les usages militants de la mémoire dissidente en Russie post-soviétique" [Militant use of dissident memory in post-Soviet Russia]. Revue d'études comparatives Est-Ouest (in French). 37 (1): 43–66. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Seleznev, Viktor (2009). Кто выбирает свободу. Саратов: Хроника инакомыслия. 1920–1980-е годы [Who chooses freedom. Saratov: Chronicle of dissent. The 1920s–1980s] (PDF) (in Russian). Saratov. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Serebryakova, Elena (2012). "Мир глазами диссидента (по книге В. Буковского "И возвращается ветер…")" [World through the eyes of a dissident (about the book of V. Bukovsky «The wind returns…»)] (PDF). Управленческое консультирование (in Russian) (4): 132–138. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 March 2016. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Shatz, Marshall (1980). Soviet dissent in historical perspective. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521231728.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Shlapentokh, Dmitry (August 2005). "President Bush, Shcharansky and the tradition of Russian dissent". Contemporary Review. 287 (1675): 71–81.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Shirokorad, Alexander (2014). Диссиденты 1956–1990 гг [Dissidents of 1956–1990] (in Russian). Moscow: Алгоритм. ISBN 5443807323. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Sinatti, Piero (1974). Il dissenso in URSS [Dissent in the USSR] (in Italian). Rome: La nuova sinistra; Savelli. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Sinatti, Piero (1978). Il dissenso in Urss nell'epoca di Breznev: antologia della Cronaca degli avvenimenti correnti (documenti e interventi) [Dissent in the USSR in the era of Brezhnev: anthology of A Chronicle of Current Events (documents and interviews)] (in Italian). Firenze: Vallecchi. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Smith, Fred (Winter 1991). "Sakharov and Solzhenitsyn: dissidents with a different world view". The Journal of Social, Political, and Economic Studies. 16 (4): 469–476.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Solovyov, Vladimir; Klepikova, Elena (17 August 1987). "The Kremlin and dissidents: time for compromise". Chicago Tribune. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Spechler, Dina (1982). Permitted dissent in the USSR: Novy mir and the Soviet regime. New York: Praeger. ISBN 0030606217.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Spiegel, Philip (2008). Triumph over tyranny: the heroic campaigns that saved 2,000,000 Soviet Jews. Devora Publishing. ISBN 1615849386.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Surovtseva, Ekaterina (2015). "А.И. Солженицын, А.Д. Сахаров и Р. Медведев: дискуссия вокруг "Письма вождям Советского Союза" и её восприятие в эмигрантской печати (М. Агурский)" [A.I. Solzhenitsyn, A.D. Sakharov and R. Medvedev: the debate around "Letter to the Soviet leaders" and its perception in the emigre press (M. Agursky)]. Молодой ученый (in Russian) (2): 608–613. Archived from the original on 19 April 2015. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Surrett, William (1987). Formalization and contemporary patterns and conditions of modern Soviet dissidence.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Tria, Massimo (2011). "L'invasione vista dai sovietici, fra approvazione e dissenso" [The imaginative invasion of the Soviets, from approval to dissent]. In Caccamo, Francesco; Helan, Pavel; Tria, Massimo (eds.). Primavera di Praga, risveglio europeo [Prague Spring, European awakening] (in Italian). Firenze University Press. pp. 97–126. ISBN 8864532692. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Trigos, Ludmilla (2009). "The decembrists and dissidence: myth and anti-myth from the 1960s–1980s". The decembrist myth in Russian culture. Macmillan. pp. 141–160. ISBN 0230619169.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Ulam, Adam (1981). Russia's failed revolutions: from the decembrists to the dissidents. Littlehampton Book Services. ISBN 0297779400.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Vaissié, Cécile (1999). Pour votre liberté et pour la nôtre: le combat des dissidents de Russie [For your and our freedom: the struggle of Russian dissidents] (in French). Laffont. ISBN 2221090470. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Vaissié, Cécile (2011). "Le combat des dissidents de Russie en Occident" [The struggle of Russian dissidents in the West]. In Falkowski, Wojciech; Marès, Antoine (eds.). Les intellectuels en exil face aux régimes totalitaires [Intellectuals in exile deal with totalitarian regimes] (in French). Paris: Institut d'études slaves. pp. 143–155. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Voren, Robert van (2009). On dissidents and madness: from the Soviet Union of Leonid Brezhnev to the "Soviet Union" of Vladimir Putin. Amsterdam—New York: Rodopi Publishers. ISBN 978-90-420-2585-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Weeks, Albert (1975). Andrei Sakharov and the Soviet dissidents: a critical commentary. Monarch Press. ISBN 067100963X.