Soyuz-5 (rocket)

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Soyuz-5.1[1][2]
Manufacturer JSC SRC Progress
Country of origin Russia
Size
Height 46.5 m (153 ft)[3]
Diameter 3.6 m (12 ft)[4]
Mass 270,000 kg (600,000 lb)[2]
Stages 2
Capacity
Payload to LEO 9 t (8.9 long tons; 9.9 short tons)[2]
Associated rockets
Comparable Soyuz-2 (rocket)
First stage
Diameter 3.6 m (12 ft)[4]
Engines RD-0164[4][5]
Thrust 3,330 kN (750,000 lbf)[6]
Specific impulse Sea Level:321 seconds
Vacuum: 356 seconds
Fuel liquid methane/LOX[2]
Second stage
Diameter 3.6 m (12 ft)[4]
Engines RD-0169[2]
Thrust 737 kN (166,000 lbf)[6]
Fuel liquid methane/LOX[2]

The Soyuz-5 (Russian: Союз-5), also known as Feniks (Phoenix),[3] is a launch family Russian rocket proposed by JSC SRC Progress, the manufacturer and custodian of the Soyuz family design.[3] While all previous iterations of the Soyuz family had its roots firmly set on the R-7 ICBM legacy, the Soyuz-5 is a complete new design from the ground up. It is based on a new propellant: LOX and liquid methane, uses a new tank structure, new propulsion, does away with the famous R-7 tulip and has thrust vector control in the main engine rather than using vernier engines.[3] It is also a scalable family with the version that enable it to cover the medium to heavy payload ranges.[3]

The project is considered as fundamental to assure access to space to Russia, since it is transitioning exclusively to the Angara family, and the Soyuz-5 would add redundancy in case of an Angara stand down.[2] The smallest version, the Soyuz-5.1 is a 270 tonnes rocket and is proposed as a replacement of the Soyuz-2 rocket, and has an expected payload to LEO of 9 tonnes. It will use a single RD-0164 on the first stage, and a RD-0169 on the second.[7][8] The first engineering design is expected to be finalized by 2016, and the first flight expected for 2022.[9] The use of just two stages for the base version, and the simplification of subsystems means a more reliable and cheaper launcher. In fact, the Soyuz-5.1 is expected to be cheaper than the Soyuz-2.[10]

History

During an interview with the kazakhstani magazine Space Research and Technologies during 2013, Mr. Kirilin, CEO of TSKB Progress, explained the conception of the project.[10] When the Rus-M project was cancelled, TSKB Progress started work on a methane fueled launch vehicle under the Roscosmos Magistral research program.[10] This work was self funded by the company, and looked to replace the Soyuz vehicle and keep the vehicle design capabilities within the company.

The venerable vehicle would be some 60 years old design by 2020 and it could not remain competitive with the new vehicles, like the Falcon 9. It was defined by Progress CEO, Mr. Kirilin, as technologically and operationally hopelessly outdated.[10] It has conical sections, where each panel is unique, it uses six engines with 24 nozzles, most task include a lot of manual operations, it even requires five different fluids, kerosene, liquid oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, gaseous nitrogen and gaseous helium. Looking forward, the price of RG-1 fuel was going up, since it could only be distilled from a single oil field, that is expected to be depleted soon.[10]

The Soyuz-5 would use the same diameter for all sections of the rocket, 3.6 m (12 ft), use just liquid methane and liquid oxygen, have a single engine with a single nozzle per stage, and automate most tasks.[10] But it could use the basic Soyuz pads and installations after some modifications. Liquid methane is cheap, Russia has ample reserves and it has a huge installed base. It also has some important thermal and polymerizing properties that paves the way for reusable rockets. The rocket was expected to use the KBKhA RD-0164 engine in the core stages, and a methane version of the also KBKhA's RD-0124 in the upper stage.[10]

During an August, 2015 interview with Ria Novosti, Mr. Kirilin stated that preliminary design was expected in 2015 or 2016, that they will first develop the light Soyuz-5.1 version, that they expected to fly the first prototype in 2022 and that the propulsion would be the RD-0164 for the cores and the RD-0169 for the upper stage.[2]

Versions

The Soyuz-5 is designed to be a scalable family. As such it has three proposed versions:

  • Soyuz-5.1: This would be the basic version designed to replace the Soyuz-2.1a/b rockets. It uses a first and a second stage. It is expected to have a payload to a 200 km (110 nmi) circular LEO orbit of 9 t (8.9 long tons; 9.9 short tons).[1][3]
  • Soyuz-5.2: It is designed as a crew carrier vehicle and uses a central core and two equal cores on the side as boosters. It does not have an air lighted seconds stage which eliminates air start risk. It is expected to have a payload to LEO of 16 t (16 long tons; 18 short tons).[1][3]
  • Soyuz-5.3: Heaviest version. A Soyuz-5.2 with the Soyuz-5.1 upper stage, it has the maximum capability.[11] It is expected to have a payload to LEO of 25 t (25 long tons; 28 short tons).[1][3]

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "Делегация «ЦСКБ-Прогресс» приняла участие в открытии международной выставки «ILA Berlin Airshow 2014»" [Samara Space Center participates in the International Exhibition «ILA Berlin Airshow 2014»] (in Russian). JSC SRC Progress. 2014-05-06. Retrieved 2015-08-20. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 "РКЦ "Прогресс": летный образец ракеты "Союз-5" ожидаем к 2022 году" [RCC "Progress": expects to fly "Soyuz-5" prototype by 2022] (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 2015-08-18. Retrieved 2015-08-20. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Zak, Anatoly (2014-07-31). "Soyuz-5 rocket". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 2015-08-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Voroncov, Dimitry (2013). ""Союз" с метаном" [Soyuz on Methane] (PDF). Space Research and Technologies (in Russian) (3 (8)): 47–51. Retrieved 2015-08-20. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. ГОДОВОЙ ОТЧЕТ Акционерного общества «Конструкторское бюро химавтоматики» (АО КБХА) за 2013 год ["Chemical Automatics Design Bureau" (JSC KBKhA) Annual Report for 2013] (PDF) (Report) (in Russian). JSC KBKhA. 2014-05-28. p. 37. Retrieved 2015-08-20. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. 6.0 6.1 ГОДОВОЙ ОТЧЕТ Акционерного общества «Конструкторское бюро химавтоматики» (АО КБХА) за 2014 год ["Chemical Automatics Design Bureau" (JSC KBKhA) Annual Report for 2014] (PDF) (Report) (in Russian). JSC KBKhA. 2015-05-22. p. 43. Retrieved 2015-08-20. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "Russia to Build New Medium-Class Carrier Rocket by 2022". Sputnik News. 2015-08-18. Retrieved 2015-08-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. "Russia's new rocket will be named Fenix — source". Russian News Agency TASS. 2015-04-27. Retrieved 2015-08-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. "Brand-new Soyuz rocket powered by natural gas to be developed by 2022". RT. 2015-08-18. Retrieved 2015-08-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 Nowakowski, Tomasz (2015-08-20). "Russia to build new eco-friendly Soyuz-5 rocket by 2022". Retrieved 2015-08-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. "What Roscosmos showed, and said, during the Paris Air Show". Space Digest. 2015-06-22. Retrieved 2015-08-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links