Tavoyan dialects

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Tavoyan
Dawei
Region Southeast
Ethnicity incl. Taungyo
Native speakers
ca. 440,000 (2000)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Either:
tvn – Tavoyan proper
tco – Dawei Tavoyan (Taungyo)
Glottolog tavo1242  (Tavoyan)[2]
taun1248  (Taungyo)[3]

The Tavoyan or Dawei dialect of Burmese (ထားဝယ်စကား) is spoken in Dawei (Tavoy), in the coastal Tanintharyi Region of southern Myanmar (Burma).

Tavoyan retains /-l-/ medial that has since merged into the /-j-/ medial in standard Burmese and can form the following consonant clusters: /ɡl-/, /kl-/, /kʰl-/, /bl-/, /pl-/, /pʰl-/, /ml-/, /m̥l-/. Examples include မ္လေ (/mlè/ → Standard Burmese /mjè/) for "ground" and က္လောင်း (/kláʊɴ/ → Standard Burmese /tʃáʊɴ/) for "school".[4] Also, voicing only with unaspirated consonants, whereas in standard Burmese, voicing can occur with both aspirated and unaspirated consonants. Also, there are many loan words from Malay and Thai not found in Standard Burmese. An example is the word for goat, which is hseit (ဆိတ်) in Standard Burmese but be (ဘဲ) in Tavoyan, most likely from Mon /həbeˀ/ (ဗၜေံ) or Thai /pʰɛ́ʔ/ (แพะ).[5]

In the Tavoyan dialect, terms of endearment, as well as family terms, are considerably different from Standard Burmese. For instance, the terms for "son" and "daughter" are ဖစု (/pʰa̰ òu/) and မိစု (/mḭ òu/) respectively.[6] Moreover, the honorific နောင် (Naung) is used in lieu of မောင် (Maung) for young males.[6]

Rhymes

The following is a list of rhyme correspondences unique to the Tavoyan dialect[7]

Written Burmese Standard Burmese Tavoyan dialect Notes
-င် -န် -မ် /-ɪɴ -aɴ -aɴ/ /-aɴ/
-ဉ် -ျင် /-ɪɴ -jɪɴ/ /-ɪɴ -jɪɴ/
ောင် /-aʊɴ/ /-ɔɴ/
ုန် /-oʊɴ/ /-uːɴ/
ုမ် /-aoɴ/
ိမ် /-eɪɴ/ /-iːɴ/
ုတ် /-oʊʔ/ /-ṵ/
ုပ် /-aoʔ/
-က် -တ် -ပ် /-ɛʔ -aʔ -aʔ/ /-aʔ/
-ိတ် -ိပ် /-eɪʔ/ /-ḭ/
-ည် /-ɛ, -e, -i// /-ɛ/
-စ် -ျက် /-ɪʔ -jɛʔ/ /-ɪʔ -jɪʔ/
ေွ /-we/ /-i/ is pronounced as in standard Burmese
Rhymes
Open syllables weak = ə
full = i, e, ɛ, a, ɔ, o, u
Closed syllables nasal = iːɴ, ɪɴ, aɪɴ, an, ɔɴ, ʊɴ, uːɴ, aoɴ
stop = ɪʔ, aɪʔ, aʔ, ɔʔ, ʊʔ, aoʔ

References

  1. Tavoyan proper at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Dawei Tavoyan (Taungyo) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Tavoyan". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Taungyo". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. "ထားဝယ်စကား ဗမာစကား". မြန်မာအပိုင်းအစည်အစဥ် (in Burmese). BBC. 20 May 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2012. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Census of India, 1901 - Burma. XII. Burma: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing. 1902. p. 76.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. 6.0 6.1 "အလင်္ကာပုလဲပန်း ထားဝယ်စကား". မြန်မာအပိုင်းအစည်အစဥ် (in Burmese). BBC. 10 June 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2012. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Barron, Sandy; John Okell; Saw Myat Yin; Kenneth VanBik; Arthur Swain; Emma Larkin; Anna J. Allott; Kirsten Ewers (2007). Refugees From Burma: Their Backgrounds and Refugee Experiences (PDF) (Report). Center for Applied Linguistics. pp. 16–17. Retrieved 2010-08-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>