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Westrate, Mike (2012). "The self against the state: Valery Abramkin and the destruction of dissident identity" (PDF). Acta Slavica Iaponica. 31: 105‒121. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 February 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • White, Sarah (25 June 1981). "New crackdown on Russian dissidents and refusniks". New Scientist. 90 (1259): 816.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • White, Sarah (11 February 1982). "Science keeps the dissidents hoping". New Scientist. 93 (1292): 359.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Wilke, Manfred (2007). "Solschenizyn und der Westen" [Solzhenitsyn and the West]. In Veen, Hans-Joachim; Mählert, Ulrich; März, Peter (eds.). Wechselwirkungen Ost-West: Dissidenz, Opposition und Zivilgesellschaft 1975–1989 [East-West interactions: dissidence, opposition and civil society 1975–1989] (in German). Böhlau Verlag Köln Weimar. pp. 149–172. ISBN 3412233064. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Willis, David (15 January 1981). "Currents of nationalism, dissent beneath crust of communist conformity". The Christian Science Monitor.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Woll, Josephine; Treml, Vladimir (1983). Soviet dissident literature: a critical guide. G.K. Hall. ISBN 081618626X. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Woychyshyn, Nestor (1986). Soviet Ukrainian political dissidents in the West: their politics, interaction, and impact after exile to the West, 1965–1983. Ottawa, Canada: Carleton University.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Wynn, Allan; Dewhirst, Martin; Stone, Harold (1986). Fifth International Sakharov Hearing: Proceedings, April, 1985. Andre Deutsch. ISBN 0233980504. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Zukerman, William (1964). Voice of dissent: Jewish problems, 1948–1961. Brookman Associates.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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Insiders' works

  • Alexeyeva, Ludmilla (Autumn 1977–1978). "The human rights movement in the USSR". Survey. 23 (4): 72–85. Check date values in: |date= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Alekseeva, Liudmila (1980). The diversity of Soviet dissent: ideologies, goals and direction, 1965–1980.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Alexeyeva, Ludmilla (1987) [1985]. Soviet dissent: contemporary movements for national, religious, and human rights (2 ed.). Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 0-8195-6176-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Amalrik, Andrei (1982). Записки диссидента [Dissident's Notes] (in Russian). Ann Arbor: Ардис. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Amalrik, Andrei (1 March 1978). "Soviet dissidents and the American press: a reply". Columbia Journalism Review. 16 (6): 63.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Boukovsky, Vladimir (1995). Jugement à Moscou – un dissident dans les archives du Kremlin [Judgement in Moscow – a dissident in the Kremlin archives] (in French). Paris: Robert Laffont. ISBN 2-221-07460-2. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Brodsky, Joseph (19 September 1974). "An appeal for Vladimir Maramzin". The New York Review of Books.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Brodsky, Joseph (23 January 1975). "Victims". The New York Review of Books.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Brodsky, Joseph (5 March 1981). "Nadezhda Mandelstam (1899–1980)". The New York Review of Books.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Brodsky, Joseph (March 1992). "Poetry as a form of resistance to reality". Publications of the Modern Language Association of America. 107 (2): 220–225.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Bukovsky, Vladimir (1978). To build a castle: my life as a dissenter (PDF). London: Andrei Deutsch. ISBN 0-233-97023-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Boukovsky, Vladimir. Une nouvelle maladie mentale en URSS: l'opposition [A new mental illness in the USSR: the opposition]. Paris: Le Seuil; 1971. French. ISBN 2020025272.
  • Bukowski, Wladimir. UdSSR. Opposition. Eine neue Geisteskrankheit in der Sowjetunion? Eine Dokumentation von W. Bukowskij [The USSR. Opposition. A new mental illness in the Soviet Union? Documentation by V. Bukovsky]. München: Carl Hanser Verlag; 1971. German. ISBN 3446115714.
  • Bukovskij, Vladimir. Una nuova malattia mentale in Urss: l'opposizione [A new mental illness in the USSR: opposition]. Milan: Etas Kompass; 1972. Italian.
  • Bukovsky, Vladimir. Una nueva enfermedad mental en la U.R.S.S.: la oposición [A new mental illness in the USSR: opposition]. México: Lasser Press; 1972. Spanish.
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Audiovisual material

See also