Spheres of Justice

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Spheres of Justice: A Defense of Pluralism and Equality
File:Spheres of Justice.jpg
Author Michael Walzer
Country United States
Language English
Genre Philosophy
Published 1983
Media type Print
ISBN 0-465-08189-4

Spheres of Justice: A Defense of Pluralism and Equality is a 1983 book by Michael Walzer.


Walzer argues in favour of an idea he calls "complex equality", and against the view that goods with different meaning and content can be lumped together into the larger category of primary goods, as is advocated by John Rawls, in his A Theory of Justice (1971).

Scholarly reception

Spheres of Justice has, together with Just and Unjust Wars (1977) and Interpretation and Social Criticism (1987), been identified as one of Walzer's most important works by philosopher Will Kymlicka.[1]

See also



  1. Kymlicka 2005, p. 952.


  • Kymlicka, Will (2005). Honderich, Ted (ed.). The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-926479-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links