# The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis

"**The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis**" is an article written by the English mathematician Alan Turing in 1952 describing the way in which non-uniformity (natural patterns such as stripes, spots and spirals) may arise naturally out of a homogeneous, uniform state.^{[1]} The theory (which can be called a reaction–diffusion theory of morphogenesis), has served as a basic model in theoretical biology,^{[2]} and is seen by some as the very beginning of chaos theory.^{[3]}

## Reaction–diffusion systems

Reaction–diffusion systems have attracted much interest as a prototype model for pattern formation. The above-mentioned patterns (fronts, spirals, targets, hexagons, stripes and dissipative solitons) can be found in various types of reaction-diffusion systems in spite of large discrepancies e.g. in the local reaction terms.

It has also been argued that reaction-diffusion processes are an essential basis for processes connected to animal coats and skin pigmentation.^{[4]}^{[5]} Another reason for the interest in reaction-diffusion systems is that although they represent nonlinear partial differential equations, there are often possibilities for an analytical treatment.^{[6]}^{[7]}^{[8]}

## References

- ↑ Turing, A. M. (1952). "The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis" (PDF).
*Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London*.**237**(641): 37–72. doi:10.1098/rstb.1952.0012. JSTOR 92463.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> - ↑ L.G. Harrison, Kinetic Theory of Living Pattern, Cambridge University Press (1993)
- ↑ Gribbin, John. Deep Simplicity. Random House 2004.
- ↑ H. Meinhardt, Models of Biological Pattern Formation, Academic Press (1982)
- ↑ J. D. Murray, Mathematical Biology, Springer (1993)
- ↑ P. Grindrod, Patterns and Waves: The Theory and Applications of Reaction-Diffusion Equations, Clarendon Press (1991)
- ↑ J. Smoller, Shock Waves and Reaction Diffusion Equations, Springer (1994)
- ↑ B. S. Kerner and V. V. Osipov, Autosolitons. A New Approach to Problems of Self-Organization and Turbulence, Kluwer Academic Publishers. (1994)

## External links

- Turing, Alan M. (14 August 1952). "The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis".
*Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B*.**237**(641). pp. 37–72. doi:10.1098/rstb.1952.0012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>