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Tertiary is the former term for the geologic period from 66 million to 2.58 million years ago, a time span that lies between the superseded Secondary period and the Quaternary. The Tertiary is no longer recognized as a formal unit by the International Commission on Stratigraphy, but the word is still widely used. The traditional span of the Tertiary has been divided between the Paleogene and Neogene Periods and extends to the first stage of the Pleistocene Epoch, the Gelasian age.
The period began with the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs in the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, at the start of the Cenozoic Era, and extended to the beginning of the Quaternary glaciation at the end of the Pliocene Epoch.
Historical use of the term
The term Tertiary was first used by Giovanni Arduino during the mid-18th century. He classified geologic time into primitive (or primary), secondary, and tertiary periods based on observations of geology in northern Italy. Later a fourth period, the Quaternary, was applied.
In 1828, Charles Lyell incorporated a Tertiary Period into his own, far more detailed system of classification. He subdivided the Tertiary Period into four epochs according to the percentage of fossil mollusks resembling modern species found in those strata. He used Greek names: Eocene, Miocene, Older Pliocene and Newer Pliocene.
Although these divisions seemed adequate for the region to which the designations were originally applied (parts of the Alps and plains of Italy), when the same system was later extended to other parts of Europe and to America, it proved to be inapplicable. Therefore, the use of mollusks was abandoned from the definition and the epochs were renamed and redefined.
Climates during the Tertiary slowly cooled, starting off in the Paleocene with tropical-to-moderate worldwide temperatures and ending before the first extensive glaciation at the start of the Quaternary.
- K. M. Cohen; S. Finney; P. L. Gibbard (January 2013). "International Chronostratigraphic Chart" (PDF). International Commission on Stratigraphy.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Ogg, James G.; Gradstein, F. M; Gradstein, Felix M. (2004). "1: Chronostratigraphy: linking time and rock". A geologic time scale 2004. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-521-78142-6.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gradstein, Felix M.; James G.Ogg; Martin van Kranendonk. "On the Geologic Time Scale 2008" (PDF). International Commission on Stratigraphy. p. 5. Retrieved 18 December 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Vandenberghe, N.; F.J. Hilgen; R.P. Speijer (2012). "28: The Paleogene Period". In Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, Mark D. Schmitz and Gabi M. Ogg (ed.). The geologic time scale 2012 (1st ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier. p. 856. ISBN 978-0-44-459425-9.CS1 maint: multiple names: editors list (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Carl O. Dunbar, Historical Geology, 2nd ed. (1964), John Wiley & Sons, New York, p. 352
- Rudwick, M.J.S (1992): Scenes from Deep Time: Early Pictorial Representations of the Prehistoric World, University of Chicago Press, 280 pages. Except from Google Books